[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Piedmontese meat tenderness becomes higher by extending the ageing period after slaughter up to 44 days. Classical physical analysis only partially explain this evidence, so in order to discover the reason of the potential beneficial effects of prolonged ageing, we performed omic analysis in the Longissimus thoracis muscle by examining main biochemical changes through mass spectrometry-based metabolomics and proteomics. We observed a progressive decline in myofibrillar structural integrity (underpinning meat tenderness) and impaired energy metabolism. Markers of autophagic responses (e.g. serine and glutathione metabolism) and nitrogen metabolism (urea cycle intermediates) accumulated until the end of the assayed period. Key metabolites such as glutamate, a mediator of the appreciated umami taste of the meat, were found to constantly accumulate until day 44. Finally, statistical analyses revealed that glutamate, serine and arginine could serve as good predictors of ultimate meat quality parameters, even though further studies are mandatory.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Heat-shock protein (Hsp)10 is the co-chaperone for Hsp60 inside mitochondria, but it also resides outside the organelle. Variations in its levels and intracellular distribution have been documented in pathological conditions, e.g. cancer and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Here, we show that Hsp10 in COPD undergoes changes at the molecular and subcellular levels in bronchial cells from human specimens and derived cell lines, intact or subjected to stress induced by cigarette smoke extract (CSE). Noteworthy findings are: (i) Hsp10 occurred in nuclei of epithelial and lamina propria cells of bronchial mucosa from non-smokers and smokers; (ii) human bronchial epithelial (16HBE) and lung fibroblast (HFL-1) cells, in vitro, showed Hsp10 in the nucleus, before and after CSE exposure; (iii) CSE stimulation did not increase the levels of Hsp10 but did elicit qualitative changes as indicated by molecular weight and isoelectric point shifts; and (iv) Hsp10 nuclear levels increased after CSE stimulation in HFL-1, indicating cytosol to nucleus migration, and although Hsp10 did not bind DNA, it bound a DNA-associated protein.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
Red blood cell (RBC) glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) is a glycolytic enzyme normally inhibited upon binding to the membrane-spanning protein Band 3, but active when free in the cytosol. Accumulating evidence in other cells indicates that oxidative thiol modifications in cytosolic GAPDH drive this molecule into functional avenues that deviate from glycolysis. This study aimed to investigate the role of GAPDH in oxidative stress–dependent metabolic modulations occurring in SAGM-stored RBCs, to increase the knowledge of the molecular mechanisms affecting RBC survival and viability under blood banking conditions.Study Design and Methods
Membranes and cytosol from CPD SAGM-stored RBCs were subjected to Western blotting with anti-GAPDH at 0, 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, and 42 days of preservation. Immunoreactive bands were excised, digested with trypsin, and analyzed by mass spectrometry for the presence of oxidative posttranslational modifications. GAPDH enzymatic activity was also measured in the cytosolic fraction during storage.ResultsAt 21 days of storage, we demonstrated that cytosolic GAPDH undergoes temporary inactivation due to the formation of an intramolecular disulfide bond between the active-site Cys-152 and nearby Cys-156, a mechanism to rerouting glucose flux toward the pentose phosphate pathway. In addition, an increase in the membrane-bound GAPDH was detected in long-stored RBCs.Conclusion
Reversible inhibition or activation of cytosolic GAPDH may represent a protective strategy against oxidative stress to favor NADPH production in stored RBCs.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In this work we evaluated Cd-phytoextraction ability of the halophyte Cakile maritima comparatively to the glycophyte Brassica juncea commonly recommended for phytoextraction. Seedlings were grown in nutrient solution added with 0–100 M Cd for 21 days. Cd impaired growth in B. juncea but had no sig-nificant impact on C. maritima. The halophyte C. maritima maintained also higher photosynthetic activity than the glycophyte B. juncea. Cd decreased leaf chlorophyll (Chl) and carotenoids concentrations as well as PSII efficiency (F v /F m , F v /F 0 an PSII) in B. juncea while it increased intercellular CO 2 concentration in this species. Shoot Cd content was higher in the halophyte C. maritima reaching 1365 g g −1 dw at 100 M while it was 548 g g −1 dw in B. juncea at the same dose. The translocation factor (TF) was higher for C. maritima than for B. juncea at all external Cd doses. It is concluded that the halophyte C. maritima could be considered as a promising plant material for Cd-phytoextraction.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The "New discipline for blood transfusion activities and national production of blood derivatives" (Italian Parliament, October 21st, 2005) brought about a significant update of all regulatory aspects concerning transfusion medicine activities in Italy, including the establishment of a nationally co-ordinated blood system consistent with the autonomy of regional authorities1. The aim was to identify homogeneous standards of quality and safety nationwide1. In this setting, the newly born Italian National Blood Centre was to be responsible for all technical and scientific aspects related to transfusion medicine issues, including (i) blood and blood product self-sufficiency; (ii) blood quality and safety; (iii) appropriate utilisation of blood resources; (iv) accreditation and funding of transfusion medicine activities; (v) a national blood information system; (vi) technology nnnassessment; (vii) external quality assessment; (viii) a national haemovigilance network; (ix) control of medical products deriving from human plasma; (x) inspections and controls of the plasma-derivative industry; (xi) education and scientific research in transfusion medicine, and (xii) promotion of voluntary, non-remunerated, responsible and periodic blood donation1.