M. A. Schmidt

University of Missouri - St. Louis, Saint Louis, Michigan, United States

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Publications (11)45.03 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: It has been shown that some primary human tumours and their metastases, including prostate and breast tumours, overexpress gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP) receptors. Bombesin (BN) is a neuropeptide with a high affinity for these GRP receptors. We demonstrated successful scintigraphic visualisation of BN receptor-positive tumours in preclinical studies using the radiolabelled BN analogue [(111)In-DTPA-Pro(1),Tyr(4)]BN. However, the receptor affinity as well as the serum stability of this analogue leave room for improvement. Therefore new (111)In-labelled BN analogues were synthesised and evaluated in vitro and in vivo. The receptor affinity of the new BN analogues was tested on human GRP receptor-expressing prostate tumour xenografts and rat colon sections. Analogues with high receptor affinity (low nM range) were selected for further evaluation. Incubation in vitro of GRP receptor-expressing rat CA20948 and human PC3 tumour cells with the (111)In-labelled analogues resulted in rapid receptor-mediated uptake and internalisation. The BN analogue with the best receptor affinity and in vitro internalisation characteristics, Cmp 3 ([(111)In-DTPA-ACMpip(5),Tha(6),betaAla(11),Tha(13),Nle(14)]BN(5-14)), was tested in vivo in biodistribution studies using rats bearing GRP receptor-expressing CA20948 tumours, and nude mice bearing human PC3 xenografts. Injection of (111)In-labelled Cmp 3 in these animals showed high, receptor-mediated uptake in receptor-positive organs and tumours which could be visualised using planar gamma camera and microSPECT/CT imaging. With their enhanced receptor affinity and their rapid receptor-mediated internalisation in vitro and in vivo, the new BN analogues, and especially Cmp 3, are promising candidates for use in diagnostic molecular imaging and targeted radionuclide therapy of GRP receptor-expressing cancers.
    European journal of nuclear medicine and molecular imaging 09/2007; 34(8):1228-38. DOI:10.1007/s00259-006-0356-3 · 5.38 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Neurotensin (NT) receptors are overexpressed in exocrine pancreatic cancer and Ewing's sarcoma. The potential utility of native NT in cancer diagnosis and therapy is, however, limited by its rapid degradation in vivo. Therefore, NT analogues were synthesised with modified lysine and arginine derivatives to enhance stability and coupled either to DTPA, to enable high specific activity labelling with indium-111 for imaging, or to DOTA, to enable high specific activity labelling with beta-emitting radionuclides, such as lutetium-177 and yttrium-90. Based on serum stability (4 h incubation at 37 degrees C in human serum) and receptor binding affinity, the five most promising analogues were selected and further evaluated in in vitro internalisation studies in human colorectal adenocarcinoma HT29 cells, which overexpress NT receptors. All five NT analogues bound with high affinity to NT receptors on human exocrine pancreatic tumour sections. The analogues could be labelled with (111)In to a high specific activity. The (111)In-labelled compounds were found to be very stable in serum. Incubation of HT29 cells with the (111)In-labelled analogues at 37 degrees C showed rapid receptor-mediated uptake and internalisation. The most promising analogue, peptide 2530 [DTPA-(Pip)Gly-Pro-(PipAm)Gly-Arg-Pro-Tyr-tBuGly-Leu-OH] was further tested in vivo in a biodistribution study using HT29 tumour-bearing nude mice. The results of this study showed low percentages of injected dose per gram tissue of this (111)In-labelled 2530 analogue in receptor-negative organs like blood, spleen, pancreas, liver, muscle and femur. Good uptake was found in the receptor-positive HT29 tumour and high uptake was present in the kidneys. Co-injection of excess unlabelled NT significantly reduced tumour uptake, showing that tumour uptake is a receptor-mediated process. With their enhanced stability, maintained high receptor affinity and rapid receptor-mediated internalisation, the (111)In-labelled DTPA- and DOTA-conjugated NT analogues are excellent candidates for imaging and therapy of exocrine pancreatic cancer, peptide 2530 being the most promising analogue.
