[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pneumococcal disease is prevalent and is a cause of significant morbidity and mortality in the UK and Ireland. We describe the antimicrobial susceptibility and serotype distributions of Streptococcus pneumoniae causing bacteraemia and community-acquired pneumonia in these countries from 1999/2000 to 2006/7, predominantly prior to the introduction of the heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) into the standard vaccination schedule in September 2006.
The BSAC Respiratory and Bacteraemia Resistance Surveillance Programmes collected S. pneumoniae from sentinel laboratories distributed across the UK and Ireland. A central laboratory for each programme re-identified the isolates, determined their serotypes and measured MICs by the BSAC agar dilution method.
The prevalence of antimicrobial non-susceptibility, although significant, was generally below the global average. There was no convincing evidence of increasing non-susceptibility over time in either study. The results showed clear differences in the serotype distribution between respiratory and blood isolates, but suggested that PCV7 would provide adequate coverage of invasive isolates in the UK and Ireland. A significant and rapid increase of the non-vaccine serotype 1 among blood isolates from 2001 to 2006 was worrying, given the spread of hypervirulent serotype 1 clones elsewhere in the world.
Continued surveillance of both antimicrobial non-susceptibility and serotype distribution changes following the introduction of PCV7 into the routine immunization schedule in the UK and Ireland is imperative. The data presented here, largely obtained prior to the introduction of PCV7 in the UK, provide a valuable baseline against which to monitor changes in antimicrobial non-susceptibility and serotype distribution and hence to identify the expansion of any significant clones.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To determine the antimicrobial susceptibility of Haemophilus influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis causing community-acquired respiratory tract infections in the UK and Ireland from 1999/2000 to 2006/07.
Sentinel laboratories across the UK and Ireland contributed up to a fixed quota of isolates of defined organisms per annum. A central laboratory confirmed the isolates' identities, measured MICs by the BSAC agar dilution method and undertook further testing by standard methods. The variability of the MIC method was assessed by repeated annual testing of control isolates. BSAC and EUCAST breakpoints were used. Statistical analysis adjusted for inter-centre variation by random effects logistic regression.
A total of 7371 H. influenzae and 2529 M. catarrhalis isolates were investigated. Over 90% of the H. influenzae isolates were susceptible to most of the antimicrobials tested, the exceptions being ampicillin (84.6% susceptible), trimethoprim (84.0%), cefuroxime (82.9%), amoxicillin (77.2%) and cefaclor (11.7%). For M. catarrhalis, resistance was solely due to beta-lactamase (prevalence over 91%) reducing susceptibility to penicillins only. There was little evidence of decreased antimicrobial susceptibility between 1999 and 2007 in either pathogen, except for a reduction in susceptibility to trimethoprim in H. influenzae (90.3% to 82.6%, P < 0.00001). On the other hand, tetracycline susceptibility in H. influenzae increased over this period in the UK and Ireland (96.5 to 98.8%, P = 0.00008).
Despite increased resistance in respiratory pathogens from other parts of the world, the susceptibility of H. influenzae and M. catarrhalis to all agents, except tetracycline and trimethoprim in the case of H. influenzae, has remained constant during this longitudinal study.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy (BSAC) Bacteraemia and Respiratory Resistance Surveillance Programmes are designed for long-term surveillance of antimicrobial resistance in key pathogens of bloodstream and community-acquired respiratory infection in the UK and Ireland. This paper describes their methods in detail.
Sentinel laboratories across the UK and Ireland contributed up to a fixed quota of isolates of defined bacterial groups. Collecting laboratories were compared with national benchmarks for size of Hospital Trust and distribution of bacteraemia pathogens. A central laboratory for each programme confirmed the identification of isolates, measured MICs by the BSAC agar dilution method and undertook further testing by standard methods. The variability of the MIC method was assessed by repeated annual testing of a panel of control isolates. Classification as susceptible, intermediate or resistant was by BSAC and European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing breakpoints. Statistical analysis was adjusted for inter-centre variation using random effects logistic regression.
Thirty-two laboratories contributed 16 550 respiratory isolates from 1999-2000 to 2006-07; 30 laboratories contributed 15 812 bacteraemia isolates from 2001 to 2006. Although large and teaching hospitals were over-represented, the pattern of bacteraemia organisms seen in the collecting laboratories in England and Wales was similar to that in national data reported to the Health Protection Agency. Replicate MIC measurements showed that >/=90% agreed within +/-1, and >/=98% within +/-2, doubling dilutions.
These surveillance programmes have provided reliable information on antimicrobial susceptibility in the UK and Ireland over six and eight seasons, respectively, so far. Detailed results showing non-susceptibility trends, and relationships with potential predictive factors, are presented in six linked papers in this Supplement.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: It is widely believed that reducing antimicrobial usage should reduce resistance, although observational evidence is mixed. Pneumococci make ideal subjects to test this belief as they are widely surveyed and lack an animal reservoir. Accordingly, susceptibility data for pneumococci in the UK and Ireland were retrieved from the Health Protection Agency's LabBase/CoSurv system and from the European Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance System (EARSS) and British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy (BSAC) databases. The BSAC surveillance examines respiratory pneumococci; the other systems focus upon invasive organisms only, with the LabBase/CoSurv system being the most comprehensive, capturing data on most bacteraemias in England and Wales. National pharmacy sales data were obtained from the IMS Health MIDAS database and were modelled to the resistance data by logistic and linear regression analysis. All systems except for the BSAC respiratory surveillance data indicated that penicillin resistance has fallen significantly since 1999 in the UK, whereas macrolide resistance has been essentially stable, or has risen slightly. The data for Ireland were based on smaller sample sizes but suggested a fall in penicillin non-susceptibility from 1999 to 2004, with conflicting evidence for macrolide resistance. The recent decreasing trend in penicillin resistance is in contrast to a rising trend in England and Wales until (at least) 1997 and strongly rising macrolide resistance from 1989 to 1993. UK pharmacy sales of macrolides and oral beta-lactams fell by ca. 30% in the late 1990s following increased concern about resistance, before stabilising or rising weakly; sales in Ireland were stable or rose slightly in the study period. We conclude that falling penicillin resistance in pneumococci followed reduced sales of oral beta-lactams to pharmacies in the UK, but a similar fall in macrolide sales was not associated with any fall in resistance. Stabilisation or decline in penicillin resistance has occurred in Ireland despite stable or increasing oral beta-lactam sales.
International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents 11/2006; 28(4):273-9. DOI:10.1016/j.ijantimicag.2006.05.025 · 4.26 Impact Factor