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Red blood cell (RBC) aging in the blood bank is characterized by the accumulation of a significant number of biochemical and morphologic alterations. Recent mass spectrometry and electron microscopy studies have provided novel insights into the molecular changes underpinning the accumulation of storage lesions to RBCs in the blood bank. Biochemical lesions include altered cation homeostasis, reprogrammed energy, and redox metabolism, which result in the impairment of enzymatic activity and progressive depletion of high-energy phosphate compounds. These factors contribute to the progressive accumulation of oxidative stress, which in turn promotes oxidative lesions to proteins (carbonylation, fragmentation, hemoglobin glycation) and lipids (peroxidation). Biochemical lesions negatively affect RBC morphology, which is marked by progressive membrane blebbing and vesiculation. These storage lesions contribute to the altered physiology of long-stored RBCs and promote the rapid clearance of up to one-fourth of long-stored RBCs from the recipient's bloodstream after 24 hours from administration. While prospective clinical evidence is accumulating, from the present review it emerges that biochemical, morphologic, and omics profiles of stored RBCs have observable changes after approximately 14 days of storage. Future studies will assess whether these in vitro observations might have clinically meaningful effects.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: TAp63α is a member of the p53 family, which plays a central role in epithelial cancers. Recently, a role has emerged for p53 family members in cancer metabolic modulation. In order to assess whether TAp63α plays a role in cancer metabolism, we exploited p53-null osteosarcoma Tet-On Saos-2 cells, in which the expression of TAp63α was dependent on doxycycline supplementation to the medium. Metabolomics labeling experiments were performed by incubating the cells in 13C-glucose or 13C15Nglutamine-
labeled culture media, as to monitor metabolic fluxes upon induced
expression of TAp63α.
Induced expression of TAp63α resulted in cell cycle arrest at the G1 phase. From
a metabolic standpoint, expression of Tap63α promoted glycolysis and the pentose
phosphate pathway, which was uncoupled from nucleotide biosynthesis, albeit
prevented oxidative stress in the form of oxidized glutathione. Double 13C-glucose
and 13C15N-glutamine metabolic labeling confirmed that induced expression of TAp63α
corresponded to a decreased flux of pyruvate to the Krebs cycle and decreased
utilization of glutamine for catabolic purposes in the TCA cycle. Results were not
conclusive in relation to anabolic utilization of labeled glutamine, since it is unclear
to what extent the observed minor TAp63α-dependent increases of glutamine-derived
labeling in palmitate could be tied to increased rates of reductive carboxylation and
de novo synthesis of fatty acids. Finally, bioinformatics elaborations highlighted a
link between patient survival rates and the co-expression of p63 and rate limiting
enzymes of the pentose phosphate pathway, G6PD and PGD.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The progression from prehypertensive to hypertensive state in spontaneous hypertensive rats (SHRs) is accompanied by a significant increase in membrane expression of Na-K-2Cl co-transporter isoform 2 (NKCC2), suggesting that the altered NKCC2 trafficking and activity are directly related with the development of hypertension in this strain. The aim of this work is to gain insights on the molecular mechanism that underlies this phenomenon.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Notch signaling plays a complex role in carcinogenesis, and its signaling pathway has both tumor-suppressor and oncogenic components. In this study we investigated the effects of reactive oxygen species (ROS) on Notch1 signaling outcome in keratinocyte biology. We demonstrate that Notch1 function contributes to the arsenic-induced keratinocyte transformation. We found that acute exposure to arsenite increases oxidative stress and inhibits proliferation of keratinocyte cells by upregulation of p21(waf1/Cip1). The necessity of p21(waf1/Cip1) for arsenite-induced cell death was demonstrated by targeted downregulation of p21(waf1/Cip1) by using RNA interference. We further demonstrated that on acute exposure to arsenite, p21(waf1/Cip1) is upregulated and Notch1 downmodulated, whereas on chronic exposure to arsenite, malignant progression of arsenite-treated keratinocytes cells was accompanied by regained expression and activity of Notch1. Notch1 activity in arsenite-transformed keratinocytes inhibits arsenite-induced upregulation of p21(waf1/Cip1) by sustaining c-myc expression. We further demonstrated that c-myc collaborates with Nrf2, a key regulator for the maintenance of redox homeostasis, to promote metabolic activities that support cell proliferation and cytoprotection. Therefore, Notch1-mediated repression of p21(waf1/Cip1) expression results in the inhibition of cell death and keratinocytes transformation. Our results not only demonstrate that sustained Notch1 expression is at least one key event implicated in the arsenite human skin carcinogenic effect, but also may provide mechanistic insights into the molecular aspects that determine whether Notch signaling will be either oncogenic or tumor suppressive.