    European journal of nuclear medicine and molecular imaging 09/2003; 30(8):1134-9. DOI:10.1007/s00259-003-1189-y · 5.38 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The somatostatin analogue [DOTA0,Tyr3]octreotate has a nine-fold higher affinity for the somatostatin receptor subtype 2 as compared with [DOTA0, Tyr3]octreotide. Also, labelled with the beta- and gamma-emitting radionuclide lutetium-177, this compound has been shown to have a very favourable impact on tumour regression and animal survival in a rat model. Because of these reported advantages over the analogues currently used for somatostatin receptor-mediated radiotherapy, we decided to compare [177Lu-DOTA0,Tyr3]octreotate (177Lu-octreotate) with [111In-DTPA0]octreotide (111In-octreotide) in six patients with somatostatin receptor-positive tumours. Plasma radioactivity after 177Lu-octreotate expressed as a percentage of the injected dose was comparable with that after 111In-octreotide. Urinary excretion of radioactivity was significantly lower than after 111In-octreotide, averaging 64% after 24 h. The uptake after 24 h, expressed as a percentage of the injected dose of 177Lu-octreotate, was comparable to that after 111In-octreotide for kidneys, spleen and liver, but was three- to fourfold higher for four of five tumours. The spleen and kidneys received the highest absorbed doses. The doses to the kidneys were reduced by a mean of 47% after co-infusion of amino acids. It is concluded that in comparison with the radionuclide-coupled somatostatin analogues that are currently available for somatostatin receptor-mediated radiotherapy, 177Lu-octreotate potentially represents an important improvement. Higher absorbed doses can be achieved to most tumours, with about equal doses to potentially dose-limiting organs; furthermore, the lower tissue penetration range of 177Lu as compared with 90Y may be especially important for small tumours.
    European Journal of Nuclear Medicine 10/2001; 28(9):1319-25. · 5.38 Impact Factor
  • J E Bugaj · J L Erion · M A Johnson · M A Schmidt · A Srinivasan ·
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    ABSTRACT: A number of radiolabeled somatostatin analogs have been evaluated in animal tumor models for radiotherapeutic efficacy. The majority of the agents tested have used either high-energy beta-emitters, such as Y-90 or Re-188, or the Auger electron-emitting radionuclide, In-111. Because a medium-energy beta-emitter might have equivalent efficacy compared to high-energy emitters, and lower toxicity to non-target tissues, we have evaluated the therapeutic potential of the beta-emitting nuclide, Sm-153, chelated to the somatostatin analog, CMDTPA-Tyr(3)-octreotate. Using an in vitro binding assay, this octreotate derivative was shown to have high affinity for the somatostatin subtype-2 receptor (IC(50) = 2.7 nM). Biodistribution studies in CA20948 tumor-bearing Lewis rats demonstrate that the Sm-153 labeled compound has high uptake and retention in tumor tissue (1.7% injected dose/g tissue, 4 hrs post injection) and has rapid overall clearance properties from non-target tissue. Radiotherapy studies were carried out using (153)Sm-CMDTPA-Tyr(3)-octreotate and CA20948 tumor bearing Lewis rats at 7 days post implant. Dose regimens consisting of single and multiple i.v. injections of 5.0 mCi/rat (185 MBq) were employed over a time span of 7 days. Suppression of tumor growth rate was observed in all treated animals compared to untreated controls. Greater inhibition of tumor growth was observed in animals that received multiple doses. These studies indicate that medium-energy beta-emitting isotopes have considerable potential for the treatment of somatostatin receptor-positive tumors.
