[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The presence of a new autoantibody system, anti-carbamylated protein (anti-CarP) antibodies, has been identified in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The presence of anti-CarP antibodies was evaluated in samples taken from individuals who subsequently developed RA before and after onset of symptoms and related to previously analysed antibodies against citrullinated peptides (ACPA specificities) and anti-CCP2.
A total of 252 individuals, with 423 samples from before onset of symptoms of RA, and 197 population controls were identified as donors to the Medical Biobank of Northern Sweden; 192 of them were also sampled at the time of diagnosis. All samples were analysed for anti-CarP IgG and anti-CCP2 antibodies using ELISAs. Ten different antibody reactivities against citrullinated antigens (ACPA specificities) were analysed using a custom-made microarray based on the ImmunoCAP ISAC system (Phadia).
The concentration of anti-CarP antibodies was significantly increased in the pre-symptomatic individuals compared with controls (P <0.001) and also increased significantly after disease onset (P <0.001). The sensitivity for anti-CarP antibodies in the pre-symptomatic individuals was 13.9% (95% CI: 11 to 17.6) and 42.2% (95% CI: 35.4 to 49.3) following development of RA. Anti-CarP antibody positivity was found in 5.1% to 13.3% of individuals negative for anti-CCP2 or ACPA specificities. Presence of anti-CarP antibodies was significantly related to radiological destruction at baseline, at 24 months and also to radiological change (P <0.05, all).
The results indicate that anti-CarP antibodies are associated with disease development, even after adjusting for the presence of different ACPA fine specificities, and in anti-CCP2 negative individuals and contribute to the identification of a subset of patients with worse radiological progression of the disease independent of ACPA.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Introduction:
Whether low socioeconomic status (SES) is associated with worse rheumatoid arthritis (RA) outcomes in countries with general tax-financed healthcare systems (such as Sweden) remains to be elucidated. Our aim was to investigate the influence of educational background (achieving university/college degree (high) or not (low)) on the outcomes of early RA, in terms of disease activity (DAS28), pain (VAS-pain), and functional impairment (HAQ).
We evaluated DMARD-naïve RA patients recruited in the Epidemiological Investigation of RA (EIRA) study with outcomes followed in the Swedish Rheumatology Quality (SRQ) register (N = 3021). Outcomes were categorized in three ways: 1) scores equal to/above median vs. below median; 2) DAS28-based low disease activity, good response, remission; 3) scores decreased over the median vs. less than median. Associations between educational background and outcomes were calculated by modified Poisson regressions, at diagnosis and at each of the three standard (3, 6, 12 months) follow-up visits.
Patients with different educational background had similar symptom durations (195 days) and anti-rheumatic therapies at baseline, and comparable treatment patterns during follow-up. Patients with a high education level had significantly less pain and less functional disability at baseline and throughout the whole follow-up period (VAS-pain: baseline: 49 (28-67) vs. 53 (33-71), p <0.0001; 1-year visit: RR = 0.81 (95 % CI 0.73-0.90). HAQ: baseline: 0.88 (0.50-1.38) vs. 1.00 (0.63-1.50), p = 0.001; 1-year visit: 0.84 (0.77-0.92)). They also had greater chances to achieve pain remission (VAS-pain ≤20) after one year (1.17 (1.07-1.28)). Adjustments for smoking and BMI altered the results only marginally. Educational background did not influence DAS28-based outcomes.
In Sweden, with tax-financed, generally accessible healthcare system, RA patients with a high education level experienced less pain and less functional disability. Further, these patients achieved pain remission more often during the first year receiving standard care. Importantly, education background affected neither time to referral to rheumatologists, disease activity nor anti-rheumatic treatments.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objectives:
A recent study identified 16 genetic variants associated with N-glycosylation of human IgG. Several of the genomic regions where these single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) reside have also been associated with autoimmune disease (AID) susceptibility, suggesting there may be pleiotropy (genetic sharing) between loci controlling both N-glycosylation and AIDs. We investigated this by testing variants associated with levels of IgG N-glycosylation for association with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) susceptibility using a Mendelian randomisation study, and testing a subset of these variants in a less well-powered study of treatment response and severity.
SNPs showing association with IgG N-glycosylation were analysed for association with RA susceptibility in 14 361 RA cases and 43 923 controls. Five SNPs were tested for association with response to anti-tumour necrosis factor (TNF) therapy in 1081 RA patient samples and for association with radiological disease severity in 342 patients.
Only one SNP (rs9296009) associated with N-glycosylation showed an association (p=6.92×10(-266)) with RA susceptibility, although this was due to linkage disequilibrium with causal human leukocyte antigen (HLA) variants. Four regions of the genome harboured SNPs associated with both traits (shared loci); although statistical analysis indicated that the associations observed for the two traits are independent. No SNPs showed association with response to anti-TNF therapy. One SNP rs12342831 was modestly associated with Larsen score (p=0.05).
In a large, well-powered cohort of RA patients, we show SNPs driving levels of N-glycosylation have no association with RA susceptibility, indicating colocalisation of associated SNPs are not necessarily indicative of a shared genetic background or a role for glycosylation in disease susceptibility.
Annals of the rheumatic diseases 09/2015; DOI:10.1136/annrheumdis-2014-207210 · 10.38 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective:
To investigate the gene-environment interaction between smoking and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), using Immunochip material, on the risk of developing either of two serologically defined subsets of RA.