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Transmitochondrial cytoplasmic hybrids (cybrids) are well established model systems to reveal the effects of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations on cell metabolism excluding the interferences of a different nuclear background. The m.3571insC mutation in the MTND1 gene of respiratory complex I (CI) is commonly detected in oncocytic tumors, in which it causes a severe CI dysfunction leading to an energetic impairment when present above 83% mutant load. To assess whether the energetic deficit may alter the mitochondrial proteome, OS-78 and OS-93 cybrid cell lines bearing two different degrees of the m.3571insC mutation (78% and 92.8%, respectively) and control cybrids bearing wild-type mtDNA (CC) were analyzed. Two-dimensional electrophoresis and mass spectrometry revealed significant alterations only in cybrids above the threshold (OS-93). All differentially expressed proteins are decreased. In particular, the levels of the pyruvate dehydrogenase E1 chain B subunit (E1β), of lipoamide dehydrogenase (E3), the enzyme component of pyruvate and 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase complexes, and of lactate dehydrogenase B (LDHB) were reduced. Moreover, a significant decrease of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex activity was found when OS-93 cybrid cells were grown in galactose medium, a metabolic condition that forces cells to use respiration. These results demonstrate that the energetic impairment caused by the almost homoplasmic m.3571insC mutation perturbs cellular metabolism leading to a decreased steady state level of components of very important mitochondrial NAD-dependent dehydrogenases.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pathogen inactivation (PI) of platelet concentrates (PCs) reduces the proliferation/replication of a large range of bacteria, viruses, and parasites as well as residual leucocytes. Pathogen-inactivated PCs were evaluated in various clinical trials showing their efficacy and safety. Today, there is some debate over the hemostatic activity of treated PCs as the overall survival of PI platelets seems to be somewhat reduced, and in vitro measurements have identified some alterations in platelet function. Although the specific lesions resulting from PI of PCs are still not fully understood, proteomic studies have revealed potential damages at the protein level. This review merges the key findings of the proteomic analyses of PCs treated by the Mirasol Pathogen Reduction Technology, the Intercept Blood System, and the Theraflex UV-C system, respectively, and discusses the potential impact on the biological functions of platelets. The complementarities of the applied proteomic approaches allow the coverage of a wide range of proteins and provide a comprehensive overview of PI-mediated protein damage. It emerges that there is a relatively weak impact of PI on the overall proteome of platelets. However, some data show that the different PI treatments lead to an acceleration of platelet storage lesions, which is in agreement with the current model of platelet storage lesion in pathogen-inactivated PCs. Overall, the impact of the PI treatment on the proteome appears to be different among the PI systems. Mirasol impacts adhesion and platelet shape change, whereas Intercept seems to impact proteins of intracellular platelet activation pathways. Theraflex influences platelet shape change and aggregation, but the data reported to date are limited. This information provides the basis to understand the impact of different PI on the molecular mechanisms of platelet function. Moreover, these data may serve as basis for future developments of PI technologies for PCs. Further studies should address the impact of both the PI and the storage duration on platelets in PCs because PI may enable the extension of the shelf life of PCs by reducing the bacterial contamination risk.
Transfusion medicine reviews 02/2014; · 3.61 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: It is rapidly emerging that the tender meat phenotype is affected by an enormous amounts of variables, not only tied to genetics (livestock breeding selection), but also to extrinsic factors, such as the feeding conditions, physical activity, rearing environment, administration of hormonal growth promotants, pre-slaughter handling and stress. Proteomics has been widely accepted by meat scientists over the last years and is now commonly used to shed light on the postmortem processes involved in meat tenderization. This review discusses the latest findings with the use of proteomics and systems biology to study the different biochemical pathways postmortem aiming at understanding the concerted action of different molecular mechanisms responsible for meat quality. The conversion of muscle to meat postmortem can be described as a sequence of events involving molecular pathways controlled by a complex interplay of many factors. Among the different pathways emerging are the influence of apoptosis and lately also the role of autophagy in muscle postmortem development. This review want shows as systems-wide integrated investigations (metabolomics, transcriptomics, interactomics, phosphoproteomics, mathematical modeling), which have emerged as complementary tools to proteomics, have helped establishing a few milestones in our understanding of the events leading from muscle to meat conversion.
