M. Giavalisco

University of Science and Technology of China, Luchow, Anhui Sheng, China

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Publications (325)1253.66 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: [Abridged] We investigate the physical properties of a Lyman continuum emitter candidate at $z=3.212$ with photometric coverage from $U$ to MIPS 24$\mu$m band and VIMOS/VLT and MOSFIRE/Keck spectroscopy. Investigation of the UV spectrum confirms a direct spectroscopic detection of the Lyman continuum emission with $S/N>5$. Non-zero Ly$\alpha$ flux at the systemic redshift and high Lyman-$\alpha$ escape fraction suggest a low HI column density. The weak C and Si low-ionization absorption lines are also consistent with a low covering fraction along the line of sight. The [OIII]$\lambda\lambda4959,5007+\mathrm{H}\beta$ equivalent width is one of the largest reported for a galaxy at $z>3$ ($\mathrm{EW}([\mathrm{OIII}]\lambda\lambda4959,5007+\mathrm{H}\beta) \simeq 1600\AA$, rest-frame) and the NIR spectrum shows that this is mainly due to an extremely strong [OIII] emission. The large observed [OIII]/[OII] ratio ($>10$) and high ionization parameter are consistent with prediction from photoionization models in case of a density-bounded nebula scenario. Furthermore, the $\mathrm{EW}([\mathrm{OIII}]\lambda\lambda4959,5007+\mathrm{H}\beta)$ is comparable to recent measurements reported at $z\sim7-9$, in the reionization epoch. We also investigate the possibility of an AGN contribution to explain the ionizing emission but most of the AGN identification diagnostics suggest that stellar emission dominates instead. This source is currently the first high-$z$ example of a Lyman continuum emitter exhibiting indirect and direct evidences of a Lyman continuum leakage and having physical properties consistent with theoretical expectation from Lyman continuum emission from a density-bounded nebula.
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    ABSTRACT: In this paper we perform a comprehensive study of the main sources of random and systematic errors in stellar mass measurement for galaxies using their Spectral Energy Distributions (SEDs). We use mock galaxy catalogs with simulated multi-waveband photometry (from U-band to mid-infrared) and known redshift, stellar mass, age and extinction for individual galaxies. Given different parameters affecting stellar mass measurement (photometric S/N ratios, SED fitting errors, systematic effects, the inherent degeneracies and correlated errors), we formulated different simulated galaxy catalogs to quantify these effects individually. We studied the sensitivity of stellar mass estimates to the codes/methods used, population synthesis models, star formation histories, nebular emission line contributions, photometric uncertainties, extinction and age. For each simulated galaxy, the difference between the input stellar masses and those estimated using different simulation catalogs, $\Delta\log(M)$, was calculated and used to identify the most fundamental parameters affecting stellar masses. We measured different components of the error budget, with the results listed as follows: (1). no significant bias was found among different codes/methods, with all having comparable scatter; (2). A source of error is found to be due to photometric uncertainties and low resolution in age and extinction grids; (3). The median of stellar masses among different methods provides a stable measure of the mass associated with any given galaxy; (4). The deviations in stellar mass strongly correlate with those in age, with a weaker correlation with extinction; (5). the scatter in the stellar masses due to free parameters are quantified, with the sensitivity of the stellar mass to both the population synthesis codes and inclusion of nebular emission lines studied.
    The Astrophysical Journal 05/2015; 808(1). DOI:10.1088/0004-637X/808/1/101 · 6.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The TMT Detailed Science Case describes the transformational science that the Thirty Meter Telescope will enable. Planned to begin science operations in 2024, TMT will open up opportunities for revolutionary discoveries in essentially every field of astronomy, astrophysics and cosmology, seeing much fainter objects much more clearly than existing telescopes. Per this capability, TMT's science agenda fills all of space and time, from nearby comets and asteroids, to exoplanets, to the most distant galaxies, and all the way back to the very first sources of light in the Universe. More than 150 astronomers from within the TMT partnership and beyond offered input in compiling the new 2015 Detailed Science Case. The contributing astronomers represent the entire TMT partnership, including the California Institute of Technology (Caltech), the Indian Institute of Astrophysics (IIA), the National Astronomical Observatories of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (NAOC), the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan (NAOJ), the University of California, the Association of Canadian Universities for Research in Astronomy (ACURA) and US associate partner, the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy (AURA).
