M. Giavalisco

University of Massachusetts Amherst, Amherst Center, Massachusetts, United States

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Publications (301)1096.24 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: The relation between the galaxy stellar mass M_star and the dark matter halo mass M_h gives important information on the efficiency in forming stars and assembling stellar mass in galaxies. We present the stellar mass to halo mass ratio (SMHR) measurements at redshifts 2<z<5, obtained from the VIMOS Ultra Deep Survey. We use halo occupation distribution (HOD) modelling of clustering measurements on ~3000 galaxies with spectroscopic redshifts to derive the dark matter halo mass M_h, and SED fitting over a large set of multi-wavelength data to derive the stellar mass M_star and compute the SMHR=M_star/M_h. We find that the SMHR ranges from 1% to 2.5% for galaxies with M_star=1.3x10^9 M_sun to M_star=7.4x10^9 M_sun in DM halos with M_h=1.3x10^{11} M_sun} to M_h=3x10^{11} M_sun. We derive the integrated star formation efficiency (ISFE) of these galaxies and find that the star formation efficiency is a moderate 6-9% for lower mass galaxies while it is relatively high at 16% for galaxies with the median stellar mass of the sample ~7x10^9 M_sun. The lower ISFE at lower masses may indicate that some efficient means of suppressing star formation is at work (like SNe feedback), while the high ISFE for the average galaxy at z~3 is indicating that these galaxies are efficiently building-up their stellar mass at a key epoch in the mass assembly process. We further infer that the average mass galaxy at z~3 will start experiencing star formation quenching within a few hundred millions years.
    12/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: We present the public release of the stellar mass catalogs for the GOODS-S and UDS fields obtained using some of the deepest near-IR images available, achieved as part of the Cosmic Assembly Near-infrared Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey (CANDELS) project. We combine the effort from ten different teams, who computed the stellar masses using the same photometry and the same redshifts. Each team adopted their preferred fitting code, assumptions, priors, and parameter grid. The combination of results using the same underlying stellar isochrones reduces the systematics associated with the fitting code and other choices. Thanks to the availability of different estimates, we can test the effect of some specific parameters and assumptions on the stellar mass estimate. The choice of the stellar isochrone library turns out to have the largest effect on the galaxy stellar mass estimates, resulting in the largest distributions around the median value (with a semi interquartile range larger than 0.1 dex). On the other hand, for most galaxies, the stellar mass estimates are relatively insensitive to the different parameterizations of the star formation history. The inclusion of nebular emission in the model spectra does not have a significant impact for the majority of galaxies (less than a factor of 2 for ~80% of the sample). Nevertheless, the stellar mass for the subsample of young galaxies (age < 100 Myr), especially in particular redshift ranges (e.g., 2.2 < z < 2.4, 3.2 < z < 3.6, and 5.5 < z < 6.5), can be seriously overestimated (by up to a factor of 10 for < 20 Myr sources) if nebular contribution is ignored.
    12/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The galaxy stellar mass function (GSMF) at high-z provides key information on star-formation history and mass assembly in the young Universe. We aimed to use the unique combination of deep optical/NIR/MIR imaging provided by HST, Spitzer and the VLT in the CANDELS-UDS, GOODS-South, and HUDF fields to determine the GSMF over the redshift range 3.5<z<7.5. We utilised the HST WFC3/IR NIR imaging from CANDELS and HUDF09, reaching H~27-28.5 over a total area of 369 arcmin2, in combination with associated deep HST ACS optical data, deep Spitzer IRAC imaging from the SEDS programme, and deep Y and K-band VLT Hawk-I images from the HUGS programme, to select a galaxy sample with high-quality photometric redshifts. These have been calibrated with more than 150 spectroscopic redshifts in the range 3.5<z<7.5, resulting in an overall precision of sigma_z/(1+z)~0.037. We have determined the low-mass end of the high-z GSMF with unprecedented precision, reaching down to masses as low as M*~10^9 Msun at z=4 and ~6x10^9 Msun at z=7. We find that the GSMF at 3.5<z<7.5 depends only slightly on the recipes adopted to measure the stellar masses, namely the photo-z, the SFHs, the nebular contribution or the presence of AGN on the parent sample. The low-mass end of the GSMF is steeper than has been found at lower redshifts, but appears to be unchanged over the redshift range probed here. Our results are very different from previous GSMF estimates based on converting UV galaxy luminosity functions into mass functions via tight M/L relations. Integrating our evolving GSMF over mass, we find that the growth of stellar mass density is barely consistent with the time-integral of the SFR density over cosmic time at z>4. These results confirm the unique synergy of the CANDELS+HUDF, HUGS, and SEDS surveys for the discovery and study of moderate/low-mass galaxies at high redshifts.
