L B Jorde

University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah, United States

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Publications (221)1792.93 Total impact

  • The Journal of allergy and clinical immunology 01/2014; · 12.05 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objective We hypothesized that genetic variation affects responsiveness to 17-alpha hydroxyprogesterone caproate (17P) for recurrent preterm birth prevention. Study Design Women of European ancestry with ≥1 spontaneous singleton preterm birth at <34 weeks' gestation who received 17P were recruited prospectively and classified as a 17P responder or nonresponder by the difference in delivery gestational age between 17P-treated and -untreated pregnancies. Samples underwent whole exome sequencing. Coding variants were compared between responders and nonresponders with the use of the Variant Annotation, Analysis, and Search Tool (VAAST), which is a probabilistic search tool for the identification of disease-causing variants, and were compared with a Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway candidate gene list. Genes with the highest VAAST scores were then classified by the online Protein ANalysis THrough Evolutionary Relationships (PANTHER) system into known gene ontology molecular functions and biologic processes. Gene distributions within these classifications were compared with an online reference population to identify over- and under- represented gene sets. Results Fifty women (9 nonresponders) were included. Responders delivered 9.2 weeks longer with 17P vs 1.3 weeks' gestation for nonresponders (P < .001). A genome-wide search for genetic differences implicated the NOS1 gene to be the most likely associated gene from among genes on the KEGG candidate gene list (P < .00095). PANTHER analysis revealed several over-represented gene ontology categories that included cell adhesion, cell communication, signal transduction, nitric oxide signal transduction, and receptor activity (all with significant Bonferroni-corrected probability values). Conclusion We identified sets of over-represented genes in key processes among responders to 17P, which is the first step in the application of pharmacogenomics to preterm birth prevention.
    American journal of obstetrics and gynecology 01/2014; · 3.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The determination of the relationship between a pair of individuals is a fundamental application of genetics. Previously, we and others have demonstrated that identity-by-descent (IBD) information generated from high-density single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) data can greatly improve the power and accuracy of genetic relationship detection. Whole-genome sequencing (WGS) marks the final step in increasing genetic marker density by assaying all single-nucleotide variants (SNVs), and thus has the potential to further improve relationship detection by enabling more accurate detection of IBD segments and more precise resolution of IBD segment boundaries. However, WGS introduces new complexities that must be addressed in order to achieve these improvements in relationship detection. To evaluate these complexities, we estimated genetic relationships from WGS data for 1490 known pairwise relationships among 258 individuals in 30 families along with 46 population samples as controls. We identified several genomic regions with excess pairwise IBD in both the pedigree and control datasets using three established IBD methods: GERMLINE, fastIBD, and ISCA. These spurious IBD segments produced a 10-fold increase in the rate of detected false-positive relationships among controls compared to high-density microarray datasets. To address this issue, we developed a new method to identify and mask genomic regions with excess IBD. This method, implemented in ERSA 2.0, fully resolved the inflated cryptic relationship detection rates while improving relationship estimation accuracy. ERSA 2.0 detected all 1(st) through 6(th) degree relationships, and 55% of 9(th) through 11(th) degree relationships in the 30 families. We estimate that WGS data provides a 5% to 15% increase in relationship detection power relative to high-density microarray data for distant relationships. Our results identify regions of the genome that are highly problematic for IBD mapping and introduce new software to accurately detect 1(st) through 9(th) degree relationships from whole-genome sequence data.
    PLoS Genetics 01/2014; 10(1):e1004144. · 8.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Recent studies have used a variety of analytical methods to identify genes targeted by selection in high-altitude populations located throughout the Tibetan Plateau. Despite differences in analytic strategies and sample location, hypoxia-related genes, including EPAS1 and EGLN1, were identified in multiple studies. By applying the same analytic methods to genome-wide SNP information used in our previous study of a Tibetan population (n = 31) from the township of Maduo, located in the northeastern corner of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (4200 m), we have identified common targets of natural selection in a second geographically and linguistically distinct Tibetan population (n = 46) in the Tuo Tuo River township (4500 m). Our analyses provide evidence for natural selection based on iHS and XP-EHH signals in both populations at the p<0.02 significance level for EPAS1, EGLN1, HMOX2, and CYP17A1 and for PKLR, HFE, and HBB and HBG2, which have also been reported in other studies. We highlight differences (i.e., stratification and admixture) in the two distinct Tibetan groups examined here and report selection candidate genes common to both groups. These findings should be considered in the prioritization of selection candidate genes in future genetic studies in Tibet.
    PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(3):e88252. · 3.73 Impact Factor
  • American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology. 01/2014; 210(1):S7.
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    ABSTRACT: Although more than 100 non-HLA variants have been tested for associations with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) in candidate gene studies, only a few have been replicated. We sought to replicate reported associations of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the PTPN22, TNFA and MIF genes in a well-characterized cohort of children with JIA. We genotyped and analyzed 4 SNPs in 3 genes: PTPN22 C1858T (rs2476601), TNFA G-308A, G-238A (rs1800629, rs361525) and MIF G-173C (rs755622) in 647 JIA cases and 751 healthy controls. We tested for association between each variant and JIA as well as JIA subtypes. We adjusted for multiple testing using permutation procedures. We also performed a meta-analysis that combined our results with published results from JIA association studies. While the PTPN22 variant showed only modest association with JIA (OR = 1.29, p = 0.0309), it demonstrated a stronger association with the RF-positive polyarticular JIA subtype (OR = 2.12, p = 0.0041). The MIF variant was not associated with the JIA as a whole or with any subtype. The TNFA-238A variant was associated with JIA as a whole (OR 0.66, p = 0.0265), and demonstrated a stronger association with oligoarticular JIA (OR 0.33, p = 0.0006) that was significant after correction for multiple testing. TNFA-308A was not associated with JIA, but was nominally associated with systemic JIA (OR = 0.33, p = 0.0089) and enthesitis-related JIA (OR = 0.40, p = 0.0144). Meta-analyses confirmed significant associations between JIA and PTPN22 (OR 1.44, p <0.0001) and TNFA-238A (OR 0.69, p < 0.0086) variants. Subtype meta-analyses of the PTPN22 variant revealed associations between RF-positive, RF-negative, and oligoarticular JIA, that remained significant after multiple hypothesis correction (p < 0.0005, p = 0.0007, and p < 0.0005, respectively). We have confirmed associations between JIA and PTPN22 and TNFA G-308A. By performing subtype analyses, we discovered a statistically-significant association between the TNFA-238A variant and oligoarticular JIA. Our meta-analyses confirm the associations between TNFA-238A and JIA, and show that PTPN22 C1858T is associated with JIA as well as with RF-positive, RF-negative and oligoarticular JIA.
    Pediatric Rheumatology 10/2013; 11(1):40. · 1.47 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) is a heterogeneous disorder characterized by antibody deficiency, poor humoral response to antigens, and recurrent infections. To investigate the molecular cause of CVID, we carried out exome sequence analysis of a family diagnosed with CVID and identified a heterozygous frameshift mutation, c.2564delA (p.Lys855Serfs(∗)7), in NFKB2 affecting the C terminus of NF-κB2 (also known as p100/p52 or p100/p49). Subsequent screening of NFKB2 in 33 unrelated CVID-affected individuals uncovered a second heterozygous nonsense mutation, c.2557C>T (p.Arg853(∗)), in one simplex case. Affected individuals in both families presented with an unusual combination of childhood-onset hypogammaglobulinemia with recurrent infections, autoimmune features, and adrenal insufficiency. NF-κB2 is the principal protein involved in the noncanonical NF-κB pathway, is evolutionarily conserved, and functions in peripheral lymphoid organ development, B cell development, and antibody production. In addition, Nfkb2 mouse models demonstrate a CVID-like phenotype with hypogammaglobulinemia and poor humoral response to antigens. Immunoblot analysis and immunofluorescence microscopy of transformed B cells from affected individuals show that the NFKB2 mutations affect phosphorylation and proteasomal processing of p100 and, ultimately, p52 nuclear translocation. These findings describe germline mutations in NFKB2 and establish the noncanonical NF-κB signaling pathway as a genetic etiology for this primary immunodeficiency syndrome.
    The American Journal of Human Genetics 10/2013; · 11.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Deedu (DU) Mongolians, who migrated from the Mongolian steppes to the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau approximately 500 years ago, are challenged by environmental conditions similar to native Tibetan highlanders. Identification of adaptive genetic factors in this population could provide insight into coordinated physiological responses to this environment. Here we examine genomic and phenotypic variation in this unique population and present the first complete analysis of a Mongolian whole-genome sequence. High-density SNP array data demonstrate that DU Mongolians share genetic ancestry with other Mongolian as well as Tibetan populations, specifically in genomic regions related with adaptation to high altitude. Several selection candidate genes identified in DU Mongolians are shared with other Asian groups (e.g., EDAR), neighboring Tibetan populations (including high-altitude candidates EPAS1, PKLR, and CYP2E1), as well as genes previously hypothesized to be associated with metabolic adaptation (e.g., PPARG). Hemoglobin concentration, a trait associated with high-altitude adaptation in Tibetans, is at an intermediate level in DU Mongolians compared to Tibetans and Han Chinese at comparable altitude. Whole-genome sequence from a DU Mongolian (Tianjiao1) shows that about 2% of the genomic variants, including more than 300 protein-coding changes, are specific to this individual. Our analyses of DU Mongolians and the first Mongolian genome provide valuable insight into genetic adaptation to extreme environments.
