Luis F Parada

University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas, United States

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Publications (213)2068.85 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) was the first RASopathy and is now one of many RASopathies that are caused by germline mutations in genes that encode components of the Ras/mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway. Their common underlying pathogenetic etiology causes significant overlap in phenotypic features which includes craniofacial dysmorphology, cardiac, cutaneous, musculoskeletal, GI and ocular abnormalities, and a predisposition to cancer. The proceedings from the symposium "Recent Developments in Neurofibromatoses (NF) and RASopathies: Management, Diagnosis and Current and Future Therapeutic Avenues" chronicle this timely and topical clinical translational research symposium. The overarching goal was to bring together clinicians, basic scientists, physician-scientists, advocate leaders, trainees, students and individuals with Ras pathway syndromes to discuss the most state-of-the-art basic science and clinical issues in an effort to spark collaborations directed towards the best practices and therapies for individuals with RASopathies. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    American Journal of Medical Genetics Part A 11/2014; · 2.05 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cerebellar development is regulated by a coordinated spatiotemporal interplay between granule neuron progenitors (GNPs), Purkinje neurons, and glia. Abnormal development can trigger motor deficits, and more recent data indicate important roles in aspects of memory, behavior, and autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Germline mutation in the NF1 tumor suppressor gene underlies Neurofibromatosis type 1, a complex disease that enhances susceptibility to certain cancers and neurological disorders, including intellectual deficits and ASD. The NF1 gene encodes for neurofibromin, a RAS GTPase-activating protein, and thus negatively regulates the RAS signaling pathway. Here, using mouse models to direct conditional NF1 ablation in either embryonic cerebellar progenitors or neonatal GNPs, we show that neurofibromin is required for appropriate development of cerebellar folia layering and structure. Remarkably, neonatal administration of inhibitors of the ERK pathway reversed the morphological defects. Thus, our finding
    Genes & Development 11/2014; 28(21):2407-2420. · 12.64 Impact Factor
  • Yufeng Shi, S Kyun Lim, Luis F Parada
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    ABSTRACT: In a recent Cell paper, Kitambi and colleagues identify a small molecule (Vacquinol-1) that has beneficial effects on a glioblastoma multiforme mouse model by oral administration. In glioblastoma cells, Vacquinol-1 targets macropinocytosis, a cellular process that will not lead to cell death in normal cells.
    Cell Research 05/2014; · 11.98 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is the most common form of inherited mental retardation and the leading cause of autism. FXS is caused by mutation in a single gene, FMR1, which encodes an RNA-binding protein FMRP. FMRP is highly expressed in neurons and is hypothesized to have a role in synaptic structure, function, and plasticity by regulating mRNAs that encode pre- and post-synaptic proteins. Fmr1 knockout (KO) mice have been used as a model to study FXS. These mice have been reported to show a great degree of phenotypic variability based on the genetic background, environmental signals, and experimental methods. In this study, we sought to restrict FMRP deletion to two brain regions that have been implicated in FXS and autism. We show that ablating Fmr1 in differentiated neurons of hippocampus and cortex results in dendritic alterations and changes in synaptic marker intensity that are brain region specific. In our conditional mutant mice, FMRP-deleted neurons have activated AKT-mTOR pathway signaling in hippocampus but display no apparent behavioral phenotypes. These results highlight the importance of identifying additional factors that interact with Fmr1 to develop FXS. Autism Res 2013, ●●: ●●-●●. © 2013 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2013 INSAR/Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Autism Research 01/2014; · 4.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Neurofibromatosis Type 1 (NF1) is an autosomal disorder that affects neural crest-derived tissues, leading to a wide spectrum of clinical presentations. Patients commonly present with plexiform neurofibromas, benign but debilitating growths that can transform into malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNSTs), a main cause of mortality. Currently, surgery is the primary course of treatment for MPNST, but with the limitation that these tumors are highly invasive. Radiation therapy is another treatment option, but is undesirable because it can induce additional mutations. MPNST patients may also receive doxorubicin as therapy, but this DNA-intercalating agent has relatively low tumor specificity and limited efficacy. In this study, we exploited a robust genetically-engineered mouse model of MPNST that recapitulates human NF1 associated MPNST to identify a novel small chemical compound that inhibits tumor cell growth. Compound 21 (Cpd21) inhibits growth of all available in vitro models of MPNST and human MPNST cell lines, while remaining non-toxic to normally-dividing Schwann cells or mouse embryonic fibroblasts. We show that this compound delays the cell cycle and leads to cellular apoptosis. Moreover, Cpd21 can reduce MPNST burden in a mouse allograft model, underscoring the compound's potential as a novel chemotherapeutic agent.