    12/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: We study the evolution of the star formation rate (SFR) - stellar mass (M_star) relation and specific star formation rate (sSFR) of star forming galaxies (SFGs) since a redshift z~5.5 using 2435 (4531) galaxies with highly reliable (reliable) spectroscopic redshifts in the VIMOS Ultra-Deep Survey (VUDS). It is the first time that these relations can be followed over such a large redshift range from a single homogeneously selected sample of galaxies with spectroscopic redshifts. The log(SFR) - log(M_star) relation for SFGs remains roughly linear all the way up to z=5 but the SFR steadily increases at fixed mass with increasing redshift. We find that for stellar masses M_star>3.2 x 10^9 M_sun the SFR increases by a factor ~13 between z=0.4 and z=2.3. We extend this relation up to z=5, finding an additional increase in SFR by a factor 1.7 from z=2.3 to z=4.8 for masses M_star > 10^10 M_sun. We observe a turn-off in the SFR-M_star relation at the highest mass end up to a redshift z~3.5. We interpret this turn-off as the signature of a strong on-going quenching mechanism and rapid mass growth. The sSFR increases strongly up to z~2 but it grows much less rapidly in 2<z<5. We find that the shape of the sSFR evolution is not well reproduced by cold gas accretion-driven models or the latest hydrodynamical models. Below z~2 these models have a flatter evolution (1+z)^{Phi} with Phi=2-2.25 compared to the data which evolves more rapidly with Phi=2.8+-0.2. Above z~2, the reverse is happening with the data evolving more slowly with Phi=1.2+-0.1. The observed sSFR evolution over a large redshift range 0<z<5 and our finding of a non linear main sequence at high mass both indicate that the evolution of SFR and M_star is not solely driven by gas accretion. The results presented in this paper emphasize the need to invoke a more complex mix of physical processes {abridge}
    11/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: We investigate the evolution of galaxy clustering for galaxies in the redshift range 2.0<$z$<5.0 using the VIMOS Ultra Deep Survey (VUDS). We present the projected (real-space) two-point correlation function $w_p(r_p)$ measured by using 3022 galaxies with robust spectroscopic redshifts in two independent fields (COSMOS and VVDS-02h) covering in total 0.8 deg$^2$. We quantify how the scale dependent clustering amplitude $r_0$ changes with redshift making use of mock samples to evaluate and correct the survey selection function. Using a power-law model $\xi(r) = (r/r_0)^{-\gamma}$ we find that the correlation function for the general population is best fit by a model with a clustering length $r_0$=3.95$^{+0.48}_{-0.54}$ h$^{-1}$Mpc and slope $\gamma$=1.8$^{+0.02}_{-0.06}$ at $z$~2.5, $r_0$=4.35$\pm$0.60 h$^{-1}$Mpc and $\gamma$=1.6$^{+0.12}_{-0.13}$ at $z$~3.5. We use these clustering parameters to derive the large-scale linear galaxy bias $b_L^{PL}$, between galaxies and dark matter. We find $b_L^{PL}$ = 2.68$\pm$0.22 at redshift $z$~3 (assuming $\sigma_8$ = 0.8), significantly higher than found at intermediate and low redshifts. We fit an HOD model to the data and we obtain that the average halo mass at redshift $z$~3 is $M_h$=10$^{11.75\pm0.23}$ h$^{-1}$M$_{\odot}$. From this fit we confirm that the large-scale linear galaxy bias is relatively high at $b_L^{HOD}$ = 2.82$\pm$0.27. Comparing these measurements with similar measurements at lower redshifts we infer that the star-forming population of galaxies at $z$~3 should evolve into the massive and bright ($M_r$<-21.5) galaxy population which typically occupy haloes of mass $\langle M_h\rangle$ = 10$^{13.9}$ h$^{-1}$ $M_{\odot}$ at redshift $z$=0.
