Lorenzo A Pinna

University of Padova, Padua, Veneto, Italy

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Publications (167)696.7 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the fourth leading cause of cancer related death worldwide due to high apoptotic resistance and metastatic potential. Since mutations as well as deregulation of CK1 isoforms contribute to tumor development and tumor progression, CK1 has become an interesting drug target. In this study we show that CK1 isoforms are differently expressed in colon tumor cell lines and that growth of these cell lines can be inhibited by CK1-specific inhibitors. Furthermore, expression of CK1δ and ε is changed in colorectal tumors compared to normal bowel epithelium, and high CK1ε expression levels significantly correlate with prolonged patients’ survival. In addition to changes in CK1δ and ε expression, mutations within exon 3 of CK1δ were detected in colorectal tumors. These mutations influence ATP binding resulting in changes in kinetic parameters of CK1δ. Overexpression of these mutants in HT29 cells alters their ability to grow anchorage independently. Consistent with these results, these CK1δ mutants lead to differences in proliferation rate and tumor size in xenografts due to changes in gene expression, especially in genes involved in regulation of cell proliferation, cell cycle, and apoptosis. In summary, our results provide evidence that changes in the expression levels of CK1 isoforms in colorectal tumors correlate with patients’ survival. Furthermore, CK1 mutants affect growth and proliferation of tumor cells and induce tumor growth in xenografts, leading to the assumption that CK1 isoforms provide interesting targets for the development of novel effective therapeutic concepts to treat colorectal cancer. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    International Journal of Cancer 11/2014; · 6.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Polo-like kinase 2 (PLK2) has been recently recognized as the major enzyme responsible for phosphorylation of α-synuclein at S129 in vitro and in vivo, suggesting that this kinase may play a key role in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease and other synucleinopathies. Moreover PLK2 seems to be implicated in cell division, oncogenesis, and synaptic regulation of the brain. However little is known about the phosphoproteome generated by PLK2 and, consequently the overall impact of PLK2 on cellular signaling. To fill this gap we exploited an approach based on in vitro kinase assay and quantitative phosphoproteomics. A proteome-derived peptide library obtained by digestion of undifferentiated human neuroblastoma cell line was exhaustively dephosphorylated by lambda phosphatase followed by incubation with or without PLK2 recombinant kinase. Stable isotope labeling based quantitative phosphoproteomics was applied to identify the phosphosites generated by PLK2. A total of 98 unique PLK2-dependent phosphosites from 89 proteins were identified by LC-MS/MS. Analysis of the primary structure of the identified phosphosites allowed the detailed definition of the kinase specificity and the compilation of a list of potential PLK2 targets among those retrieved in PhosphositePlus, a curated database of in cell/vivo phosphorylation sites.
    PLoS ONE 10/2014; · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Restoration of BECN1/Beclin 1-dependent autophagy and depletion of SQSTM1/p62 by genetic manipulation or autophagy-stimulatory proteostasis regulators, such as cystamine, have positive effects on mouse models of human cystic fibrosis (CF). These measures rescue the functional expression of the most frequent pathogenic CFTR mutant, F508del, at the respiratory epithelial surface and reduce lung inflammation in Cftr(F508del) homozygous mice. Cysteamine, the reduced form of cystamine, is an FDA-approved drug. Here, we report that oral treatment with cysteamine greatly reduces the mortality rate and improves the phenotype of newborn mice bearing the F508del-CFTR mutation. Cysteamine was also able to increase the plasma membrane expression of the F508del-CFTR protein in nasal epithelial cells from F508del homozygous CF patients, and these effects persisted for 24 h after cysteamine withdrawal. Importantly, this cysteamine effect after washout was further sustained by the sequential administration of epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), a green tea flavonoid, both in vivo, in mice, and in vitro, in primary epithelial cells from CF patients. In a pilot clinical trial involving 10 F508del-CFTR homozygous CF patients, the combination of cysteamine and EGCG restored BECN1, reduced SQSTM1 levels and improved CFTR function from nasal epithelial cells in vivo, correlating with a decrease of chloride concentrations in sweat, as well as with a reduction of the abundance of TNF/TNF-alpha (tumor necrosis factor) and CXCL8 (chemokine [C-X-C motif] ligand 8) transcripts in nasal brushing and TNF and CXCL8 protein levels in the sputum. Altogether, these results suggest that optimal schedules of cysteamine plus EGCG might be used for the treatment of CF caused by the F508del-CFTR mutation.