    Cancer Research 11/2013; · 9.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Mutations in phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome ten (PTEN) are implicated in neuropsychiatric disorders including autism. Previous studies report that PTEN knockdown in neurons in vivo leads to increased spine density and synaptic activity. To better characterize synaptic changes in neurons lacking PTEN, we examined the effects of shRNA knockdown of PTEN in basolateral amygdala neurons on synaptic spine density and morphology using fluorescent dye confocal imaging. Contrary to previous studies in dentate gyrus, we find that knockdown of PTEN in basolateral amygdala leads to a significant decrease in total spine density in distal dendrites. Curiously, this decreased spine density is associated with increased miniature excitatory post-synaptic current frequency and amplitude, suggesting an increase in number and function of mature spines. These seemingly contradictory findings were reconciled by spine morphology analysis demonstrating increased mushroom spine density and size with correspondingly decreased thin protrusion density at more distal segments. The same analysis of PTEN conditional deletion in dentate gyrus demonstrated that loss of PTEN does not significantly alter total density of dendritic protrusions in the dentate gyrus, but does decrease thin protrusion density and increases density of more mature mushroom spines. These findings suggest that, contrary to previous reports, PTEN knockdown may not induce de novo spinogenesis, but instead may increase synaptic activity by inducing morphological and functional maturation of spines. Furthermore, behavioral analysis of basolateral amygdala PTEN knockdown suggests that these changes limited only to the basolateral amygdala complex may not be sufficient to induce increased anxiety-related behaviors. J. Comp. Neurol., 2013. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    The Journal of Comparative Neurology 11/2013; · 3.51 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Schwann cells are highly plastic cells that dedifferentiate to a progenitor-like state following injury. However, deregulation of this plasticity, may be involved in the formation of neurofibromas, mixed-cell tumors of Schwann cell (SC) origin that arise upon loss of NF1. Here, we show that adult myelinating SCs (mSCs) are refractory to Nf1 loss. However, in the context of injury, Nf1-deficient cells display opposing behaviors along the wounded nerve; distal to the injury, Nf1(-/-) mSCs redifferentiate normally, whereas at the wound site Nf1(-/-) mSCs give rise to neurofibromas in both Nf1(+/+) and Nf1(+/-) backgrounds. Tracing experiments showed that distinct cell types within the tumor derive from Nf1-deficient SCs. This model of neurofibroma formation demonstrates that neurofibromas can originate from adult SCs and that the nerve environment can switch from tumor suppressive to tumor promoting at a site of injury. These findings have implications for both the characterization and treatment of neurofibromas.
    Cell Reports 09/2013; · 7.21 Impact Factor
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    L Q Le, L F Parada
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    ABSTRACT: Mitosis is controlled by a network of kinases and phosphatases. We screened a library of small interfering RNAs against a genome-wide set of phosphatases to comprehensively evaluate the role of human phosphatases in mitosis. We found four candidate spindle checkpoint phosphatases, including the tumor suppressor CDKN3. We show that CDKN3 is essential for normal mitosis and G1/S transition. We demonstrate that subcellular localization of CDKN3 changes throughout the cell cycle. We show that CDKN3 dephosphorylates threonine-161 of CDC2 during mitotic exit and we visualize CDC2(pThr-161) at kinetochores and centrosomes in early mitosis. We performed a phosphokinome-wide mass spectrometry screen to find effectors of the CDKN3-CDC2 signaling axis. We found that one of the identified downstream phosphotargets, CKβ phosphorylated at serine 209, localizes to mitotic centrosomes and controls the spindle checkpoint. Finally, we show that CDKN3 protein is down-regulated in brain tumors. Our findings indicate that CDKN3 controls mitosis through the CDC2 signaling axis. These results have implications for targeted anticancer therapeutics.