    11/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: (arXiv abridged abstract) The observed UV rest-frame spectra of distant galaxies are the result of their intrinsic emission combined with absorption along the line of sight produced by the inter-galactic medium (IGM). Here we analyse the evolution of the mean IGM transmission Tr(Ly_alpha) and its dispersion along the line of sight for 2127 galaxies with 2.5<z<5.5 in the VIMOS Ultra Deep Survey (VUDS). We fit model spectra combined with a range of IGM transmission to the galaxy spectra using the spectral fitting algorithm GOSSIP+. We use these fits to derive the mean IGM transmission towards each galaxy for several redshift slices from z=2.5 to z=5.5. We find that the mean IGM transmission defined as Tr(Ly_alpha)=e^{-tau} (with tau the HI optical depth) is 79%, 69%, 59%, 55% and 46% at redshifts 2.75, 3,22, 3.70, 4.23, 4.77, respectively. We compare these results to measurements obtained from quasars lines of sight and find that the IGM transmission towards galaxies is in excellent agreement with quasar values up to redshift z~4. We find tentative evidence for a higher IGM transmission at z>= 4 compared to results from QSOs, but a degeneracy between dust extinction and IGM prevents to draw firm conclusions if the internal dust extinction for star-forming galaxies at z>4 takes a mean value significantly in excess of E(B-V)>0.15. Most importantly, we find a large dispersion of IGM transmission along the lines of sight towards distant galaxies with 68% of the distribution within 10 to 17% of the median value in delta z=0.5 bins, similar to what is found on the LOS towards QSOs. We demonstrate the importance of taking into account this large range of IGM transmission when selecting high redshift galaxies based on their colour properties (e.g. LBG or photometric redshift selection) or otherwise face a significant incompleteness in selecting high redshift galaxy populations.
    11/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Although giant clumps of stars are crucial to galaxy formation and evolution, the most basic demographics of clumps are still uncertain, mainly because the definition of clumps has not been thoroughly discussed. In this paper, we study the basic demographics of clumps in star-forming galaxies (SFGs) at 0.5<z<3, using our proposed physical definition that UV-bright clumps are discrete star-forming regions that individually contribute more than 8% of the rest-frame UV light of their galaxies. Clumps defined this way are significantly brighter than the HII regions of nearby large spiral galaxies, either individually or blended, when physical spatial resolution and cosmological dimming are considered. Under this definition, we measure the fraction of SFGs that contain at least one off-center clump (Fclumpy) and the contributions of clumps to the rest-frame UV light and star formation rate of SFGs in the CANDELS/GOODS-S and UDS fields, where our mass-complete sample consists of 3239 galaxies with axial ratio q>0.5. The redshift evolution of Fclumpy changes with the stellar mass (M*) of the galaxies. Low-mass (log(M*/Msun)<9.8) galaxies keep an almost constant Fclumpy of about 60% from z~3.0 to z~0.5. Intermediate-mass and massive galaxies drop their Fclumpy from 55% at z~3.0 to 40% and 15%, respectively, at z~0.5. We find that (1) the trend of disk stabilization predicted by violent disk instability matches the Fclumpy trend of massive galaxies; (2) minor mergers are a viable explanation of the Fclumpy trend of intermediate-mass galaxies at z<1.5, given a realistic observability timescale; and (3) major mergers are unlikely responsible for the Fclumpy trend in all masses at z<1.5. The clump contribution to the rest-frame UV light of SFGs shows a broad peak around galaxies with log(M*/Msun)~10.5 at all redshifts, possibly linked to the molecular gas fraction of the galaxies. (Abridged)
    10/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: We present a robust measurement and analysis of the rest-frame ultraviolet (UV) luminosity function at z=4-8. We use deep Hubble Space Telescope imaging over the CANDELS/GOODS fields, the Hubble Ultra Deep Field and the Year 1 Hubble Frontier Field deep parallel observations. These surveys provides an effective volume of 0.6-1.2 x 10^6 Mpc^3 over this epoch, allowing us to perform a robust search for bright (M_UV < -21) and faint (M_UV=-18) galaxies. We select galaxies using a well-tested photometric redshift technique with careful screening of contaminants, finding a sample of 7446 galaxies at 3.5<z<8.5, with >1000 galaxies at z~6-8. We measure the luminosity function using a Markov Chain Monte Carlo