    PLoS Genetics 07/2013; 9(7):e1003634. · 8.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Because of the role of inflammation in preterm birth (PTB), polymorphisms in and near the interleukin-6 gene (IL6) have been association study targets. Several previous studies have assessed the association between PTB and a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), rs1800795, located in the IL6 gene promoter region. Their results have been inconsistent and SNP frequencies have varied strikingly among different populations. We therefore conducted a meta-analysis with subgroup analysis by population strata to: (1) reduce the confounding effect of population structure, (2) increase sample size and statistical power, and (3) elucidate the association between rs1800975 and PTB. RESULTS: We reviewed all published papers for PTB phenotype and SNP rs1800795 genotype. Maternal genotype and fetal genotype were analyzed separately and the analyses were stratified by population. The PTB phenotype was defined as gestational age (GA) < 37 weeks, but results from earlier GA were selected when available. All studies were compared by genotype (CC versus CG+GG), based on functional studies.For the maternal genotype analysis, 1,165 PTBs and 3,830 term controls were evaluated. Populations were stratified into women of European descent (for whom the most data were available) and women of heterogeneous origin or admixed populations. All ancestry was self-reported. Women of European descent had a summary odds ratio (OR) of 0.68, (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.51 -- 0.91), indicating that the CC genotype is protective against PTB. The result for non-European women was not statistically significant (OR 1.01, 95% CI 0.59 - 1.75). For the fetal genotype analysis, four studies were included; there was no significant association with PTB (OR 0.98, 95% CI 0.72 - 1.33). Sensitivity analysis showed that preterm premature rupture of membrane (PPROM) may be a confounding factor contributing to phenotype heterogeneity. CONCLUSIONS: IL6 SNP rs1800795 genotype CC is protective against PTB in women of European descent. It is not significant in other heterogeneous or admixed populations, or in fetal genotype analysis.Population structure is an important confounding factor that should be controlled for in studies of PTB.
    BMC Genetics 04/2013; 14(1):30. · 2.81 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Alu retrotransposons are the most numerous and active mobile elements in humans, causing genetic disease and creating genomic diversity. Mobile element scanning (ME-Scan) enables comprehensive and affordable identification of mobile element insertions (MEI) using targeted high-throughput sequencing of multiplexed MEI junction libraries. In a single experiment, ME-Scan identifies nearly all AluYb8 and AluYb9 elements, with high sensitivity for both rare and common insertions, in 169 individuals of diverse ancestry. ME-Scan detects heterozygous insertions in single individuals with 91% sensitivity. Insertion presence or absence states determined by ME-Scan are 95% concordant with those determined by locus-specific PCR assays. By sampling diverse populations from Africa, South Asia, and Europe, we are able to identify 5,799 Alu insertions, including 2,524 novel ones, some of which occur in exons. Sub-Saharan populations and a Pygmy group in particular carry numerous intermediate-frequency Alu insertions that are absent in non-African groups. There is a significant dearth of exon-interrupting insertions among common Alu polymorphisms, but the density of singleton Alu insertions is constant across exonic and non-exonic regions. In one case, a validated novel singleton Alu interrupts a protein-coding exon of FAM187B. This implies that exonic Alu insertions are generally deleterious and thus eliminated by natural selection, but not so quickly that they cannot be observed as extremely rare variants.
    Genome Research 04/2013; · 14.40 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Mobile elements comprise more than half of the human genome, but until recently their large-scale detection was time consuming and challenging. With the development of new high-throughput sequencing (HTS) technologies, the complete spectrum of mobile element variation in humans can now be identified and analyzed. Thousands of new mobile element insertions (MEIs) have been discovered, yielding new insights into mobile element biology, evolution, and genomic variation. Here, we review several high-throughput methods, with an emphasis on techniques that specifically target MEIs in humans. We highlight recent applications of these methods in evolutionary studies and in the analysis of somatic alterations in human normal and tumor tissues.