    The Journal of Cell Biology 06/2013; · 9.69 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: PURPOSE: Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most lethal form of brain cancer with a median survival of only 12-15 months. Current standard treatment consists of surgery followed by chemoradiation. The poor survival of GBM patients is due to aggressive tumor invasiveness, an inability to remove all tumor tissue, and an innate tumor chemo- and radioresistance. ATM, ataxia telangiectasia (A-T) mutated, is an excellent target for radiosensitizing GBM because of its critical role in regulating the DNA damage response and p53, among other cellular processes. As a first step toward this goal, we recently showed that the novel ATM kinase inhibitor KU-60019 reduced migration, invasion, growth, and potently radiosensitized human glioma cells in vitro. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Using orthotopic xenograft models of GBM, we now show that KU-60019 is also an effective radiosensitizer in vivo. Human glioma cells expressing reporter genes for monitoring tumor growth and dispersal were grown intra-cranially, and KU-60019 was administered intra-tumorally by convection-enhanced delivery or osmotic pump. RESULTS: Our results demonstrate that the combined effect of KU-60019 and radiation significantly increased survival of mice 2-3 fold over controls. Importantly, we show that glioma with mutant p53 is much more sensitive to KU-60019 radiosensitization than genetically matched wild-type glioma. CONCLUSIONS: Taken together, our results suggest that an ATM kinase inhibitor may be an effective radiosensitizer and adjuvant therapy for patients with mutant p53 brain cancers.
    Clinical Cancer Research 04/2013; · 8.19 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: Loss of BDNF-TrkB signaling results in obesity in both humans and mice; however, the neural circuit that mediates this effect is unknown. We tested the role of TrkB signaling dopamine-1 receptor expressing neurons in body weight regulation. DESIGN AND METHODS: Mice with a floxed allele of the TrkB gene were paired with mice expressing Cre-recombinase under control of the D1 promoter in order to conditionally knock out expression of TrkB receptors from D1-neurons. RESULTS: Deletion of TrkB receptors from D1 neurons results in obesity in chow fed mice due to increased feed efficiency. In contrast, loss of Trk B signaling in D1 neurons induced hyperphagia and hyperglycemia in mice maintained on high fat diet. CONCLUSIONS: These findings indicate TrkB signaling in D1 neurons regulates body weight by distinct mechanisms for chow and high fat diet and may be important for defending the body against the development of obesity and obesity-related disorders.
    Obesity 03/2013; · 4.39 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: TCR-mediated activation of the Ras signaling pathway is critical for T cell development in the thymus and function in the periphery. However, which members of a family of Ras GTPase-activating proteins (RasGAPs) negatively regulate Ras activation in T cells is unknown. In this study we examined a potential function for the neurofibromin 1 (NF1) RasGAP in the T cell lineage with the use of T cell-specific NF1-deficient mice. Surprisingly, on an MHC class I-restricted TCR transgenic background, NF1 was found to promote thymocyte positive selection. By contrast, NF1 neither promoted nor inhibited the negative selection of thymocytes. In the periphery, NF1 was found to be necessary for the maintenance of normal numbers of naïve CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells but was dispensable as a regulator of TCR-induced Ras activation, cytokine synthesis, proliferation and differentiation and death. These findings point to a novel unexpected role for NF1 in T cell development as well as a regulator of T cell homeostasis.
    Molecular Immunology 03/2013; · 3.00 Impact Factor
  • Yong Wang, Lu Lin, Helen Lai, Luis F Parada, Lei Lei
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Neurogenesis requires neural progenitor cell (NPC) proliferation, neuronal migration and differentiation. During embryonic development, neurons are generated in specific areas of the developing neuroepithelium and migrate to their appropriate positions. In the adult brain, neurogenesis continues in the subgranular zone (SGZ) of the hippocampal dentate gyrus and the subventricular zone (SVZ) of the lateral ventricle. Although neurogenesis is fundamental to brain development and function, our understanding of the molecular mechanisms that regulate neurogenesis is still limited. Results: In this study, we generated a Sox11 floxed allele and a Sox11 null allele in mice using the Cre-loxP technology. We first analyzed the role of the transcription factor Sox11 in embryonic neurogenesis using Sox11 null embryos. We also examined the role of Sox11 in adult hippocampal neurogenesis using Sox11 conditional knockout mice in which Sox11 is specifically deleted in adult NPCs. Sox11 null embryos developed small and disorganized brains, accompanied by transient proliferation deficits in NPCs. Deletion of Sox11 in adult NPCs blunted proliferation in the SGZ. Using functional genomics, we identified potential downstream target genes of Sox11. Conclusions: Taken together, our work provides evidence that Sox11 is required for both embryonic and adult neurogenesis, and identifies potential downstream target genes. Developmental Dynamics, 2013. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals,Inc.