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    ABSTRACT: We present photometry and derived redshifts from up to eleven bandpasses for 9927 galaxies in the Hubble Ultra Deep field (UDF), covering an observed wavelength range from the near-ultraviolet (NUV) to the near-infrared (NIR) with Hubble Space Telescope observations. Our Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3)/UV F225W, F275W, and F336W image mosaics from the ultra-violet UDF (UVUDF) imaging campaign are newly calibrated to correct for charge transfer inefficiency, and use new dark calibrations to minimize background gradients and pattern noise. Our NIR WFC3/IR image mosaics combine the imaging from the UDF09 and UDF12 campaigns with CANDELS data to provide NIR coverage for the entire UDF field of view. We use aperture-matched point-spread function corrected photometry to measure photometric redshifts in the UDF, sampling both the Lyman break and Balmer break of galaxies at z~0.8-3.4, and one of the breaks over the rest of the redshift range. Our comparison of these results with a compilation of robust spectroscopic redshifts shows an improvement in the galaxy photometric redshifts by a factor of two in scatter and a factor three in outlier fraction over previous UDF catalogs. The inclusion of the new NUV data is responsible for a factor of two decrease in the outlier fraction compared to redshifts determined from only the optical and NIR data, and improves the scatter at z<0.5 and at z>2. The panchromatic coverage of the UDF from the NUV through the NIR yields robust photometric redshifts of the UDF, with the lowest outlier fraction available.
    The Astronomical Journal 05/2015; 150(1). DOI:10.1088/0004-6256/150/1/31 · 4.05 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Narrowband imaging of the rest-frame Lyman continuum (LyC) of galaxies at has produced a large number of candidate LyC-emitting galaxies. These samples are contaminated by galaxies at lower redshift. To better understand LyC escape, we need an uncontaminated sample of galaxies that emit strongly in the LyC. Here we present deep Hubble Space Telescope imaging of five bright galaxies at that had previously been identified as candidate LyC emitters with ground-based images. The WFC3 F336W images probe the LyC of galaxies at and provide an order-of-magnitude increase in spatial resolution over ground-based imaging. The non-ionizing UV images often show multiple galaxies (or components) within of the candidate LyC emission seen from the ground. In each case, only one of the components is emitting light in the F336W filter, which would indicate LyC escape if that component is at . We use Keck/NIRSPEC near-IR spectroscopy to measure redshifts of these components to distinguish LyC emitters from foreground contamination. We find that two candidates are low-redshift contaminants, one candidate had a previously misidentified redshift, and the other two cannot be confirmed as LyC emitters. The level of contamination is consistent with previous estimates. For the galaxies with , we derive strong limits on the relative escape fraction between 0.07 and 0.09. We still do not have a sample of definitive LyC emitters, and a much larger study of low-luminosity galaxies is required. The combination of high-resolution imaging and deep spectroscopy is critical for distinguishing LyC emitters from foreground contaminants.
    The Astrophysical Journal 05/2015; 804(1). DOI:10.1088/0004-637X/804/1/17 · 6.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present the Swift X-ray Cluster Survey (SWXCS) catalog obtained using archival data from the X-ray telescope (XRT) on board the Swift satellite acquired from 2005 to 2012, extending the first release of the SWXCS. The catalog provides positions, soft fluxes, and, when possible, optical counterparts for a flux-limited sample of X-ray group and cluster candidates. We consider the fields with Galactic latitude |b| > 20 degree to avoid high HI column densities. We discard all of the observations targeted at groups or clusters of galaxies, as well as particular extragalactic fields not suitable to search for faint extended sources. We finally select ~3000 useful fields covering a total solid angle of ~400 degree^2. We identify extended source candidates in the soft-band (0.5-2keV) images of these fields using the software EXSdetect, which is specifically calibrated for the XRT data. Extensive simulations are used to evaluate contamination and completeness as a function of the source signal, allowing us to minimize the number of spurious detections and to robustly assess the selection function. Our catalog includes 263 candidate galaxy clusters and groups down to a flux limit of 7E-15 erg/cm^2/s in the soft band, and the logN-logS is in very good agreement with previous deep X-ray surveys. The final list of sources is cross-correlated with published optical, X-ray, and SZ catalogs of clusters. We find that 137 sources have been previously identified as clusters, while 126 are new detections. Currently, we have collected redshift information for 158 sources (60% of the entire sample). Once the optical follow-up and the X-ray spectral analysis of the sources are complete, the SWXCS will provide a large and well-defined catalog of groups and clusters of galaxies to perform statistical studies of cluster properties and tests of cosmological models.