analysis to measure robust uncertainties. At the faint end our results agree with previous studies, yet we find a higher abundance of UV-bright galaxies at z>6, with M* ~ -21 at z>5, different than that inferred based on previous trends at lower redshift. At z=8, a single power-law provides an equally good fit to the UV luminosity function, while at z=6 and 7, an exponential cutoff at the bright-end is moderately preferred. We compare to semi-analytical models, and find that the lack of evolution in M* is consistent with models where the impact of dust attenuation on the bright-end of the luminosity function decreases at higher redshift. We measure the evolution of the cosmic star-formation rate density, correcting for dust attenuation, and find that it declines as (1+z)^(-4.3 +/- 0.5) at z>4, consistent with observations at z>9. Our observations are consistent with a reionization history that starts at z>10, completes at z>6, and reaches a midpoint (x_HII = 0.5) at 6.7<z<9.4. Finally, our observations predict that the abundance of bright z=9 galaxies is likely higher than previous constraints, though consistent with recent estimates of bright z~10 galaxies. [abridged]
    10/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The process that quenched star formation in galaxies at intermediate and high redshift is still the subject of considerable debate. One way to investigate this puzzling issue is to study the number density of quiescent galaxies at z~2, and its dependence on mass. Here we present the results of a new study based on very deep Ks-band imaging (with the HAWK-I instrument on the VLT) of two HST CANDELS fields (the UKIDSS Ultra-deep survey (UDS) field and GOODS-South). The new HAWK-I data (taken as part of the HUGS VLT Large Program) reach detection limits of Ks>26 (AB mag). We select a sample of passively-evolving galaxies in the redshift range 1.4<z<2.5. Thanks to the depth and large area coverage of our imaging, we have been able to extend the selection of quiescent galaxies a magnitude fainter than previous analyses. Through extensive simulations we demonstrate, for the first time, that the observed turn-over in the number of quiescent galaxies at K>22 is real. This has enabled us to establish unambiguously that the number counts of quiescent galaxies at z~2 flatten and slightly decline at magnitudes fainter than Ks~22(AB mag.). We show that this trend corresponds to a stellar mass threshold $M_*10^{10.8}\,{\rm M_{\odot}}$ below which the mechanism that halts the star formation in high-redshift galaxies seems to be inefficient. Finally we compare the observed pBzK number counts with those of quiescent galaxies extracted from four different semi-analytic models. We find that none of the models provides a statistically acceptable description of the number density of quiescent galaxies at these redshifts. We conclude that the mass function of quiescent galaxies as a function of redshift continues to present a key and demanding challenge for proposed models of galaxy formation and evolution.
    Astronomy and Astrophysics 09/2014; 571. · 4.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present the results of a new, ultra-deep, near-infrared imaging survey executed with the Hawk-I imager at the ESO VLT, of which we make all the data public. This survey, named HUGS (Hawk-I UDS and GOODS Survey), provides deep, high-quality imaging in the K and Y bands over the CANDELS UDS and GOODS-South fields. We describe here the survey strategy, the data reduction process, and the data quality. HUGS delivers the deepest and highest quality K-band images ever collected over areas of cosmological interest, and ideally complements the CANDELS data set in terms of image quality and depth. The seeing is exceptional and homogeneous, confined to the range 0.38"-0.43". In the deepest region of the GOODS-S field, (which includes most of the HUDF) the K-band exposure time exceeds 80 hours of integration, yielding a 1-sigma magnitude limit of ~28.0 mag/sqarcsec. In the UDS field the survey matches the shallower depth of the CANDELS images reaching a 1-sigma limit per sq.arcsec of ~27.3mag in the K band and ~28.3mag in the Y-band, We show that the HUGS observations are well matched to the depth of the CANDELS WFC3/IR data, since the majority of even the faintest galaxies detected in the CANDELS H-band images are also detected in HUGS. We present the K-band galaxy number counts produced by combining the HUGS data from the two fields. We show that the slope of the number counts depends sensitively on the assumed distribution of galaxy sizes, with potential impact on the estimated extra-galactic background light (abridged).