    Developmental Dynamics 03/2013; · 2.67 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The phosphoinositide signaling system is a crucial regulator of neural development, cell survival, and plasticity. Phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN) negatively regulates phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase signaling and downstream targets. Nse-Cre Pten conditional knockout mice, in which Pten is ablated in granule cells of the dentate gyrus and pyramidal neurons of the hippocampal CA3, but not CA1, recapitulate many of the symptoms of humans with inactivating PTEN mutations, including progressive hypertrophy of the dentate gyrus and deficits in hippocampus-based social and cognitive behaviors. However, the impact of Pten loss on activity-dependent synaptic plasticity in this clinically relevant mouse model of Pten inactivation remains unclear. Here, we show that two phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase- and protein synthesis-dependent forms of synaptic plasticity, theta burst-induced long-term potentiation and metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR)-dependent long-term depression, are dysregulated at medial perforant path-to-dentate gyrus synapses of young Nse-Cre Pten conditional knockout mice before the onset of visible morphological abnormalities. In contrast, long-term potentiation and mGluR-dependent long-term depression are normal at CA3-CA1 pyramidal cell synapses at this age. Our results reveal that deletion of Pten in dentate granule cells dysregulates synaptic plasticity, a defect that may underlie abnormal social and cognitive behaviors observed in humans with Pten inactivating mutations and potentially other autism spectrum disorders.
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 03/2013; · 9.81 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNSTs) are soft tissue sarcomas that arise in connective tissue surrounding peripheral nerves. They occur sporadically in a subset of patients with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1). MPNSTs are highly aggressive, therapeutically resistant, and typically fatal. Using comparative transcriptome analysis, we identified CXCR4, a G-protein-coupled receptor, as highly expressed in mouse models of NF1-deficient MPNSTs, but not in nontransformed precursor cells. The chemokine receptor CXCR4 and its ligand, CXCL12, promote MPNST growth by stimulating cyclin D1 expression and cell-cycle progression through PI3-kinase (PI3K) and β-catenin signaling. Suppression of CXCR4 activity either by shRNA or pharmacological inhibition decreases MPNST cell growth in culture and inhibits tumorigenesis in allografts and in spontaneous genetic mouse models of MPNST. We further demonstrate conservation of these activated molecular pathways in human MPNSTs. Our findings indicate a role for CXCR4 in NF1-associated MPNST development and identify a therapeutic target.
    Cell 02/2013; 152(5):1077-90. · 31.96 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Plexiform neurofibromas are slow-growing chemoradiotherapy-resistant tumours arising in patients with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1). Currently, there are no viable therapeutic options for patients with plexiform neurofibromas that cannot be surgically removed because of their proximity to vital body structures. We undertook an open-label phase 2 trial to test whether treatment with imatinib mesylate can decrease the volume burden of clinically significant plexiform neurofibromas in patients with NF1. METHODS: Eligible patients had to be aged 3-65 years, and to have NF1 and a clinically significant plexiform neurofibroma. Patients were treated with daily oral imatinib mesylate at 220 mg/m(2) twice a day for children and 400 mg twice a day for adults for 6 months. The primary endpoint was a 20% or more reduction in plexiform size by sequential volumetric MRI imaging. Clinical data were analysed on an intention-to-treat basis; a secondary analysis was also done for those patients able to take imatinib mesylate for 6 months. This trial is registered with, number NCT01673009. FINDINGS: Six of 36 patients (17%, 95% CI 6-33), enrolled on an intention-to-treat basis, had an objective response to imatinib mesylate, with a 20% or more decrease in tumour volume. Of the 23 patients who received imatinib mesylate for at least 6 months, six (26%, 95% CI 10-48) had a 20% or more decrease in volume of one or more plexiform tumours. The most common adverse events were skin rash (five patients) and oedema with weight gain (six). More serious adverse events included reversible grade 3 neutropenia (two), grade 4 hyperglycaemia (one), and grade 4 increases in aminotransferase concentrations (one). INTERPRETATION: Imatinib mesylate could be used to treat plexiform neurofibromas in patients with NF1. A multi-institutional clinical trial is warranted to confirm these results. FUNDING: Novartis Pharmaceuticals, the Indiana University Simon Cancer Centre, and the Indiana University Herman B Wells Center for Pediatric Research.