    The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series 03/2015; 216(2). DOI:10.1088/0067-0049/216/2/28 · 14.14 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this paper is to investigate spectral and photometric properties of 854 faint ($i_{AB}$<~25 mag) star-forming galaxies (SFGs) at 2<z<2.5 using the VIMOS Ultra-Deep Survey (VUDS) spectroscopic data and deep multi-wavelength photometric data in three extensively studied extragalactic fields (ECDFS, VVDS, COSMOS). These SFGs were targeted for spectroscopy primarily because of their photometric redshifts. The VUDS spectra are used to measure the UV spectral slopes ($\beta$) as well as Ly$\alpha$ equivalent widths (EW). The spectroscopically measured $\beta$ are, on average, redder (less negative) compared to the photometrically measured $\beta$. The positive correlation of $\beta$ with the SED-based measurement of dust extinction E(B-V) emphasizes the importance of $\beta$ as an alternative dust indicator at high redshifts. For proper comparison, we divide these SFGs into three sub-groups based on their rest-frame Ly$\alpha$ EW: SFG_N (EW<=0A), SFG_L (EW>0A), and LAEs (EW=>20A). The fraction of LAEs at these redshifts is ~10%, which is consistent with previous observations. We compared best-fit SED estimated stellar parameters of the SFG_N, SFG_L and LAE samples. For the luminosities probed here, we find statistically significant correlations for dust and star-formation rates (SFR), such that, SFG_L (and LAEs) are less dusty and low star-forming compared to SFG_N, but the differences are small compared to the large dispersion in these stellar parameters. We do not observe any significant difference in stellar mass or UV absolute magnitude. We also observe similar trends of decreasing dust and SFR with increasing Ly$\alpha$ EW. When we divide the LAEs based on their Spitzer/IRAC 3.6$\mu$m fluxes, we find that the fraction of IRAC-detected (m$_{3.6}$<~25 mag) LAEs is much higher than the fraction of IRAC-detected NB-selected LAEs at z~2-3. [abridged]
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    ABSTRACT: We use data from the Cosmic Assembly Near-infrared Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey to study how the spatial variation in the stellar populations of galaxies relate to the formation of galaxies at $1.5 < z < 3.5$. We use the Internal Color Dispersion (ICD), measured between the rest-frame UV and optical bands, which is sensitive to age (and dust attenuation) variations in stellar populations. The ICD shows a relation with the stellar masses and morphologies of the galaxies. Galaxies with the largest variation in their stellar populations as evidenced by high ICD have disk-dominated morphologies (with S\'{e}rsic indexes $< 2$) and stellar masses between $10 < \mathrm{Log~M/ M_\odot}< 11$. There is a marked decrease in the ICD as the stellar mass and/or the S\'ersic index increases. By studying the relations between the ICD and other galaxy properties including sizes, total colors, star-formation rate, and dust attenuation, we conclude that the largest variations in stellar populations occur in galaxies where the light from newly, high star-forming clumps contrasts older stellar disk populations. This phase reaches a peak for galaxies only with a specific stellar mass range, $10 < \mathrm{Log~M/ M_\odot} < 11$, and prior to the formation of a substantial bulge/spheroid. In contrast, galaxies at higher or lower stellar masses, and/or higher S\'{e}rsic index ($n > 2$) show reduced ICD values, implying a greater homogeneity of their stellar populations. This indicates that if a galaxy is to have both a quiescent bulge along with a star forming disk, typical of Hubble Sequence galaxies, this is most common for stellar masses $10 < \mathrm{Log~M/M_\odot} < 11$ and when the bulge component remains relatively small ($n<2$).