    Autophagy 10/2014; · 12.04 Impact Factor
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    Andrea Venerando, Maria Ruzzene, Lorenzo A Pinna
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    ABSTRACT: The term 'casein kinase' has been widely used for decades to denote protein kinases sharing the ability to readily phosphorylate casein in vitro. These fall into three main classes: two of them, later renamed as protein kinases CK1 (casein kinase 1, also known as CKI) and CK2 (also known as CKII), are pleiotropic members of the kinome functionally unrelated to casein, whereas G-CK, or genuine casein kinase, responsible for the phosphorylation of casein in the Golgi apparatus of the lactating mammary gland, has only been identified recently with Fam20C [family with sequence similarity 20C; also known as DMP-4 (dentin matrix protein-4)], a member of the four-jointed family of atypical protein kinases, being responsible for the phosphorylation of many secreted proteins. In hindsight, therefore, the term 'casein kinase' is misleading in every instance; in the case of CK1 and CK2, it is because casein is not a physiological substrate, and in the case of G-CK/Fam20C/DMP-4, it is because casein is just one out of a plethora of its targets, and a rather marginal one at that. Strikingly, casein kinases altogether, albeit representing a minimal proportion of the whole kinome, appear to be responsible for the generation of up to 40-50% of non-redundant phosphosites currently retrieved in human phosphopeptides database. In the present review, a short historical explanation will be provided accounting for the usage of the same misnomer to denote three unrelated classes of protein kinases, together with an update of our current knowledge of these pleiotropic enzymes, sharing the same misnomer while playing very distinct biological roles.
    Biochemical Journal 06/2014; 460(2):141-56. · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Akt (also known as PKB) is a survival kinase frequently up-regulated in cancer; three isoforms of Akt exist, and among them Akt1 and Akt2 are the most widely and highly expressed. They share the same structure and activation mechanism and have many overlapping functions; nevertheless isoform-specific roles and substrates have been reported, which are expected to rely on sequence diversities. In particular, a special role in differentiating Akt1 and Akt2 isoforms has been assigned to the linker region, a short segment between the PH and the catalytic domains. We have previously found that a residue in the linker region (Ser129) is directly phosphorylated by protein kinase CK2 in Akt1; the phosphorylation of the homologous residue in Akt2 (Ser131) has never been analyzed. Here we show that Akt2, endogenously or ectopically expressed in different cell lines, is not phosphorylated on Ser131 by CK2, while in vitro recombinant Akt2 is a CK2 substrate. These data support the hypothesis that in vivo a steric hindrance occurs which prevents the access to the CK2 site. Additionally, we have found that Ser129 phosphorylation is involved in the recognition of the Akt1-specific substrate palladin; this observation provides an explanation of why Akt2, lacking Ser131 phosphorylation in the linker region, has a low efficiency in targeting palladin. CK2-dependent phosphorylation is therefore a crucial event which, discriminating between Akt1 and Akt2, can account for different substrate specificity, and, more in general, for fine tuning of Akt activity in the control of isoform-dependent processes.
    Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 04/2014; · 4.66 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Protein kinase CK2 is a pleiotropic serine/threonine kinase responsible for the generation of a substantial proportion of the human phosphoproteome. CK2 is generally found as a tetramer with two catalytic, α and α´ and two non catalytic β subunits. CK2α C-terminal tail phosphorylation is regulated during the mitotic events and the absence of these phosphosites in α´ suggests an isoform specialization. We used a proteomic approach to identify proteins specifically phosphorylated by a CK2α phosphomimetic mutant, CK2αT344ET360ES362ES370E (CK2α4E), in human neuroblastoma SKNBE cellular extract. One of these proteins is Lysine-Specific Demethylase 1 (LSD1 or KDM1A), an important player of the epigenetic machinery. LSD1 is a FAD-dependent amine oxidase and promotes demethylation of lysine 4 and lysine 9 of mono- and di-methylated histone H3. We found that LSD1 is a new substrate and an interacting partner of protein kinase CK2. Three CK2 phosphosites, (Ser131, Ser137 and Ser166) in the N-terminal region of LSD1 have been identified. This domain is found in all chordates but not in more ancient organisms and it is not essential for LSD1 catalytic event while it could modulate the interaction with CK2 and with other partners in gene repressing and activating complexes. Our data support the view that the phosphorylation of the N-terminal domain by CK2 may represent a mechanism for regulating histone methylation, disclosing a new role for protein kinase CK2 in epigenetics.
    Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 01/2014; · 4.66 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: It has been proposed that dual inhibitors of protein kinases CK2 and PIM-1 are tools particularly valuable to induce apoptosis of cancer cells, a property, however, simplying cell permeability, which is lacking in the case of selective CK2/PIM-1 inhibitors developed so far. To fill this gap, we have derivatized the scaffold of the promiscuous CK2 inhibitor TBI with a deoxyribose moiety, generating TDB, a selective, cell-permeable inhibitor of CK2 and PIM-1. Here, we shed light on the structural features underlying the potency and narrow selectivity of TDB by exploiting a number of TDB analogs and by solving the 3D structure of the TDB/CK2 complex at 1.25 Å resolution, one of the highest reported so far for this kinase. We also show that the cytotoxic efficacy of TDB is almost entirely due to apoptosis, is accompanied by parallel inhibition of cellular CK2 and PIM-1, and is superior to both those observed combining individual inhibitors of CK2 and PIM-1 and by treating cells with the CK2 inhibitor CX4945. These data in conjunction with the observations that cancer cells are more susceptible than non-cancer cells to TDB and that such a sensitivity is maintained in a multi-drug resistance background, highlight the pharmacological potential of this compound.
    Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences CMLS 01/2014; · 5.62 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The multivesicular body (MVB) sorting pathway is a mechanism for delivering transmembrane proteins into the lumen of the lysosome for degradation. ESCRT-III is the final complex in the pathway that assembles on endosomes and executes membrane scission of intraluminal vesicles. In addition, proteins of this complex are involved in other topologically similar processes such as cytokinesis, virus egress and autophagy. Here we show that protein kinase CK2α is involved in the phosphorylation of the ESCRT-III subunits CHMP3 and CHMP2B, as well as of VPS4B/SKD1, an ATPase that mediates ESCRT-III disassembly. This phosphorylation is observed both in vitro and in cells. While we do not observe recruitment of CK2α to endosomes, we demonstrate the localization of CK2α to midbodies during cytokinesis. Phosphomimetic and non-phosphorylatable mutants of ESCRT-III proteins can still bind endosomes and localize to midbodies, indicating that CK2α does not regulate ESCRT-III localization. Finally, we analyzed two cellular functions where CHMP3, CHMP2B and VPS4 are known to be involved, epidermal growth factor degradation and cytokinetic abscission. We demonstrate that the former is impaired by CK2α downregulation whereas the latter is not affected. Taken together, our results indicate that CK2α regulates the function of ESCRT-III proteins in MVB sorting.
    Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics 01/2014; · 3.37 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Homeodomain-interacting protein kinase 2 (HIPK2) is a Ser/Thr kinase controlling cell proliferation and survival, whose investigation has been hampered by the lack of specific inhibitors able to dissect its cellular functions. SB203580, a p38 MAP kinase inhibitor, has been used as a tool to inhibit HIPK2 in cells, but here we show that its efficacy as HIPK2 inhibitor is negligible (IC50>40 µM). In contrast by altering the scaffold of the promiscuous CK2 inhibitor TBI a new class of HIPK2 inhibitors has been generated. One of these, TBID, displays toward HIPK2 unprecedented efficacy (IC50 = 0.33 µM) and selectivity (Gini coefficient 0.592 out of a panel of 76 kinases). The two other members of the HIPK family, HIPK1 and HIPK3, are also inhibited by TBID albeit less efficiently than HIPK2. The mode of action of TBID is competitive with respect to ATP, consistent with modelling. We also provide evidence that TBID is cell permeable by showing that HIPK2 activity is reduced in cells treated with TBID, although with an IC50 two orders of magnitude higher (about 50 µM) than in vitro.
    PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(2):e89176. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Protein kinase CK2 is a pleiotropic serine/threonine kinase responsible for the generation of a substantial proportion of the human phosphoproteome. CK2 is generally found as a tetramer with two catalytic, α and α´ and two non catalytic β subunits. CK2α C-terminal tail phosphorylation is regulated during the mitotic events and the absence of these phosphosites in α´ suggests an isoform specialization. We used a proteomic approach to identify proteins specifically phosphorylated by a CK2α phosphomimetic mutant, CK2αT344ET360ES362ES370E (CK2α4E), in human neuroblastoma SKNBE cellular extract. One of these proteins is Lysine-Specific Demethylase 1 (LSD1 or KDM1A), an important player of the epigenetic machinery. LSD1 is a FAD-dependent amine oxidase and promotes demethylation of lysine 4 and lysine 9 of mono- and di-methylated histone H3. We found that LSD1 is a new substrate and an interacting partner of protein kinase CK2. Three CK2 phosphosites, (Ser131, Ser137 and Ser166) in the N-terminal region of LSD1 have been identified. This domain is found in all chordates but not in more ancient organisms and it is not essential for LSD1 catalytic event while it could modulate the interaction with CK2 and with other partners in gene repressing and activating complexes. Our data support the view that the phosphorylation of the N-terminal domain by CK2 may represent a mechanism for regulating histone methylation, disclosing a new role for protein kinase CK2 in epigenetics.
    Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Proteins & Proteomics 01/2014; · 3.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) harbors, close to Phe-508, whose deletion is the commonest cause of cystic fibrosis, a conserved potential CK2 phospho-acceptor site (Ser511), which however is not susceptible to phosphorylation by CK2. To shed light on this apparent paradox, a series of systematically substituted peptides encompassing Ser511 were assayed for their ability to be phosphorylated. The main outcomes of our study are the following: (a) Tyr512 plays a prominent role as a negative determinant as its replacement by Ala restores Ser511 phosphorylation by CK2; (b) an even more pronounced phosphorylation of Ser511 is promoted if Tyr512 is replaced by phospho-tyrosine instead of alanine; (c) Tyr512 and, to a lesser extent, Tyr515 are readily phosphorylated by Lyn, a protein tyrosine kinase of the Src family, in a manner which is enhanced by the concomitant Phe508 deletion. Collectively taken, our data, in conjunction with the notion that Tyr515 is phosphorylated in vivo, disclose the possibility that CFTR Ser511 can be phosphorylated by the combined action of tyrosine kinases and CK2 and disclose a new mechanism of hierarchical phosphorylation where the role of the priming kinase is that of removing negative determinant(s).
    Amino Acids 11/2013; · 3.91 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background The involvement of protein kinase CK2 in sustaining cancer cell survival could have implications also in the resistance to conventional and unconventional therapies. Moreover, CK2 role in blood tumors is rapidly emerging and this kinase has been recognized as a potential therapeutic target. Phase I clinical trials with the oral small ATP-competitive CK2 inhibitor CX-4945 are currently ongoing in solid tumors and multiple myeloma. Methods We have analyzed the expression of CK2 in acute myeloid leukemia and its function in cell growth and in the response to the chemotherapeutic agent daunorubicin We employed acute myeloid leukemia cell lines and primary blasts from patients grouped according to the European LeukemiaNet risk classification. Cell survival, apoptosis and sensitivity to daunorubicin were assessed by different means. p53-dependent CK2-inhibition-induced apoptosis was investigated in p53 wild-type and mutant cells. Results CK2α was found highly expressed in the majority of samples across the different acute myeloid leukemia prognostic subgroups as compared to normal CD34+ hematopoietic and bone marrow cells. Inhibition of CK2 with CX-4945, K27 or siRNAs caused a p53-dependent acute myeloid leukemia cell apoptosis. CK2 inhibition was associated with a synergistic increase of the cytotoxic effects of daunorubicin. Baseline and daunorubicin-induced STAT3 activation was hampered upon CK2 blockade. Conclusions These results suggest that CK2 is over expressed across the different acute myeloid leukemia subsets and acts as an important regulator of acute myeloid leukemia cell survival. CK2 negative regulation of the protein levels of tumor suppressor p53 and activation of the STAT3 anti-apoptotic pathway might antagonize apoptosis and could be involved in acute myeloid leukemia cell resistance to daunorubicin.