    09/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: We present an analysis of the deepest Herschel images in four major extragalactic fields GOODS-North, GOODS-South, UDS and COSMOS obtained within the GOODS-Herschel and CANDELS-Herschel key programs. The picture provided by 10497 individual far-infrared detections is supplemented by the stacking analysis of a mass-complete sample of 62361 star-forming galaxies from the CANDELS-HST H band-selected catalogs and from two deep ground-based Ks band-selected catalogs in the GOODS-North and the COSMOS-wide fields, in order to obtain one of the most accurate and unbiased understanding to date of the stellar mass growth over the cosmic history. We show, for the first time, that stacking also provides a powerful tool to determine the dispersion of a physical correlation and describe our method called "scatter stacking" that may be easily generalized to other experiments. We demonstrate that galaxies of all masses from z=4 to 0 follow a universal scaling law, the so-called main sequence of star-forming galaxies. We find a universal close-to-linear slope of the logSFR-logM* relation with a non varying dispersion of 0.3 dex. We also find evidence for a flattening of the main sequence at high masses (log(M*/Msun) > 10.5) that becomes less prominent with increasing redshift and almost vanishes by z~2. It is tempting to associate this bending with the parallel growth of quiescent bulges in star-forming galaxies. The specific SFR (sSFR=SFR/M*) of star-forming galaxies is found to continuously increase from z=0 to 4. Finally we discuss the implications of our findings on the cosmic SFR history and show that more than two thirds of present-day stars must have formed in a regime dominated by the main sequence mode. As a consequence we conclude that, although omnipresent in the distant Universe, galaxy mergers had little impact in triggering strong starbursts over the last 12.5 Gyr.
    09/2014;
  • Yuping Tang, Mauro Giavalisco, Yicheng Guo, Jaron Kurk
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    ABSTRACT: We report on a study of the 2300-2600 Å Fe II/Fe II* multiplets in the rest-UV spectra of star-forming galaxies at 1.0 < z < 2.6 as probes of galactic-scale outflows. We extracted a mass-limited sample of 97 galaxies at z ~ 1.0-2.6 from ultra-deep spectra obtained during the GMASS spectroscopic survey in the GOODS South field with the Very Large Telescope and FORS2. We obtain robust measures of the rest equivalent width of the Fe II absorption lines down to a limit of Wr > 1.5 Å and of the Fe II* emission lines to Wr > 0.5 Å. Whenever we can measure the systemic redshift of the galaxies from the [O II] emission line, we find that both the Fe II and Mg II absorption lines are blueshifted, indicating that both species trace gaseous outflows. We also find, however, that the Fe II gas has generally lower outflow velocity relative to that of Mg II. We investigate the variation of Fe II line profiles as a function of the radiative transfer properties of the lines, and find that transitions with higher oscillator strengths are more blueshifted in terms of both line centroids and line wings. We discuss the possibility that Fe II lines are suppressed by stellar absorptions. The lower velocities of the Fe II lines relative to the Mg II doublet, as well as the absence of spatially extended Fe II* emission in two-dimensional stacked spectra, suggest that most clouds responsible for Fe II absorption lie close (3 ~ 4 kpc) to the disks of galaxies. We show that the Fe II/Fe II* multiplets offer unique probes of the kinematic structure of galactic outflows.
    The Astrophysical Journal 09/2014; 793(2):92. · 6.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We use data taken as part of HST/WFC3 observations of the Cosmic Assembly Near-infrared Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey (CANDELS) to identify massive and evolved galaxies at 3<z<4.5. This is performed using the strength of the Balmer break feature at rest-frame 3648A, which is a diagnostic of the age of the stellar population in galaxies. Using WFC3 H-band selected catalog for the CANDELS GOODS-S field and deep multi-waveband photometry from optical (HST) to mid-infrared (Spitzer) wavelengths, we identify a population of old and evolved post-starburst galaxies based on the strength of their Balmer breaks (Balmer Break Galaxies- BBGs). The galaxies are also selected to be bright in rest-frame near-IR wavelengths and hence, massive. We identify a total of 16 BBGs. Fitting the spectral energy distribution (SED) of the BBGs show that the candidate galaxies have average estimated ages of ~800 Myr and average stellar masses of ~5x10^10 M_sun, consistent with being old and massive systems. Two of our BBG candidates are also identified by the criteria that is sensitive to star forming galaxies (LBG selection). We find a number density of ~3.2x10^-5 Mpc^-3 for the BBGs corresponding to a mass density of ~2.0x10^6 M_sun/Mpc^3 in the redshift range covering the survey. Given the old age and the passive evolution, it is argued that some of these objects formed the bulk of their mass only a few hundred million years after the Big Bang.