    The Astrophysical Journal 03/2015; 803(2). DOI:10.1088/0004-637X/803/2/104 · 6.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Narrow-band imaging of the rest-frame Lyman continuum (LyC) of galaxies at z~3.1 has produced a large number of candidate LyC-emitting galaxies. These samples are contaminated by galaxies at lower redshift. To better understand LyC escape, we need an uncontaminated sample of galaxies that emit strongly in the LyC. Here we present deep Hubble imaging of five bright galaxies at z~3.1 that had previously been identified as candidate LyC-emitters with ground-based images. The WFC3 F336W images probe the LyC of galaxies at z>3.06 and provide an order-of-magnitude increase in spatial resolution over ground-based imaging. The non-ionizing UV images often show multiple galaxies (or components) within ~1'' of the candidate LyC emission seen from the ground. In each case, only one of the components is emitting light in the F336W filter, which would indicate LyC escape if that component is at z>3.06. We use Keck/NIRSPEC near-IR spectroscopy to measure redshifts of these components to distinguish LyC-emitters from foreground contamination. We find that two candidates are low redshift contaminants, one candidate had a previously misidentified redshift, and the other two cannot be confirmed as LyC-emitters. The level of contamination is consistent with previous estimates. For the galaxies with z>3.06, we derive strong 1 sigma limits on the relative escape fraction between 0.07 and 0.09. We still do not have a sample of definitive LyC-emitters, and a much larger study of low luminosity galaxies is required. The combination of high resolution imaging and deep spectroscopy is critical for distinguishing LyC-emitters from foreground contaminants.
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    ABSTRACT: We aim to investigate the effect of the escaping ionizing radiation on the color selection of high redshift galaxies and identify candidate Lyman continuum (LyC) emitters. The intergalactic medium prescription of Inoue et al.(2014) and galaxy synthesis models of Bruzual&Charlot (2003) have been used to properly treat the ultraviolet stellar emission, the stochasticity of the intergalactic transmission and mean free path in the ionizing regime. Color tracks are computed by turning on/off the escape fraction of ionizing radiation. At variance with recent studies, a careful treatment of IGM transmission leads to no significant effects on the high-redshift broad-band color selection. The decreasing mean free path of ionizing photons with increasing redshift further diminishes the contribution of the LyC to broad-band colors. We also demonstrate that prominent LyC sources can be selected under suitable conditions by calculating the probability of a null escaping ionizing radiation. The method is applied to a sample of galaxies extracted from the GOODS-S field. A known LyC source at z=3.795 is successfully recovered as a LyC emitter candidate and another convincing candidate at z=3.212 is reported. A detailed analysis of the two sources (including their variability and morphology) suggests a possible mixture of stellar and non-stellar (AGN) contribution in the ultraviolet. Conclusions: Classical broad-band color selection of 2.5<z<4.5 galaxies does not prevent the inclusion of LyC emitters in the selected samples. Large fesc in relatively bright galaxies (L>0.1L*) could be favored by the presence of a faint AGN not easily detected at any wavelength. A hybrid stellar and non-stellar (AGN) ionizing emission could coexist in these systems and explain the tensions found among the UV excess and the stellar population synthesis models reported in literature.
    Astronomy and Astrophysics 02/2015; 576. DOI:10.1051/0004-6361/201525651 · 4.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Distant star-forming galaxies show a correlation between their star formation rates (SFRs) and stellar masses, and this has deep implications for galaxy formation. Here, we present a study on the evolution of the slope and scatter of the SFR-stellar mass relation for galaxies at 3.5 ≤ z ≤ 6.5 using multi-wavelength photometry in GOODS-S from the Cosmic Assembly Near-infrared Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey (CANDELS) and Spitzer Extended Deep Survey. We describe an updated, Bayesian spectral-energy distribution fitting method that incorporates effects of nebular line emission, star formation histories that are constant or rising with time, and different dust-attenuation prescriptions (starburst and Small Magellanic Cloud). From z = 6.5 to z = 3.5 star-forming galaxies in CANDELS follow a nearly unevolving correlation between stellar mass and SFR that follows SFR ~ with a =0.54 ± 0.16 at z ~ 6 and 0.70 ± 0.21 at z ~ 4. This evolution requires a star formation history that increases with decreasing redshift (on average, the SFRs of individual galaxies rise with time). The observed scatter in the SFR-stellar mass relation is tight, σ(log SFR/M ☉ yr-1) < 0.3-0.4 dex, for galaxies with log M /M ☉ > 9 dex. Assuming that the SFR is tied to the net gas inflow rate (SFR ~ ), then the scatter in the gas inflow rate is also smaller than 0.3-0.4 dex for star-forming galaxies in these stellar mass and redshift ranges, at least when averaged over the timescale of star formation. We further show that the implied star formation history of objects selected on the basis of their co-moving number densities is consistent with the evolution in the SFR-stellar mass relation.