    The Lancet Oncology 10/2012; · 25.12 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is the most common monogenic disorder in which individuals manifest CNS abnormalities. Affected individuals develop glial neoplasms (optic gliomas, malignant astrocytomas) and neuronal dysfunction (learning disabilities, attention deficits). Nf1 genetically engineered mouse models have revealed the molecular and cellular underpinnings of gliomagenesis, attention deficit, and learning problems with relevance to basic neurobiology. Using NF1 as a model system, these studies have revealed critical roles for the NF1 gene in non-neoplastic cells in the tumor microenvironment, the importance of brain region heterogeneity, novel mechanisms of glial growth regulation, the neurochemical bases for attention deficit and learning abnormalities, and new insights into neural stem cell function. Here we review recent studies, presented at a symposium at the 2012 Society for Neuroscience annual meeting, that highlight unexpected cell biology insights into RAS and cAMP pathway effects on neural progenitor signaling, neuronal function, and oligodendrocyte lineage differentiation.
    Journal of Neuroscience 10/2012; 32(41):14087-93. · 6.75 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Neurotrophic factors, such as brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), are associated with the physiology of the striatum and the loss of its normal functioning under pathological conditions. The role of BDNF and its downstream signaling in regulating the development of the striatum has not been fully investigated, however. Here we report that ablation of Bdnf in both the cortex and substantia nigra depletes BDNF in the striatum, and leads to impaired striatal development, severe motor deficits, and postnatal lethality. Furthermore, striatal-specific ablation of TrkB, the gene encoding the high-affinity receptor for BDNF, is sufficient to elicit an array of striatal developmental abnormalities, including de-creased anatomical volume, smaller neuronal nucleus size, loss of dendritic spines, reduced enkephalin expression, diminished nigral dopaminergic projections, and severe deficits in striatal dopamine signaling through DARPP32. In addition, TrkB ablation in striatal neurons elicits a non–cell-autonomous reduction of tyrosine hy-droxylase protein level in the axonal projections of substantia nig-ral dopaminergic neurons. Thus, our results establish an essential function for TrkB in regulating the development of striatal neurons. Huntington disease | neurotrophin T he striatum is a subcortical part of the telencephalon and a major input component of the basal ganglia system. The striatum plays a crucial role in regulating voluntary movements, as well as reward-associated learning and memory. It can be separated into dorsal and ventral parts based on known ana-tomical and functional distinctions, with the dorsal portion as-sociated with movement regulation and the ventral striatum involved predominantly in mediating neurological functions pertaining to motivation, reward, and emotion. Progressive de-generation of the striatal medium spiny neurons (MSNs) and their main dopaminergic inputs from the substantia nigra are the cardinal symptoms of the neurological disorders Huntington disease (HD) and Parkinson disease, respectively. Like other telencephalic regions, the striatum contains in-hibitory neurons generated from the medial ganglionic eminence. The majority of inhibitory GABAergic neurons are MSNs that project outside of the striatum to neighboring structures, such as the globus pallidus and the substantia nigra. The mechanism reg-ulating development of the striatum involves combinatorial codes of transcription factors and parallels the development of other neural structures; however, the molecular mechanisms underlying the maturation and maintenance of the striatum remain largely unknown. Recent studies have shown that brain-derived neuro-trophic factor (BDNF) exerts prosurvival effects on striatal neu-rons in vitro (1, 2) and delays the onset of degeneration in a transgenic mouse model of HD (3). However, it has been shown that during development and in adulthood, Bdnf mRNA is largely absent from striatal neurons and glia. Instead, BDNF is produced in the cortex and substantia nigra and is transported anterogradely to striatal neurons (4). Indeed, cortical ablation of Bdnf leads to cellular deficits in the striatum (5) and global gene expression impairment (6). These findings suggest an important role for BDNF in the striatum; however, given BDNF's complex down-stream signaling capacities, the nature of its intracellular signaling cascades pertaining to development, maturation, and function of the striatum remains to be delineated. In this study, we conditionally ablated BDNF or its receptor TrkB in corticostriatal and nigrostriatal neuronal circuits. We found that Bdnf deletion in both cortex and substantia nigra led to complete depletion of BDNF protein in the striatum. Mutant mice displayed dramatic developmental abnormalities and neurological impairments. Furthermore, specific deletion of TrkB from striatal neurons was sufficient to produce this wide range of developmental deficits. Thus, our results demonstrate that BDNF and TrkB play critical paracrine and cell-autonomous roles, respectively, in the development and maintenance of striatal neurons.