    The Astrophysical Journal 08/2014; 794(1). · 6.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We measure new estimates for the galaxy stellar mass function and star formation rates for samples of galaxies at $z \sim 4,~5,~6~\&~7$ using data in the CANDELS GOODS South field. The deep near-infrared observations allow us to construct the stellar mass function at $z \geq 6$ directly for the first time. We estimate stellar masses for our sample by fitting the observed spectral energy distributions with synthetic stellar populations, including nebular line and continuum emission. The observed UV luminosity functions for the samples are consistent with previous observations, however we find that the observed $M_{UV}$ - M$_{*}$ relation has a shallow slope more consistent with a constant mass to light ratio and a normalisation which evolves with redshift. Our stellar mass functions have steep low-mass slopes ($\alpha \approx -1.9$), steeper than previously observed at these redshifts and closer to that of the UV luminosity function. Integrating our new mass functions, we find the observed stellar mass density evolves from $\log_{10} \rho_{*} = 6.64^{+0.58}_{-0.89}$ at $z \sim 7$ to $7.36\pm0.06$ $\text{M}_{\odot} \text{Mpc}^{-3}$ at $z \sim 4$. Finally, combining the measured UV continuum slopes ($\beta$) with their rest-frame UV luminosities, we calculate dust corrected star-formation rates (SFR) for our sample. We find the specific star-formation rate for a fixed stellar mass increases with redshift whilst the global SFR density falls rapidly over this period. Our new SFR density estimates are higher than previously observed at this redshift.
    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 08/2014; 444(3). · 5.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Distant star-forming galaxies show a correlation between their star-formation rates (SFR) and stellar masses, and this has deep implications for galaxy formation. Here, we present a study on the evolution of the slope and scatter of the SFR$-$stellar mass relation for galaxies at $3.5\leq z\leq 6.5$ using multi-wavelength photometry in GOODS-S from the Cosmic Assembly Near-infrared Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey (CANDELS) and Spitzer Extended Deep Survey. We describe an updated, Bayesian spectral-energy distribution fitting method that incorporates effects of nebular line emission, star-formation histories that are constant or rising with time, and different dust attenuation prescriptions (starburst and Small Magellanic Cloud). From $z$=6.5 to $z$=3.5 star-forming galaxies in CANDELS follow a nearly unevolving correlation between stellar mass and SFR that follows SFR $\sim$ $M_\star^\alpha$ with $\alpha = 0.54 \pm 0.16$ at $z\sim 6$ and $0.70 \pm 0.21$ at $z\sim 4$. This evolution requires a star-formation history that increases with decreasing redshift (on average, the SFRs of individual galaxies rise with time). The measured scatter in the SFR$-$stellar mass relation is tight, $\sigma(\log \mathrm{SFR}/\mathrm{M}_\odot$ yr$^{-1})< 0.3 -$0.4 dex, for galaxies with $\log M_\star/\mathrm{M}_\odot > 9$ dex. Assuming that the SFR is tied to the net gas inflow rate (SFR $\sim$ $\dot{M}_\mathrm{gas}$), then the scatter in the gas inflow rate is also smaller than 0.3$-$0.4 dex for star-forming galaxies in these stellar mass and redshift ranges, at least when averaged over the timescale of star-formation. We further show that the implied star-formation history of objects selected on the basis of their co-moving number densities is consistent with the evolution in the SFR$-$stellar mass relation.
    07/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: We determine the intrinsic, 3-dimensional shape distribution of star-forming galaxies at 0<z<2.5, as inferred from their observed projected axis ratios. In the present-day universe star-forming galaxies of all masses 1e9 - 1e11 Msol are predominantly thin, nearly oblate disks, in line with previous studies. We now extend this to higher redshifts, and find that among massive galaxies (M* > 1e10 Msol) disks are the most common geometric shape at all z < 2. Lower-mass galaxies at z>1 possess a broad range of geometric shapes: the fraction of elongated (prolate) galaxies increases toward higher redshifts and lower masses. Galaxies with stellar mass 1e9 Msol (1e10 Msol) are a mix of roughly equal numbers of elongated and disk galaxies at z~1 (z~2). This suggests that galaxies in this mass range do not yet have disks that are sustained over many orbital periods, implying that galaxies with present-day stellar mass comparable to that of the Milky Way typically first formed such sustained stellar disks at redshift z~1.5-2. Combined with constraints on the evolution of the star formation rate density and the distribution of star formation over galaxies with different masses, our findings imply that, averaged over cosmic time, the majority of stars formed in disks.