    The Astrophysical Journal 02/2015; 799(2):183. DOI:10.1088/0004-637X/799/2/183 · 6.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The relation between the galaxy stellar mass M_star and the dark matter halo mass M_h gives important information on the efficiency in forming stars and assembling stellar mass in galaxies. We present the stellar mass to halo mass ratio (SMHR) measurements at redshifts 2<z<5, obtained from the VIMOS Ultra Deep Survey. We use halo occupation distribution (HOD) modelling of clustering measurements on ~3000 galaxies with spectroscopic redshifts to derive the dark matter halo mass M_h, and SED fitting over a large set of multi-wavelength data to derive the stellar mass M_star and compute the SMHR=M_star/M_h. We find that the SMHR ranges from 1% to 2.5% for galaxies with M_star=1.3x10^9 M_sun to M_star=7.4x10^9 M_sun in DM halos with M_h=1.3x10^{11} M_sun} to M_h=3x10^{11} M_sun. We derive the integrated star formation efficiency (ISFE) of these galaxies and find that the star formation efficiency is a moderate 6-9% for lower mass galaxies while it is relatively high at 16% for galaxies with the median stellar mass of the sample ~7x10^9 M_sun. The lower ISFE at lower masses may indicate that some efficient means of suppressing star formation is at work (like SNe feedback), while the high ISFE for the average galaxy at z~3 is indicating that these galaxies are efficiently building-up their stellar mass at a key epoch in the mass assembly process. We further infer that the average mass galaxy at z~3 will start experiencing star formation quenching within a few hundred millions years.
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    ABSTRACT: We present the public release of the stellar mass catalogs for the GOODS-S and UDS fields obtained using some of the deepest near-IR images available, achieved as part of the Cosmic Assembly Near-infrared Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey (CANDELS) project. We combine the effort from ten different teams, who computed the stellar masses using the same photometry and the same redshifts. Each team adopted their preferred fitting code, assumptions, priors, and parameter grid. The combination of results using the same underlying stellar isochrones reduces the systematics associated with the fitting code and other choices. Thanks to the availability of different estimates, we can test the effect of some specific parameters and assumptions on the stellar mass estimate. The choice of the stellar isochrone library turns out to have the largest effect on the galaxy stellar mass estimates, resulting in the largest distributions around the median value (with a semi interquartile range larger than 0.1 dex). On the other hand, for most galaxies, the stellar mass estimates are relatively insensitive to the different parameterizations of the star formation history. The inclusion of nebular emission in the model spectra does not have a significant impact for the majority of galaxies (less than a factor of 2 for ~80% of the sample). Nevertheless, the stellar mass for the subsample of young galaxies (age < 100 Myr), especially in particular redshift ranges (e.g., 2.2 < z < 2.4, 3.2 < z < 3.6, and 5.5 < z < 6.5), can be seriously overestimated (by up to a factor of 10 for < 20 Myr sources) if nebular contribution is ignored.
    The Astrophysical Journal 12/2014; 801(2). DOI:10.1088/0004-637X/801/2/97 · 6.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The galaxy stellar mass function (GSMF) at high-z provides key information on star-formation history and mass assembly in the young Universe. We aimed to use the unique combination of deep optical/NIR/MIR imaging provided by HST, Spitzer and the VLT in the CANDELS-UDS, GOODS-South, and HUDF fields to determine the GSMF over the redshift range 3.5<z<7.5. We utilised the HST WFC3/IR NIR imaging from CANDELS and HUDF09, reaching H~27-28.5 over a total area of 369 arcmin2, in combination with associated deep HST ACS optical data, deep Spitzer IRAC imaging from the SEDS programme, and deep Y and K-band VLT Hawk-I images from the HUGS programme, to select a galaxy sample with high-quality photometric redshifts. These have been calibrated with more than 150 spectroscopic redshifts in the range 3.5<z<7.5, resulting in an overall precision of sigma_z/(1+z)~0.037. We have determined the low-mass end of the high-z GSMF with unprecedented precision, reaching down to masses as low as M*~10^9 Msun at z=4 and ~6x10^9 Msun at z=7. We find that the GSMF at 3.5<z<7.5 depends only slightly on the recipes adopted to measure the stellar masses, namely the photo-z, the SFHs, the nebular contribution or the presence of AGN on the parent sample. The low-mass end of the GSMF is steeper than has been found at lower redshifts, but appears to be unchanged over the redshift range probed here. Our results are very different from previous GSMF estimates based on converting UV galaxy luminosity functions into mass functions via tight M/L relations. Integrating our evolving GSMF over mass, we find that the growth of stellar mass density is barely consistent with the time-integral of the SFR density over cosmic time at z>4. These results confirm the unique synergy of the CANDELS+HUDF, HUGS, and SEDS surveys for the discovery and study of moderate/low-mass galaxies at high redshifts.
