M Cassidy

National Maternity Hospital, Dublin, Leinster, Ireland

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Publications (12)25.48 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: To examine the incidence of obstetric anal sphincter injury in women who had a successful vaginal birth after a previous caesarean delivery (VBAC). Retrospective analysis of prospectively gathered data. A tertiary referral university institution. All secundiparous women with a previous caesarean delivery who had a VBAC from 2001 to 2011. Details of maternal demographics, intrapartum characteristics and outcomes were examined in cases of VBAC with accompanying anal sphincter injury. Rates of obstetric anal sphincter injury and associated risk factors. During the study period there were 3071 trials of labour in secundiparous women with a previous caesarean delivery; 65% (1981/3071) of these had a successful VBAC. Women having a VBAC were at greater risk of anal sphincter injury than nulliparous women having a vaginal delivery over the same period (5% [98/1981] versus 3.5% [1216/34 496], P = 0.001, odds ratio 1.4, 95% CI 1.15-1.75). The rate of instrumental delivery in woman having a VBAC was 39% (771/1981). On multiple logistic regression analysis an increased rate of instrumental delivery was a strong predictor of sphincter injury (P = 0.03, odds ratio 1.15, 95% CI 1.01-1.3). When the first labours of women with sphincter injury in the VBAC group were examined, 70% (60/86) had been in labour before undergoing their caesarean delivery. The incidence of anal sphincter injury in women undergoing VBAC is 5% and birthweight is the strongest predictor of this. The rate of instrumental delivery in this group was also increased.
    BJOG An International Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology 03/2014; · 3.76 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: To compare early home biofeedback physiotherapy with pelvic floor exercises (PFEs) for the initial management of women sustaining a primary third-degree tear. DESIGN: Single centre, randomised trial. SETTING: National Maternity Hospital, Dublin, Ireland. POPULATION: A total of 120 women sustaining a primary third-degree tear. METHODS: Women were randomised in a one to three ratio: 30 to early postpartum home biofeedback physiotherapy and 90 to PFEs. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Differences in anorectal manometry results, Cleveland Clinic continence scores and Rockwood faecal incontinence quality of life scale scores after 3 months of postpartum treatment. RESULTS: The mean anal resting pressure was 39 ± 13 mmHg in the early biofeedback physiotherapy group and 43 ± 17 mmHg in the PFE group. The mean anal squeeze pressure was 64 ± 17 mmHg in the biofeedback group and 62 ± 23 mmHg in the PFE group. There was no significant difference in anal resting and squeeze pressure values between the groups (P = 0.123 and P = 0.68, respectively). There were no differences in symptom score and quality of life measurements between the groups. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates no added value in using early home biofeedback physiotherapy in the management of women sustaining third-degree tears. Poor compliance may have contributed because women found it difficult to designate time to using biofeedback.
    BJOG An International Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology 06/2013; · 3.76 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Faecal incontinence resulting from obstetric injury is a socially disabling condition with a significant impact on quality of life. Sacral nerve stimulation (SNS) is a relatively new treatment modality, which offers patients a potential for improved continence. We reviewed our initial experience of SNS in 14 patients (mean age 54 years, range 30-72) with faecal incontinence from January 2006 to June 2007. Background demographics, past medical and obstetric history, anal manometry, endoanal ultrasound and pudendal nerve studies were recorded on all patients. All patients who had permanent SNS implants inserted had pre and post operative questionnaires consisting of the Wexner Continence Score and the Rockwood and SF-36 Quality of Life Indices. Out of 14 patients, 13 had incontinence related to obstetric injuries while one was related to a cauda equina syndrome. All patients had a test procedure consisting of placement of temporary electrodes and a 2-week trial of external SNS. Ten patients noted a significant improvement in their continence and these 10 patients subsequently had a permanent SNS device implanted with an overall significant improvement in continence (P < 0.001) and quality of life (P < 0.01). There were no immediate postoperative complications and one late failure consisting of a lead fracture, which was replaced successfully. Four (29%) patients did not have a significant benefit from temporary SNS and two of these patients subsequently had a colostomy. SNS offers improvement in continence and quality of life in patients with faecal incontinence whose only other option might otherwise be a permanent colostomy.
    Irish Journal of Medical Science 07/2008; 177(2):117-9. · 0.51 Impact Factor
  • American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology - AMER J OBSTET GYNECOL. 01/2007; 197(6).
  • American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology - AMER J OBSTET GYNECOL. 01/2003; 189(6).