    The Astrophysical Journal Letters 07/2014; 792(1). · 5.60 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We aim to determine the redshift of GDS-1408, the most solid z~7 galaxy candidate lying in the Hubble Ultra Deep Field. We have used all the VLT spectra of GDS-1408 collected by us and two other groups with FORS2 at VLT in the last five years, for a total integration time of 52hr. The combined spectrum is the deepest ever obtained of a galaxy in the Reionization epoch. We do not detect any emission line or continuum over the whole wavelength range, up to 10100A. Based on an accurate set of simulations, we are able to put a stringent upper limit of f(Lya)<3x10^(-18) erg/s/cm2 at 3-9 sigma in the explored wavelength range, corresponding to a rest-frame equivalent width EW<9A. Combining this limit with the SED modelling we refine the redshift to be z=6.82+/- 0.1 (1-sigma). The same SED fitting indicates that GDS-1408 is relatively extinct (A1600~1) with a dust corrected star formation rate of ~ 20 Msol/yr. The comparison between the un-attenuated equivalent width predicted by the case-B recombination theory and the observed upper limit, provides a limit on the effective Lya escape fraction of f_(esc)^(eff)(Lya)<8%. Even though we cannot rule out a major contribution of the inter/circum galactic medium in damping the line, a plausible interpretation is that GDS-1408 is moderately evolved and contains sufficient gas and dust to attenuate the Lya emission, before it reaches the intergalactic medium. The redshift confirmation of even the best z~7 candidates is very hard to achieve (unless the Lya or unusually strong rest-UV nebular emission lines are present) with the current generation of 8-10m class telescopes. We show that both JWST and E-ELT will be necessary to make decisive progresses. Currently, the increased redshift accuracy obtained with this kind of analysis makes ALMA an interesting option for the redshift confirmation.
    Astronomy and Astrophysics 07/2014; · 4.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The first quenched galaxies (z>2) are both the most massive, and most compact, suggesting a physical connection between high stellar density and efficient, rapid cessation of star-formation. We present rest-frame UV spectra of Lyman-break galaxies (LBGs) at z~3 selected to be candidate progenitors of the quenched galaxies at z~2, compared to other LBGs of similar mass and star-formation rate (non-candidates). We find that candidate progenitors have faster outflow velocities and higher equivalent widths of interstellar absorption lines, implying larger velocity spread among absorbing clouds. Candidates deviate from the relationship between equivalent widths of Lyman-alpha and interstellar absorption lines in that their Lyman-alpha emission remains strong despite high interstellar absorption, possibly indicating that the neutral HI fraction is patchy, such that Lyman-alpha photons can escape. We detect stronger CIV P-Cygni features (emission and absorption) and HeII emission in candidates, indicative of larger populations of metal-rich Wolf-Rayet stars compared to non-candidates. The faster outflows, broader spread of gas velocity, and Lyman-alpha properties of candidates are consistent with their ISM being subject to more energetic feedback than non-candidates. Together with their larger metallicity (implying more evolved star-formation activity) this leads us to propose, if speculatively, that they are likely to quench sooner than non-candidates, supporting the validity of selection criteria used to identify them as progenitors of z~2 passive galaxies. We propose that massive, compact galaxies undergo more rapid growth of their stellar mass content, perhaps because the gas accretion mechanisms are different, and quench sooner than normally-sized LBGs at these (early) epochs.