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    ABSTRACT: (arXiv abridged abstract) The observed UV rest-frame spectra of distant galaxies are the result of their intrinsic emission combined with absorption along the line of sight produced by the inter-galactic medium (IGM). Here we analyse the evolution of the mean IGM transmission Tr(Ly_alpha) and its dispersion along the line of sight for 2127 galaxies with 2.5<z<5.5 in the VIMOS Ultra Deep Survey (VUDS). We fit model spectra combined with a range of IGM transmission to the galaxy spectra using the spectral fitting algorithm GOSSIP+. We use these fits to derive the mean IGM transmission towards each galaxy for several redshift slices from z=2.5 to z=5.5. We find that the mean IGM transmission defined as Tr(Ly_alpha)=e^{-tau} (with tau the HI optical depth) is 79%, 69%, 59%, 55% and 46% at redshifts 2.75, 3,22, 3.70, 4.23, 4.77, respectively. We compare these results to measurements obtained from quasars lines of sight and find that the IGM transmission towards galaxies is in excellent agreement with quasar values up to redshift z~4. We find tentative evidence for a higher IGM transmission at z>= 4 compared to results from QSOs, but a degeneracy between dust extinction and IGM prevents to draw firm conclusions if the internal dust extinction for star-forming galaxies at z>4 takes a mean value significantly in excess of E(B-V)>0.15. Most importantly, we find a large dispersion of IGM transmission along the lines of sight towards distant galaxies with 68% of the distribution within 10 to 17% of the median value in delta z=0.5 bins, similar to what is found on the LOS towards QSOs. We demonstrate the importance of taking into account this large range of IGM transmission when selecting high redshift galaxies based on their colour properties (e.g. LBG or photometric redshift selection) or otherwise face a significant incompleteness in selecting high redshift galaxy populations.
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    ABSTRACT: We investigate the evolution of galaxy clustering for galaxies in the redshift range 2.0<$z$<5.0 using the VIMOS Ultra Deep Survey (VUDS). We present the projected (real-space) two-point correlation function $w_p(r_p)$ measured by using 3022 galaxies with robust spectroscopic redshifts in two independent fields (COSMOS and VVDS-02h) covering in total 0.8 deg$^2$. We quantify how the scale dependent clustering amplitude $r_0$ changes with redshift making use of mock samples to evaluate and correct the survey selection function. Using a power-law model $\xi(r) = (r/r_0)^{-\gamma}$ we find that the correlation function for the general population is best fit by a model with a clustering length $r_0$=3.95$^{+0.48}_{-0.54}$ h$^{-1}$Mpc and slope $\gamma$=1.8$^{+0.02}_{-0.06}$ at $z$~2.5, $r_0$=4.35$\pm$0.60 h$^{-1}$Mpc and $\gamma$=1.6$^{+0.12}_{-0.13}$ at $z$~3.5. We use these clustering parameters to derive the large-scale linear galaxy bias $b_L^{PL}$, between galaxies and dark matter. We find $b_L^{PL}$ = 2.68$\pm$0.22 at redshift $z$~3 (assuming $\sigma_8$ = 0.8), significantly higher than found at intermediate and low redshifts. We fit an HOD model to the data and we obtain that the average halo mass at redshift $z$~3 is $M_h$=10$^{11.75\pm0.23}$ h$^{-1}$M$_{\odot}$. From this fit we confirm that the large-scale linear galaxy bias is relatively high at $b_L^{HOD}$ = 2.82$\pm$0.27. Comparing these measurements with similar measurements at lower redshifts we infer that the star-forming population of galaxies at $z$~3 should evolve into the massive and bright ($M_r$<-21.5) galaxy population which typically occupy haloes of mass $\langle M_h\rangle$ = 10$^{13.9}$ h$^{-1}$ $M_{\odot}$ at redshift $z$=0.