    Journal of Hematology & Oncology 10/2013; 6(1). · 4.46 Impact Factor
  • Trends in Biochemical Sciences 09/2013; 38(9):425. · 13.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML) is driven by the fusion protein Bcr-Abl, a constitutively active tyrosine kinase playing a crucial role in initiation and maintenance of CML phenotype. Despite the great efficacy of the Bcr-Abl-specific inhibitor imatinib, resistance to this drug is recognized as a major problem in CML treatment. We found that in LAMA84 cells, characterized by imatinib-resistance caused by BCR-ABL1 gene amplification, the pro-survival protein kinase CK2 is up-regulated as compared to the sensitive cells. CK2 exhibits a higher protein-level and a parallel enhancement of catalytic activity. Consistently, CK2-catalysed phosphorylation of Akt-Ser129 is increased. CK2 co-localizes with Bcr-Abl in the cytoplasmic fraction as judged by subcellular fractionation and fluorescence immunolocalization. CK2 and Bcr-Abl are members of the same multi-protein complex(es) in imatinib-resistant cells as demonstrated by co-immunoprecipitation and co-sedimentation in glycerol gradients. Cell treatment with CX-4945, a CK2 inhibitor currently in clinical trials, counteracts CK2/Bcr-Abl interaction and causes cell death by apoptosis. Interestingly, combination of CX-4945 with imatinib displays a synergistic effect in reducing cell viability. Consistently, knockdown of CK2α expression by siRNA restores the sensitivity of resistant LAMA84 cells to low imatinib concentrations. Remarkably, the CK2/Bcr-Abl interaction and the sensitization towards imatinib obtained by CK2-inhibition in LAMA84 is observable also in other imatinib-resistant CML cell lines. These results demonstrate that CK2 contributes to strengthen the imatinib-resistance phenotype of CML cells conferring survival advantage against imatinib. We suggest that CK2 inhibition might be a promising tool for combined strategies in CML therapy.
    Molecular oncology 08/2013; · 6.70 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: It has been reported that Pyrvinium Pamoate (PyrPam), an FDA approved anthelminthic drug is a potent inhibitor of Wnt signaling by a mechanism which implies the direct activation of protein kinase CK1α. Here we present data ruling out any direct stimulatory effect of PyrPam on CK1, by showing that neither the catalytic activity of CK1α nor those of its isoforms δ and γ1 are significantly affected by PyrPam when tested with the aid of specific peptide and protein substrates. Accordingly, cell treatment with PyrPam has no significant effect on the phosphorylation of β-catenin Ser-45. By contrast the phosphorylation of β-catenin Thr-41 is increased upon cell treatment with PyrPam, through a mechanism that implies the upstream dephosphorylation of Akt/PKB and of GSK3. It can be concluded from our work that PyrPam is not a bona fide activator of CK1, its perturbation of cell signaling pathways being mediated by a complex mechanism initiated by a drop in Akt/PKB phosphorylation whose down-regulation promotes reduced phosphorylation and activation of GSK3. Consistent with this, lysates of cells treated with PyrPam display enhanced protein phosphorylation which is unaffected by CK1 inhibition while disappearing upon inhibition of GSK3. Our data are consistent with the observation that PyrPam ultimately inhibits Wnt signaling despite its lack of efficacy on CK1.
    Biochemical Journal 02/2013; · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Advantage has been taken of the relative promiscuity of commonly used inhibitors of protein kinase CK2 to develop compounds that can be exploited for the selective inhibition of druggable kinases other than CK2 itself. Here we summarize data obtained by altering the scaffold of CK2 inhibitors to give rise to novel selective inhibitors of DYRK1A and to a powerful cell permeable dual inhibitor of PIM1 and CK2. In the former case one of the new compounds, C624 (naphto [1,2-b]benzofuran-5,9-diol) displays a potency comparable to that of the first-in-class DYRK1A inhibitor, harmine, lacking however the drawback of drastically inhibiting monoamine oxidase-A (MAO-A) as harmine does. On the other hand the promiscuous CK2 inhibitor 4,5,6,7-tetrabromo-1H-benzimidazole (TBI,TBBz) has been derivatized with a sugar moiety to generate a 1-(-D-2'-deoxyribofuranosyl)-4,5,6,7-tetrabromo-1H-benzimidazole (TDB) compound which inhibits PIM1 and CK2 with comparably high efficacy (IC(50) values < 100 nM) and remarkable selectivity. TDB, unlike other dual PIM1/CK2 inhibitors described in the literature is readily cell permeable and displays a cytotoxic effect on cancer cells consistent with concomitant inhibition of both its onco-kinase targets.
    Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 01/2013; · 4.66 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: CK1δ, a member of the casein kinase 1 family, is involved in the regulation of various cellular processes and has been associated with the pathophysiology of neurodegenerative diseases and cancer. Therefore recently, interest in generating highly specific inhibitors for personalized therapy has increased enormously. However, the efficacy of newly developed inhibitors is affected by the phosphorylation state of CK1δ. Cellular kinases phosphorylating CK1δ within its C-terminal domain have been identified but still more information regarding the role of site-specific phosphorylation in modulating the activity of CK1δ is required. Here we show that Chk1 phosphorylates rat CK1δ at serine residues 328, 331, 370, and threonine residue 397 as well as the human CK1δ transcription variants 1 and 2. CK1δ mutant proteins bearing one, two or three mutations at these identified phosphorylation sites exhibited significant differences in their kinetic properties compared to wild-type CK1δ. Additionally, CK1δ co-precipitates with Chk1 from HT1080 cell extracts and activation of cellular Chk1 resulted in a significant decrease in cellular CK1δ kinase activity. Taken together, these data point towards a possible regulatory relationship between Chk1 and CK1δ.
    PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(7):e68803. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: By mass spectrometry analysis of mouse Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane-conductance Regulator (mCFTR) expressed in yeast we have detected 21 phosphopeptides accounting for 22 potential phospho-residues, 12 of which could be unambiguously assigned. Most are conserved in human CFTR (hCFTR) and the majority cluster in the Regulatory Domain, lying within consensus sequences for PKA, as identified in previous mammalian studies. This validates our yeast expression model. A number of phospho-residues were novel and human conserved, notably mouse Ser670, Ser723, Ser737, and Thr1467, that all lie in acidic sequences, compatible with their phosphorylation by protein kinase CK2. Thr1467 is localized in the C-terminal tail, embedded in a functionally important and very acidic sequence (EETEEE) which displays an optimal consensus for protein kinase CK2. Herein, we show that Thr1467, homologous to human Thr1471 is readily phosphorylated by CK2. Indeed a 42 amino acid peptide encompassing the C-terminal segment of human CFTR is readily phosphorylated at Thr1471 with favorable kinetics (Km 1.7 µM) by CK2 holoenzyme, but neither by its isolated catalytic subunit nor by other acidophilic Ser/Thr kinases (CK1, PLK2/3, GCK/FAM20C). Our finding that by treating CFTR expressing BHK cells with the very specific CK2 inhibitor CX4945, newly synthesized wild type CFTR (and even more its Phe508del mutant) accumulates more abundantly than in the absence of CK2 inhibitor, supports the conclusion that phosphorylation of CFTR by CK2 correlates with decreased stability of the protein.
    PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(9):e74232. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Protein kinases constitute one of the largest gene families and control many aspects of cellular life. In retrospect, the first indication for their existence was reported 130 years ago when the secreted protein, casein, was shown to contain phosphate. Despite its identification as the first phosphoprotein, the responsible kinase has remained obscure. This conundrum was solved with the discovery of a novel family of atypical protein kinases that are secreted and appear to phosphorylate numerous extracellular proteins, including casein. Fam20C, the archetypical member, phosphorylates secreted proteins within Ser-x-Glu/pSer motifs. This discovery has solved a 130-year-old mystery and has shed light on several human disorders of biomineralization.
    Trends in Biochemical Sciences 12/2012; · 13.08 Impact Factor
  • Giorgio Cozza, Lorenzo A Pinna, S Moro
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    ABSTRACT: Protein kinase CK2 (Casein kinase 2) is an essential, ubiquitous and highly pleiotropic protein kinase, implicated in several human diseases. In the last decade, several inhibitors of CK2, have been discovered and characterized to be ATP-competitive compounds. However, only one of them, CX-4945, has recently completed Phase I clinical trial as potential anticancer drug. In this review, we report all chemical classes of CK2 inhibitors available in literature, focusing our attention on conventional ATP-competitive and on non ATP-competitive inhibitors, which could represent a new frontier in CK2 inhibition and, consequently, a promising field of study in discovering new drug candidates.
    Current Medicinal Chemistry 12/2012; · 3.72 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

4k Citations
696.70 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1980–2014
    • University of Padova
      • • Department of Biomedical Sciences - DSB
      • • Interdepartmental Research Centre for Innovative Biotechnologies CRIBI
      Padua, Veneto, Italy
  • 2013
    • University-Hospital of Padova
      Padua, Veneto, Italy
  • 2003–2012
    • Venetian Institute of Molecular Medicine
      Padua, Veneto, Italy
  • 2011
    • Diamond Light Source
      XPW, England, United Kingdom
  • 2007
    • The Neurosciences Institute
      La Jolla, California, United States
  • 2002–2006
    • National Research Council
      • Institute of Biomolecular Chemistry ICB
      Roma, Latium, Italy
    • Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic
      • Ústav molekulární genetiky
      Praha, Hlavni mesto Praha, Czech Republic
  • 2005
    • University of Chile
      • Instituto de Ciencias Biomédicas (ICBM)
      Santiago, Region Metropolitana de Santiago, Chile
    • University of Zurich
      Zürich, Zurich, Switzerland
  • 2004
    • Baylor College of Medicine
      Houston, Texas, United States