    Nuclear Medicine and Biology 05/2001; 28(3):327-34. · 2.41 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Tumours depend on sufficient blood supply for their growth. They are able to promote new blood vessel formation (neoangiogenesis) via angiogenic factors. Inhibition of this process results in tumour involution or necrosis. RGD (Arg-Gly-Asp) peptides are described to antagonise neoangiogenesis, e.g., by binding to αvβ3 receptors on blood vessels. In order to visualise neoangiogenesis in tumours in vitro and in vivo, we introduced and tested an RGD analogue [c(Arg-Gly-Asp-D-Tyr-Lys)], coupled to the chelator diethyleletriamepentaacetic acid (DTPA). This analogue can be radiolabelled with both 111In and 125I. In autoradiography and immunohistochemistry studies, the 125I-labelled analogue appeared to bind specifically and with high affinity to αvβ3 receptors on neovascular blood vessel sections of different major human cancers, like prostate and breast cancer, which express these receptors. This radioiodinated radiopharmaceutical also bound to and internalised in human carcinoid Bon cells and rat pancreatic CA20948 tumour cells. Internalisation was receptor-specific and appeared to be time and temperature dependent. In vivo in rats, we investigated administration of different peptide amounts (0.1, 0.5, and 100 μg). The best amount of the radiolabelled analogue to be administered to rats appeared to be 0.1 μg/rat, as uptake decreased with increasing peptide amount. We also found receptor-specific accumulation of the 111In-labelled analogue in the transplantable pancreatic tumour CA20948. The introduction of the DTPA group in this peptide resulted in renal clearance of the radiopharmaceutical, in contrast to the non-DTPA-conjugated compound that is cleared predominantly via the liver. 111In emits Auger and conversion electrons besides gamma radiation, therefore, this radiopharmaceutical is suitable not only for tumour scintigraphy but also has potential for radionuclide therapy of major human cancers as well. Moreover, after coupling to the chelator DOTA, the analogue could be radiolabelled in a stable way with β-emitters, e.g., 90Y and 177Lu, enlarging its potential. Int. J. Cancer (Radiat. Oncol. Invest.) 90, 186–198 (2000). © 2000 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
    International Journal of Cancer 08/2000; 90(4):186 - 198. DOI:10.1002/1097-0215(20000820)90:4<186::AID-IJC2>3.0.CO;2-P · 5.09 Impact Factor

  • Nuclear Medicine Communications 06/2000; 21(6). DOI:10.1097/00006231-200006000-00128 · 1.67 Impact Factor
  • J. L. Erion · J. E. Bugaj · M. A. Schmidt · R. R. Wilhelm · A. Srinivasan ·

    Nuclear Medicine Communications 06/2000; 21(6). DOI:10.1097/00006231-200006000-00041 · 1.67 Impact Factor
  • A. Srinivasan · M. A. Schmidt · J. E. Bugaj · J. L. Erion ·

    Nuclear Medicine Communications 06/2000; 21(6). DOI:10.1097/00006231-200006000-00016 · 1.67 Impact Factor

  • Nuclear Medicine Communications 06/2000; 21(6). DOI:10.1097/00006231-200006000-00039 · 1.67 Impact Factor
  • J C Reubi · B Waser · J C Schaer · U Laederach · J Erion · A Srinivasan · M A Schmidt · J E Bugaj ·