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    ABSTRACT: We study the evolution of the star formation rate (SFR) - stellar mass (M_star) relation and specific star formation rate (sSFR) of star forming galaxies (SFGs) since a redshift z~5.5 using 2435 (4531) galaxies with highly reliable (reliable) spectroscopic redshifts in the VIMOS Ultra-Deep Survey (VUDS). It is the first time that these relations can be followed over such a large redshift range from a single homogeneously selected sample of galaxies with spectroscopic redshifts. The log(SFR) - log(M_star) relation for SFGs remains roughly linear all the way up to z=5 but the SFR steadily increases at fixed mass with increasing redshift. We find that for stellar masses M_star>3.2 x 10^9 M_sun the SFR increases by a factor ~13 between z=0.4 and z=2.3. We extend this relation up to z=5, finding an additional increase in SFR by a factor 1.7 from z=2.3 to z=4.8 for masses M_star > 10^10 M_sun. We observe a turn-off in the SFR-M_star relation at the highest mass end up to a redshift z~3.5. We interpret this turn-off as the signature of a strong on-going quenching mechanism and rapid mass growth. The sSFR increases strongly up to z~2 but it grows much less rapidly in 2<z<5. We find that the shape of the sSFR evolution is not well reproduced by cold gas accretion-driven models or the latest hydrodynamical models. Below z~2 these models have a flatter evolution (1+z)^{Phi} with Phi=2-2.25 compared to the data which evolves more rapidly with Phi=2.8+-0.2. Above z~2, the reverse is happening with the data evolving more slowly with Phi=1.2+-0.1. The observed sSFR evolution over a large redshift range 0<z<5 and our finding of a non linear main sequence at high mass both indicate that the evolution of SFR and M_star is not solely driven by gas accretion. The results presented in this paper emphasize the need to invoke a more complex mix of physical processes {abridge}
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    ABSTRACT: Although giant clumps of stars are crucial to galaxy formation and evolution, the most basic demographics of clumps are still uncertain, mainly because the definition of clumps has not been thoroughly discussed. In this paper, we study the basic demographics of clumps in star-forming galaxies (SFGs) at 0.5<z<3, using our proposed physical definition that UV-bright clumps are discrete star-forming regions that individually contribute more than 8% of the rest-frame UV light of their galaxies. Clumps defined this way are significantly brighter than the HII regions of nearby large spiral galaxies, either individually or blended, when physical spatial resolution and cosmological dimming are considered. Under this definition, we measure the fraction of SFGs that contain at least one off-center clump (Fclumpy) and the contributions of clumps to the rest-frame UV light and star formation rate of SFGs in the CANDELS/GOODS-S and UDS fields, where our mass-complete sample consists of 3239 galaxies with axial ratio q>0.5. The redshift evolution of Fclumpy changes with the stellar mass (M*) of the galaxies. Low-mass (log(M*/Msun)<9.8) galaxies keep an almost constant Fclumpy of about 60% from z~3.0 to z~0.5. Intermediate-mass and massive galaxies drop their Fclumpy from 55% at z~3.0 to 40% and 15%, respectively, at z~0.5. We find that (1) the trend of disk stabilization predicted by violent disk instability matches the Fclumpy trend of massive galaxies; (2) minor mergers are a viable explanation of the Fclumpy trend of intermediate-mass galaxies at z<1.5, given a realistic observability timescale; and (3) major mergers are unlikely responsible for the Fclumpy trend in all masses at z<1.5. The clump contribution to the rest-frame UV light of SFGs shows a broad peak around galaxies with log(M*/Msun)~10.5 at all redshifts, possibly linked to the molecular gas fraction of the galaxies. (Abridged)
    The Astrophysical Journal 10/2014; 800(1). DOI:10.1088/0004-637X/800/1/39 · 6.