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    ABSTRACT: To review the characteristics of patients attending a dedicated perineal clinic in a maternity hospital. Case-note review of all new referrals over 2 years 1998 and 1999. A total of 399 women were referred with mean age of 34 years (range 18-77), parity of 1.7 (range 1-13) and duration of symptoms of 14 (range 1-156) months. A total of 213 (53%) women were assessed following a recognized third degree perineal tear, 78 (20%) because of fecal incontinence, 45 (11%) for determination of future mode of delivery following a previous perineal injury, 37 (9%) women for treatment of perineal pain and 26 (7%) for other miscellaneous complaints. A total of 83 (21%) required physiotherapy, 42 (11%) received dietetic manipulation, 29 (7%) were treated for perineal pain and 12 (3%) underwent vaginal surgery. A total of 24 (6%) women were referred for consideration of secondary anal sphincter repair and 11 (3%) for specialist gastroenterological investigation. The perineal clinic provides a valuable resource for investigation and treatment of postpartum perineal injury.
    European Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology and Reproductive Biology 02/2002; 100(2):199-203. · 1.84 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Delayed repair of obstetric-related anal sphincter injury remains problematic, and perineal wound breakdown is common. The aim of this study was to assess the outcome after overlap anal sphincter repair and to determine the advantages, if any, of a posterior fourchette incision (n = 18) compared with a conventional perineal incision (n = 32). Fifty females of mean parity 2.8 (standard deviation, 1.6) underwent repair in a five-year period. The mean follow-up was 23 months. Assessment was by anal vector manometry, endoanal ultrasound, and continence scoring. Functional outcomes were similar in the two groups. Repair increased squeeze-pressure increment and improved continence scores in both groups. Postoperative wound complications were fewer when a posterior fourchette incision was used compared with a perineal incision (11 vs. 44 percent, respectively; P < 0.05). Delayed anal sphincter repair improves continence. A posterior fourchette approach is associated with fewer postoperative wound complications without compromising the quality of repair and the functional outcome.
    Diseases of the Colon & Rectum 11/2001; 44(11):1624-9. · 3.34 Impact Factor
  • Rhona Mahony, Mary Cassidy
    American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology - AMER J OBSTET GYNECOL. 01/2001; 185(6).
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: To determine the influence of parity and method of primary anal sphincter repair on outcome following obstetrical third degree perineal tear. Prospective study of 154 women after primary repair following third degree tear conducted over 2 years. Postpartum evaluation included a continence questionnaire, anal manometry and endoanal ultrasound. Third degree tears occurred in 1.6% primiparae and 0.6% multiparae during the study period; in 42/112 (38%) primiparae and 10/42 (24%) multiparae, these tears occurred at instrumental deliveries. Mean birthweight (3.8+/-0. 43 kg) was similar in both groups, but prolonged latent second stage of labour (P=0.003), use of epidural analgesia (P<0.0001) and episiotomy extension (P1 quadrant) anal sphincter defect. Outcome of anal sphincter repair was not influenced by parity or mode of repair. Despite good symptomatic outcomes, ultrasound evidence of significant anal sphincter injury was found in one-third of patients.
    European Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology and Reproductive Biology 05/2000; 89(2):159-63. · 1.84 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This study was designed to compare prospectively the effects of augmented biofeedback with those of sensory biofeedback alone on fecal incontinence and anorectal manometry after obstetric trauma. A consecutive cohort of 40 females with impaired fecal continence after obstetric anal sphincter injury were recruited from a dedicated perineal clinic. Patients were randomly assigned to receive either augmented biofeedback or sensory biofeedback alone. All patients were assessed before and after twelve weeks of biofeedback training, using a fecal continence questionnaire and anorectal manometry. Thirty-nine of 40 females recruited completed the study. Continence scores improved in both treatment groups, but the results were better for those who received augmented biofeedback. Anorectal manometry was unchanged by sensory biofeedback, whereas anal resting and squeeze pressures increased with augmented biofeedback. No change in anal vector symmetry was observed in either group. Augmented biofeedback training is superior to sensory biofeedback alone in the treatment of impaired fecal continence after obstetric trauma.
    Diseases of the Colon & Rectum 07/1999; 42(6):753-8; discussion 758-61. · 3.34 Impact Factor
  • Diseases of the Colon & Rectum 06/1999; 42(6). · 3.34 Impact Factor
  • Source
    BJOG An International Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology 01/1998; 105(11):1232-1233. · 3.76 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

154 Citations
25.48 Total Impact Points


  • 1998–2014
    • National Maternity Hospital
      Dublin, Leinster, Ireland
  • 2003
    • University College Dublin
      • School of Medicine & Medical Science
      Dublin, Leinster, Ireland