Current Protein and Peptide Science 02/2014; · 2.33 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ischemia is a primary cause of neuronal death in retinal diseases and the somatostatin subtype receptor 2 agonist octreotide (OCT) is known to decrease ischemia-induced retinal cell death. Using a recently optimized ex vivo mouse model of retinal ischemia, we tested the anti-ischemic potential of two additional neuropeptides, pituitary adenylate cyclase activating peptide (PACAP) and substance P (SP), and monitored the major changes occurring at the metabolic level. Metabolomics analyses were performed via fast HPLC online using a microTOF-Q MS instrument, a workflow that is increasingly becoming the gold standard in the field of metabolomics. The metabolomic approach allowed detection of the most significant alterations induced in the retina by ischemia and of the significance of the protective effects exerted by OCT, PACAP or SP. All treatments were shown to reduce ischemia-induced cell death, vascular endothelial growth factor over-expression and glutamate release. The metabolomic analysis showed that OCT and, to a lesser extent, also PACAP or SP, were able to counteract the ischemia-induced oxidative stress and to promote, with various efficacies, (i) decreased accumulation of glutamate and normalization of glutathione homeostasis; (ii) reduced build-up of α-ketoglutarate, which might serve as a substrate for the enhanced biosynthesis of glutamate in response to ischemia; (iii) reduced accumulation of peroxidized lipids and inflammatory mediators; (iv) the normalization of glycolytic fluxes and thus preventing the over-accumulation of lactate or either promoting the down-regulation of the glyoxalate anti-oxidant system; (v) a reduced metabolic shift from glycolysis towards the PPP or either a blockade at the non-oxidative phase of the PPP; and (vi) tuning down of purine metabolism. In addition, OCT seemed to stimulate nitric oxide production. None of the treatments was able to restore ATP production, although ATP reservoirs were partly replenished by OCT, PACAP or SP. These data indicate that, in addition to that of somatostatin, peptidergic systems such as those of PACAP and SP deserve attention in view of peptide-based therapies to treat ischemic retinal disorders.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A correct diagnosis of primary aldosteronism (PA) requires adrenal venous sampling (AVS) for the classification of subtypes (bilateral hyperplasia, BAH, or adenoma, APA). Since such testing is not easily practicable, appropriate markers for the definition of subtypes are desirable. We hypothesized that an aldosterone excess was associated with abnormalities in urinary proteome, specific for PA subtypes. The project work was divided into 3 phases: (1) screening/identification by proteomic analysis and further characterization by RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry of the candidate protein; (2) clinical validation by quantitative ELISA assay of 57 (33 M, 24 F) PA patients and 50 normotensive controls (21 M, 29 F); (3) analysis of adrenal tissue of 8 individuals who had undergone adrenalectomy for APA or other adrenal tumors. The proteomic analysis showed a different expression of Serpin B3 Inhibitor-SCCA1 (SB3) in APA and BAH patients. Urine SB3 concentrations in normotensive controls, quantified by ELISA assay and normalized by urinary creatinine, resulted much lower in males (6.72 ng SB3 per mg creatinine, C.I. 4.43-10.19) than in females (20.56 ng SB3 per mg creatinine, C.I. 12.43-33.99, p < 0.00001). SB3 concentrations were not significantly different in males affected by different PA subtypes (BAH, n = 19 and APA, n = 14) compared with normotensive subjects (n = 21). In contrast, in PA females, SB3 was significantly higher in APA (n = 13) than in BAH patients (n = 11) or in normotensive controls (n = 29) (P < 0.01 and <0.05, respectively). Neither messenger RNA nor SB3 protein were identified in tissue obtained from adrenal tumors and from the surrounding normal gland. In conclusion urine SB3 concentrations are physiologically much lower in males than in females. Hypertensive women, affected by APA, present urinary SB3 concentrations significantly higher than women affected by BAH.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background. Recent advances in red blood cell metabolomics have paved the way for further improvements of storage solutions. Materials and methods. In the present study, we exploited a validated high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analytical workflow to determine the effects of vitamin C and N-acetylcysteine supplementation (anti-oxidants) on the metabolome of erythrocytes stored in citrate-phosphate-dextrose saline-adenine-glucose-mannitol medium under blood bank conditions. Results. We observed decreased energy metabolism fluxes (glycolysis and pentose phosphate pathway). A tentative explanation of this phenomenon could be related to the observed depression of the uptake of glucose, since glucose and ascorbate are known to compete for the same transporter. Anti-oxidant supplementation was effective in modulating the redox poise, through the promotion of glutathione homeostasis, which resulted in decreased haemolysis and less accumulation of malondialdehyde and oxidation by-products (including oxidized glutathione and prostaglandins). Discussion. Anti-oxidants improved storage quality by coping with oxidative stress at the expense of glycolytic metabolism, although reservoirs of high energy phosphate compounds were preserved by reduced cyclic AMP-mediated release of ATP.