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present a robust measurement and analysis of the rest-frame ultraviolet (UV) luminosity function at z=4-8. We use deep Hubble Space Telescope imaging over the CANDELS/GOODS fields, the Hubble Ultra Deep Field and the Year 1 Hubble Frontier Field deep parallel observations. These surveys provides an effective volume of 0.6-1.2 x 10^6 Mpc^3 over this epoch, allowing us to perform a robust search for bright (M_UV < -21) and faint (M_UV=-18) galaxies. We select galaxies using a well-tested photometric redshift technique with careful screening of contaminants, finding a sample of 7446 galaxies at 3.5<z<8.5, with >1000 galaxies at z~6-8. We measure the luminosity function using a Markov Chain Monte Carlo analysis to measure robust uncertainties. At the faint end our results agree with previous studies, yet we find a higher abundance of UV-bright galaxies at z>6, with M* ~ -21 at z>5, different than that inferred based on previous trends at lower redshift. At z=8, a single power-law provides an equally good fit to the UV luminosity function, while at z=6 and 7, an exponential cutoff at the bright-end is moderately preferred. We compare to semi-analytical models, and find that the lack of evolution in M* is consistent with models where the impact of dust attenuation on the bright-end of the luminosity function decreases at higher redshift. We measure the evolution of the cosmic star-formation rate density, correcting for dust attenuation, and find that it declines as (1+z)^(-4.3 +/- 0.5) at z>4, consistent with observations at z>9. Our observations are consistent with a reionization history that starts at z>10, completes at z>6, and reaches a midpoint (x_HII = 0.5) at 6.7<z<9.4. Finally, our observations predict that the abundance of bright z=9 galaxies is likely higher than previous constraints, though consistent with recent estimates of bright z~10 galaxies. [abridged]
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    ABSTRACT: We present the results of a new, ultra-deep, near-infrared imaging survey executed with the Hawk-I imager at the ESO VLT, of which we make all the data public. This survey, named HUGS (Hawk-I UDS and GOODS Survey), provides deep, high-quality imaging in the K and Y bands over the CANDELS UDS and GOODS-South fields. We describe here the survey strategy, the data reduction process, and the data quality. HUGS delivers the deepest and highest quality K-band images ever collected over areas of cosmological interest, and ideally complements the CANDELS data set in terms of image quality and depth. The seeing is exceptional and homogeneous, confined to the range 0.38"-0.43". In the deepest region of the GOODS-S field, (which includes most of the HUDF) the K-band exposure time exceeds 80 hours of integration, yielding a 1-sigma magnitude limit of ~28.0 mag/sqarcsec. In the UDS field the survey matches the shallower depth of the CANDELS images reaching a 1-sigma limit per sq.arcsec of ~27.3mag in the K band and ~28.3mag in the Y-band, We show that the HUGS observations are well matched to the depth of the CANDELS WFC3/IR data, since the majority of even the faintest galaxies detected in the CANDELS H-band images are also detected in HUGS. We present the K-band galaxy number counts produced by combining the HUGS data from the two fields. We show that the slope of the number counts depends sensitively on the assumed distribution of galaxy sizes, with potential impact on the estimated extra-galactic background light (abridged).
    Astronomy and Astrophysics 09/2014; 570. DOI:10.1051/0004-6361/201423543 · 4.48 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

16k Citations
1,253.66 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2015
    • University of Science and Technology of China
      • Department of Astronomy
      Luchow, Anhui Sheng, China
  • 2006–2015
    • University of Massachusetts Amherst
      • Department of Astronomy
      Amherst Center, Massachusetts, United States
    • The Inter-University Centre for Astronomy and Astrophysics
      Poona, Maharashtra, India
  • 1993–2013
    • Space Telescope Science Institute
      Baltimore, Maryland, United States
    • Massachusetts Institute of Technology
      Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States
  • 2011
    • The University of Edinburgh
      • Institute for Astronomy (IfA)
      Edinburgh, Scotland, United Kingdom
  • 2008
    • Honolulu University
      Honolulu, Hawaii, United States
  • 2007–2008
    • Paris Diderot University
      Lutetia Parisorum, Île-de-France, France
    • National Radio Astronomy Observatory
      Charlottesville, Virginia, United States
    • National Optical Astronomy Observatory
      Tucson, Arizona, United States
  • 2006–2007
    • California Institute of Technology
      • Spitzer Science Center
      Pasadena, California, United States
  • 2003
    • Yale University
      • Department of Astronomy
      New Haven, Connecticut, United States
  • 2001
    • Hebrew University of Jerusalem
      Yerushalayim, Jerusalem District, Israel
  • 1998
    • Carnegie Institution for Science
      Washington, West Virginia, United States
  • 1994
    • Johns Hopkins University
      • Department of Physics and Astronomy
      Baltimore, Maryland, United States