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 09/2012; 109(38):15491-15496. · 9.81 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Neurotrophic factors, such as brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), are associated with the physiology of the striatum and the loss of its normal functioning under pathological conditions. The role of BDNF and its downstream signaling in regulating the development of the striatum has not been fully investigated, however. Here we report that ablation of Bdnf in both the cortex and substantia nigra depletes BDNF in the striatum, and leads to impaired striatal development, severe motor deficits, and postnatal lethality. Furthermore, striatal-specific ablation of TrkB, the gene encoding the high-affinity receptor for BDNF, is sufficient to elicit an array of striatal developmental abnormalities, including decreased anatomical volume, smaller neuronal nucleus size, loss of dendritic spines, reduced enkephalin expression, diminished nigral dopaminergic projections, and severe deficits in striatal dopamine signaling through DARPP32. In addition, TrkB ablation in striatal neurons elicits a non-cell-autonomous reduction of tyrosine hydroxylase protein level in the axonal projections of substantia nigral dopaminergic neurons. Thus, our results establish an essential function for TrkB in regulating the development of striatal neurons.
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 09/2012; 109(38):15491-6. · 9.81 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), the most common and aggressive primary brain malignancy, is incurable despite the best combination of current cancer therapies. For the development of more effective therapies, discovery of novel candidate tumor drivers is urgently needed. Here, we report that peroxiredoxin 4 (PRDX4) is a putative tumor driver. PRDX4 levels were highly increased in a majority of human GBMs as well as in a mouse model of GBM. Reducing PRDX4 expression significantly decreased GBM cell growth and radiation resistance in vitro with increased levels of ROS, DNA damage, and apoptosis. In a syngenic orthotopic transplantation model, Prdx4 knockdown limited GBM infiltration and significantly prolonged mouse survival. These data suggest that PRDX4 can be a novel target for GBM therapies in the future.
    PLoS ONE 08/2012; 7(8):e42818. · 3.53 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

19k Citations
2,068.85 Total Impact Points


  • 1995–2014
    • University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center
      • Department of Developmental Biology
      Dallas, Texas, United States
    • Boston Children's Hospital
      • Department of Pathology
      Boston, MA, United States
  • 2005–2013
    • University of Maryland, Baltimore
      • Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology
      Baltimore, Maryland, United States
  • 1997–2012
    • University of Texas at Dallas
      Richardson, Texas, United States
  • 2006–2008
    • Indiana University-Purdue University Indianapolis
      • • Department of Pediatrics
      • • Herman B Wells Center for Pediatric Research
      Indianapolis, IN, United States
  • 2002–2008
    • Washington University in St. Louis
      • Department of Neurology
      San Luis, Missouri, United States
  • 2007
    • Arizona State University
      • School of Life Sciences
      Mesa, AZ, United States
  • 2005–2006
    • Tokyo Metropolitan Institute
      Edo, Tōkyō, Japan
  • 2003
    • University of Miami Miller School of Medicine
      Miami, Florida, United States
  • 2000
    • Riley Hospital for Children
      Indianapolis, Indiana, United States
  • 1990–1998
    • Leidos Biomedical Research
      Maryland, United States
  • 1996
    • National Institutes of Health
      • Section on Molecular Endocrinology
      Bethesda, MD, United States
  • 1994
    • Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine
      • Department of Pediatrics
      Kyoto, Kyoto-fu, Japan
  • 1993
    • Max Planck Institute of Psychiatry
      München, Bavaria, Germany
  • 1992
    • Kennedy Krieger Institute
      Baltimore, Maryland, United States