    Trends in Genetics 01/2013; · 9.77 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Alternating hemiplegia of childhood (AHC) is a rare, severe neurodevelopmental syndrome characterized by recurrent hemiplegic episodes and distinct neurological manifestations. AHC is usually a sporadic disorder and has unknown etiology. We used exome sequencing of seven patients with AHC and their unaffected parents to identify de novo nonsynonymous mutations in ATP1A3 in all seven individuals. In a subsequent sequence analysis of ATP1A3 in 98 other patients with AHC, we found that ATP1A3 mutations were likely to be responsible for at least 74% of the cases; we also identified one inherited mutation in a case of familial AHC. Notably, most AHC cases are caused by one of seven recurrent ATP1A3 mutations, one of which was observed in 36 patients. Unlike ATP1A3 mutations that cause rapid-onset dystonia-parkinsonism, AHC-causing mutations in this gene caused consistent reductions in ATPase activity without affecting the level of protein expression. This work identifies de novo ATP1A3 mutations as the primary cause of AHC and offers insight into disease pathophysiology by expanding the spectrum of phenotypes associated with mutations in ATP1A3.
    Nature Genetics 07/2012; 44(9):1030-4. · 35.21 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The genetics of Ewing sarcoma development remain obscure. The incidence of Ewing sarcoma is ten-fold less in Africans as compared to Europeans, irrespective of geographic location, suggesting population-specific genetic influences. Since GGAA-containing microsatellites within key target genes are necessary for Ewing sarcoma-specific EWS/FLI DNA binding and gene activation, and gene expression is positively correlated with the number of repeat motifs in the promoter/enhancer region, we sought to determine if significant polymorphisms exist between African and European populations which might contribute to observed differences in Ewing sarcoma incidence and outcomes. GGAA microsatellites upstream of two critical EWS/FLI target genes, NR0B1 and CAV1, were sequenced from subjects of European and African descent. While the characteristics of the CAV1 promoter microsatellites were similar across both populations, the NR0B1 microsatellite in African subjects was significantly larger, harboring more repeat motifs, a greater number of repeat segments, and longer consecutive repeats, than in European subjects. These results are biologically intriguing as NR0B1 was the most highly enriched EWS/FLI bound gene in prior studies, and is absolutely necessary for oncogenic transformation in Ewing sarcoma. These data suggest that GGAA microsatellite polymorphisms in the NR0B1 gene might influence disease susceptibility and prognosis in Ewing sarcoma in unanticipated ways.
    Cancer Genetics 06/2012; 205(6):304-12. · 1.92 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Populations of the Americas were founded by early migrants from Asia, and some have experienced recent genetic admixture. To better characterize the native and non-native ancestry components in populations from the Americas, we analyzed 815,377 autosomal SNPs, mitochondrial hypervariable segments I and II, and 36 Y-chromosome STRs from 24 Mesoamerican Totonacs and 23 South American Bolivians. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: We analyzed common genomic regions from native Bolivian and Totonac populations to identify 324 highly predictive Native American ancestry informative markers (AIMs). As few as 40-50 of these AIMs perform nearly as well as large panels of random genome-wide SNPs for predicting and estimating Native American ancestry and admixture levels. These AIMs have greater New World vs. Old World specificity than previous AIMs sets. We identify highly-divergent New World SNPs that coincide with high-frequency haplotypes found at similar frequencies in all populations examined, including the HGDP Pima, Maya, Colombian, Karitiana, and Surui American populations. Some of these regions are potential candidates for positive selection. European admixture in the Bolivian sample is approximately 12%, though individual estimates range from 0-48%. We estimate that the admixture occurred ~360-384 years ago. Little evidence of European or African admixture was found in Totonac individuals. Bolivians with pre-Columbian mtDNA and Y-chromosome haplogroups had 5-30% autosomal European ancestry, demonstrating the limitations of Y-chromosome and mtDNA haplogroups and the need for autosomal ancestry informative markers for assessing ancestry in admixed populations.
    BMC Genetics 05/2012; 13:39. · 2.81 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Recent studies have identified genes involved in high-altitude adaptation in Tibetans. Genetic variants/haplotypes within regions containing three of these genes (EPAS1, EGLN1, and PPARA) are associated with relatively decreased hemoglobin levels observed in Tibetans at high altitude, providing corroborative evidence for genetic adaptation to this extreme environment. The mechanisms that afford adaptation to high-altitude hypoxia, however, remain unclear. Considering the strong metabolic demands imposed by hypoxia, we hypothesized that a shift in fuel preference to glucose oxidation and glycolysis at the expense of fatty acid oxidation would improve adaptation to decreased oxygen availability. Correlations between serum free fatty acid and lactate concentrations in Tibetan groups living at high altitude and putatively selected haplotypes provide insight into this hypothesis. An EPAS1 haplotype that exhibits a signal of positive selection is significantly associated with increased lactate concentration, the product of anaerobic glycolysis. Furthermore, the putatively advantageous PPARA haplotype is correlated with serum free fatty acid concentrations, suggesting a possible decrease in the activity of fatty acid oxidation. Although further studies are required to assess the molecular mechanisms underlying these patterns, these associations suggest that genetic adaptation to high altitude involves alteration in energy utilization pathways.