    07/2014;
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    Yuping Tang, Mauro Giavalisco, Yicheng Guo, Jaron Kurk
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    ABSTRACT: We report on a study of the 2300-2600\AA FeII/FeII* multiplets in the rest-UV spectra of star-forming galaxies at 1.0<z<2.6 as probes of galactic-scale outflows. We extracted a mass-limited sample of 97 galaxies at z~1.0-2.6 from ultra-deep spectra obtained during the GMASS spetroscopic survey in the GOODS South field with the VLT and FORS2. We obtain robust measures of the rest equivalent width of the FeII absorption lines down to a limit of W_r>1.5 \AA and of the FeII* emission lines to W_r>0.5 \AA. Whenever we can measure the systemic redshift of the galaxies from the [OII] emission line, we find that both the FeII and MgII absorption lines are blueshifted, indicative that both species trace gaseous outflows. We also find, however, that the FeII gas has generally lower outflow velocity relative to that of MgII. We investigate the variation of FeII line profiles as a function of the radiative transfer properties of the lines, and find that transitions with higher oscillator strengths are more blueshifted in terms of both line centroids and line wings. We discuss the possibility that FeII lines are suppressed by stellar absorptions. The lower velocities of the FeII lines relative to the MgII doublet, as well as the absence of spatially extended FeII* emission in 2D stacked spectra, suggest that most clouds responsible for the FeII absorption lie close (3~4 kpc) to the disks of galaxies. We show that the FeII/FeII* multiplets offer unique probes of the kinematic structure of galactic outflows.
    07/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The observed deficit of strongly Lyman-alpha emitting galaxies at z>6.5 is attributed to either increasing neutral hydrogen in the intergalactic medium (IGM) and/or to the evolving galaxy properties. To investigate this, we have performed very deep near-IR spectroscopy of z>7 galaxies using MOSFIRE on the Keck-I Telescope. We measure the Lyman-alpha fraction at z~8 (combined photometric redshift peak at z=7.7) using two methods. First, we derived NLy{\alpha}/Ntot directly using extensive simulations to correct for incompleteness. Second, we used a Bayesian formalism (introduced by Treu et al. 2012) that compares the z>7 galaxy spectra to models of the Lyman-alpha equivalent width (WLy{\alpha}) distribution at z~6. We explored two simple evolutionary scenarios: smooth evolution where Lyman-alpha is attenuated in all galaxies by a constant factor (perhaps owing to processes from galaxy evolution or a slowly increasing IGM opacity), and patchy evolution where Lyman-alpha is blocked in some fraction of galaxies (perhaps due to the IGM being opaque along only some fraction of sightlines). The Bayesian formalism places stronger constraints compared with the direct method. Combining our data with that in the literature we find that at z~8 the Lyman-alpha fraction has dropped by a factor >3(84% confidence interval) using both the smooth and patchy scenarios compared to the z~6 values. Furthermore, we find a tentative evidence that the data favor the patchy scenario over smooth (with "positive" Bayesian evidence), extending trends observed at z~7 to higher redshift. If this decrease is a result of reionization as predicted by theory, then our data imply the volume averaged neutral hydrogen fraction in the IGM to be >0.3 suggesting that the reionization of the universe is in progress at z~8.
    The Astrophysical Journal 05/2014; 794(1). · 6.28 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

11k Citations
1,096.24 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2006–2014
    • University of Massachusetts Amherst
      • Department of Astronomy
      Amherst Center, Massachusetts, United States
    • The Inter-University Centre for Astronomy and Astrophysics
      Poona, Mahārāshtra, India
  • 2013
    • University of Texas at Austin
      • Department of Astronomy
      Austin, Texas, United States
    • Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics
      Arching, Bavaria, Germany
    • University of California, Santa Cruz
      • Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics
      Santa Cruz, California, United States
  • 1993–2013
    • Space Telescope Science Institute
      Baltimore, Maryland, United States
  • 2012
    • University of California Observatories
      Santa Cruz, California, United States
  • 2011
    • The University of Edinburgh
      • Institute for Astronomy (IfA)
      Edinburgh, Scotland, United Kingdom
    • Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey
      • Department Physics and Astronomy
      New Brunswick, New Jersey, United States
  • 2008
    • Honolulu University
      Honolulu, Hawaii, United States
    • Paris Diderot University
      Lutetia Parisorum, Île-de-France, France
  • 2007
    • National Radio Astronomy Observatory
      Charlottesville, Virginia, United States
    • National Optical Astronomy Observatory
      Tucson, Arizona, United States
  • 2006–2007
    • California Institute of Technology
      • Spitzer Science Center
      Pasadena, California, United States
  • 2001
    • Hebrew University of Jerusalem
      Yerushalayim, Jerusalem District, Israel
  • 1998
    • Carnegie Institution for Science
      Washington, West Virginia, United States