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    ABSTRACT: Receptors for regulatory peptides such as somatostatin or vasoactive intestinal polypeptide are expressed by a number of human neoplasms and can be visualized in vivo with peptide receptor scintigraphy. Recently, the CCK-B receptor, which binds both gastrin and cholecystokinin with high affinity, was shown using in vitro methods to be overexpressed in a number of human tumor tissues, including medullary thyroid carcinomas, small cell lung cancers, astrocytomas, gastrointestinal tumors, and stromal ovarian cancers. In the present study, we have designed novel, unsulfated CCK octapeptide analogs linked to the metal chelating DTPA and DOTA, and have tested them for their binding affinity to CCK-B receptor-positive tissue from human tumors: The most potent compounds assayed were DTPA-[Nle28, 31]-CCK(26-33) (MP2286) and DTPA-[d-Asp26,Nle28,31]-CCK(26-33) (MP2288) with an IC50 of 1.5 nM. For comparison, analogs with C-terminal DTPA, such as [Nle28,31,Aphe33(p-NH-DTPA)]-CCK(26-33) and CCK-(26-33)-NH(CH2)2 NH-DTPA, had an IC50 of >100 nM. DOTA-[D-Asp26, Nle28,31]-CCK(26-33) had an IC50 of 3.9 nM. The compounds were selective for CCK-B receptors as they did not bind with high affinity to CCK-A receptors expressed in human tumors (meningiomas or gastroenteropancreatic tumors). In vivo rat biodistribution studies with indium-111 labeled MP2286 and MP2288 showed that the primary mode of clearance was renal, and the primary sites of uptake (% ID/g 24 h p.i.) were kidneys (0.270 and 0.262, respectively) and the gastrointestinal tract. The CCK-B receptor-expressing gastric mucosa showed specific in vivo accumulation of 111In-labeled MP2288 which could be blocked in the presence of excess unlabeled MP2288. 111In-labeled MP2286 and MP2288 were also found to be stable in human plasma whereas both compounds were degraded in urine (>40% after 3 h at 37 degrees C). The affinity, specificity, biodistribution, and stability of these two DTPA-CCK analogs indicate that these compounds have substantial promise for use in the in vivo visualization of CCK-B receptor-expressing tumors.
    European Journal of Nuclear Medicine 05/1998; 25(5):481-90. DOI:10.1007/s002590050247 · 5.38 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We evaluated the following (111)In-labeled somatostatin (SS) analogues (diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid, DTPA; tetraazacyclododecanetetraacetic acid, DOTA): [DTPA0]octreotide, [DTPA0,Tyr3]octreotide, [DTPA0,D-Tyr1]octreotide, [DTPA0,Tyr3]octreotate [Thr(ol) in octreotide replaced with Thr], and [DOTA0,Tyr3]octreotide, in vitro and in vivo. In vitro, all compounds showed high and specific binding to SS receptors in mouse pituitary AtT20 tumor cell membranes, and IC50s were in the nanomolar range. Furthermore, all compounds showed specific internalization in rat pancreatic tumor cells; uptake of [(111)In-DTPA0,Tyr3]octreotate was the highest of the compounds tested, and that of [(111)In-DTPA0,D-Tyr1]octreotide was the lowest. Biodistribution experiments in rats showed that, 4, 24, and 48 h after injection of [(111)In-DTPA0,Tyr3]octreotide, [(111)In-DTPA0,Tyr3]octreotate, and [(111)In-DOTA0,Tyr3]octreotide, radioactivity in the octreotide-binding, receptor-expressing tissues and tumor-to-blood ratios were significantly higher than those after injection of [(111)In-DTPA0]octreotide. Uptake of [(111)In-DTPA0,Tyr3]octreotate in the target organs was also, in vivo, the highest of the radiolabeled peptides tested, whereas that of [(111)In-DTPA0,D-Tyr1]octreotide was the lowest. Uptake of [(111)In-DTPA0,Tyr3]octreotide, [(111)In-DTPA0,Tyr3]octreotate, and [(111)In-DOTA0,Tyr3]octreotide in target tissues was blocked by >90% by 0.5 mg of unlabeled octreotide, indicating specific binding to the octreotide receptors. Blockade of [(111)In-DTPA0,D-Tyr1]octreotide was >70%. In conclusion, radiolabeled [DTPA0,Tyr3]octreotide and, especially, [DTPA0,Tyr3]octreotate and their DOTA-coupled counterparts are most promising for scintigraphy and radionuclide therapy of SS receptor-positive tumors in humans.
    Cancer Research 03/1998; 58(3):437-41. · 9.33 Impact Factor