    Molecular Genetics and Metabolism 03/2012; 106(2):244-7. · 2.83 Impact Factor
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    Nature 01/2012; 491(7422):56-65. · 38.60 Impact Factor
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    Lynn B Jorde
    The American Journal of Human Genetics 01/2012; 90(3):387-9. · 11.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Some highland populations have genetic adaptations that enable their successful existence in a hypoxic environment. Tibetans are protected against many of the harmful responses exhibited by non-adapted populations upon exposure to severe hypoxia, including elevated hemoglobin concentration (i.e., polycythemia). Recent studies have highlighted several genes subject to natural selection in native high-altitude Tibetans. Three of these genes, EPAS1, EGLN1 and PPARA, regulate or are regulated by hypoxia inducible factor, a principal controller of erythropoiesis and other organismal functions. Uncovering the molecular basis of hypoxic adaptation should have implications for understanding hematological and other adaptations involved in hypoxia tolerance. Because the hypoxia response involves a variety of cardiovascular, pulmonary and metabolic functions, this knowledge would improve our understanding of disease mechanisms and could ultimately be translated into targeted therapies for oxygen deprivation, cardiopulmonary and cerebral pathologies, and metabolic disorders such as diabetes and obesity.
    Human Genetics 11/2011; 131(4):527-33. · 4.63 Impact Factor
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    Genome Biology 09/2011; 12(1). · 10.30 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

9k Citations
1,792.93 Total Impact Points


  • 1988–2014
    • University of Utah
      • • Department of Human Genetics
      • • Department of Anthropology
      • • Department of Internal Medicine
      • • Department of Pediatrics
      Salt Lake City, Utah, United States
    • University of Helsinki
      • Department of Economic and Social History
      Helsinki, Province of Southern Finland, Finland
  • 2013
    • Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey
      New Brunswick, New Jersey, United States
  • 2010
    • National Human Genome Research Institute
      Maryland, United States
  • 2009
    • University of Washington Seattle
      • Division of Medical Genetics
      Seattle, WA, United States
    • Emory University
      Atlanta, Georgia, United States
  • 2006–2009
    • National Institutes of Health
      • Branch of Ophthalmic Genetics and Visual Function
      Bethesda, MD, United States
    • Russian Academy of Sciences
      • Vavilov Institute of General Genetics
      Moskva, Moscow, Russia
  • 2008
    • Sichuan Academy of Medical Sciences & Sichuan Provincial People's Hospital
      Hua-yang, Sichuan, China
  • 2005
    • Kyungpook National University
      Daikyū, Daegu, South Korea
    • University of Kansas
      • Department of Anthropology
      Lawrence, KS, United States
  • 2002–2005
    • The University of Arizona
      Tucson, Arizona, United States
    • Louisiana State University
      • Department of Biological Sciences
      Baton Rouge, LA, United States
  • 2001
    • Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center New Orleans
      New Orleans, Louisiana, United States
    • Andhra University
      Vizag, Andhra Pradesh, India
    • University of Chicago
      • Department of Ecology & Evolution
      Chicago, IL, United States
  • 1999–2000
    • University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston
      • Human Genetics Center
      Houston, TX, United States
    • Shriners Hospitals for Children
      Tampa, Florida, United States
  • 1998
    • The Institute of Statistical Mathematics
      Edo, Tōkyō, Japan
    • University of Houston
      Houston, Texas, United States
    • Rice University
      • Department of Statistics
      Houston, TX, United States
  • 1994–1998
    • Maine Institute for Human Genetics and Health
      Bangor, Maine, United States
  • 1992
    • University of Turku
      Turku, Province of Western Finland, Finland
  • 1988–1992
    • Howard Hughes Medical Institute
      Maryland, United States
  • 1990
    • University of California, Los Angeles
      • Division of Adult Psychiatry
      Los Angeles, CA, United States
  • 1987
    • University of Pittsburgh
      • Department of Anthropology
      Pittsburgh, PA, United States