Interaction between smoking and 133 648 genetic markers from the Immunochip was examined for two RA subsets, defined by the presence or absence of ACPA. A total of 1590 ACPA-positive and 891 ACPA-negative cases were compared with 1856 controls in the Swedish Epidemiological Investigation of RA (EIRA) case-control study. Logistic regression models were used to determine the presence of interaction. The proportion attributable to interaction was calculated for each smoking-SNP pair. Replication was carried out in an independent dataset from northern Sweden. To further validate and extend the results, interaction analysis was also performed using genome-wide association studies data on EIRA individuals.
In ACPA-positive RA, 102 SNPs interacted significantly with smoking, after Bonferroni correction. All 102 SNPs were located in the HLA region, mainly within the HLA class II region, 51 of which were replicated. No additional loci outside chromosome 6 were identified in the genome-wide association studies validation. After adjusting for HLA-DRB1 shared epitope, 15 smoking-SNP pairs remained significant for ACPA-positive RA, with 8 of these replicated (loci: BTNL2, HLA-DRA, HLA-DRB5, HLA-DQA1, HLA-DOB and TAP2). For ACPA-negative RA, no smoking-SNP pairs passed the threshold for significance.
Our study presents extended gene variation patterns involved in gene-smoking interaction in ACPA-positive, but not ACPA-negative, RA. Notably, variants in HLA-DRB1 and those in additional genes within the MHC class II region, but not in any other gene regions, showed interaction with smoking.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) genes confer substantial risk for autoimmune diseases on a log-additive scale. Here we speculated that differences in autoantigen-binding repertoires between a heterozygote's two expressed HLA variants might result in additional non-additive risk effects. We tested the non-additive disease contributions of classical HLA alleles in patients and matched controls for five common autoimmune diseases: rheumatoid arthritis (ncases = 5,337), type 1 diabetes (T1D; ncases = 5,567), psoriasis vulgaris (ncases = 3,089), idiopathic achalasia (ncases = 727) and celiac disease (ncases = 11,115). In four of the five diseases, we observed highly significant, non-additive dominance effects (rheumatoid arthritis, P = 2.5 × 10(-12); T1D, P = 2.4 × 10(-10); psoriasis, P = 5.9 × 10(-6); celiac disease, P = 1.2 × 10(-87)). In three of these diseases, the non-additive dominance effects were explained by interactions between specific classical HLA alleles (rheumatoid arthritis, P = 1.8 × 10(-3); T1D, P = 8.6 × 10(-27); celiac disease, P = 6.0 × 10(-100)). These interactions generally increased disease risk and explained moderate but significant fractions of phenotypic variance (rheumatoid arthritis, 1.4%; T1D, 4.0%; celiac disease, 4.1%) beyond a simple additive model.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We have previously identified endogenously citrullinated peptides derived from fibrinogen in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) synovial tissues. In this study, we have investigated the auto-antigenicity of four of those citrullinated peptides and explored their feasibility to target anti-citrullinated protein/peptide antibodies (ACPA).
The autoantigenic potential of the fibrinogen peptides was investigated by screening 927 serum samples from the Epidemiological Investigation of RA (EIRA) cohort on a peptide microarray based on the ImmunoCAP ISAC® system. In order to assay for ACPA blocking, two independent pools of purified ACPA were incubated with the respective targeting peptide prior binding to CCP2 utilizing the CCPlus® ELISA kit.
Two peptides derived from the fibrinogen α chain, Arg573Cit (563-583), and Arg591Cit (580-600), referred to as Cit573 and Cit591, and two peptides from the fibrinogen β chain, Arg72Cit (62-81), and Arg74Cit (62-81) (Cit72 and Cit74) displayed 65 %, 15 %, 35 % and 53 % of immune reactivity among CCP2 positive RA sera, respectively. In CCP2 negative RA sera, a positive reactivity was detected in 5 % (Cit573), 6 % (Cit591), 8 % (Cit72) and 4 % (Cit74). In the competition assay, Cit573 and Cit591 peptides reduced ACPA binding to CCP2 with a maximum of 84 % and 63 % respectively. An additive effect was observed when these peptides were combined. In contrast, Cit74 and Cit72 were less effective. Cyclization of the peptide structure containing Cit573 significantly increased the blocking efficiency.
Here we demonstrate extensive autoantibody reactivity against in vivo citrullinated fibrinogen epitopes, and further show the potential use of these peptides for antagonizing ACPA.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: It has previously been shown that an increased number of antibodies against citrullinated peptides/proteins (ACPA) predate the onset of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Over time antibody positivity expands, involving more specific responses when approaching the onset of symptoms. We investigated the impact of human leukocyte antigen-shared epitope (HLA-SE) alleles and smoking on the development of ACPA, as well as in combination with ACPA during the state of quiescent autoimmunity (before the onset of symptoms), on the development of RA.
Blood samples donated to the Medical Biobank of Northern Sweden from individuals prior to the onset of symptoms of RA (n = 370) and after onset (n = 203) and from population-based controls (n = 585) were used. Antibodies against 10 citrullinated peptides, fibrinogen (Fibα561-583, α580-600, ß62-81a, ß62-81b, ß36-52), vimentin (Vim2-17, 60-75), filaggrin (CCP-1/Fil307-324), α-enolase (CEP-1/Eno5-21), collagen type II (citC1359-369), and anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide (CCP)2 antibodies were analysed.
HLA-SE-positive individuals were more frequently positive for ACPA compared with HLA-SE-negative individuals prior to the onset of symptoms of RA, particularly for antibodies against CEP-1 and Fibß62-81a (72). Smoking was associated with antibodies against Vim2-17 and citC1359-369. HLA-SE and smoking showed increasing association to the presence of the antibodies closer to disease onset. The highest odds ratio (OR) for development of RA was for the combination of HLA-SE alleles and ACPA positivity, especially for antibodies against Fibß62-81b, CCP-1/Fil307-324, and Fibβ36-52. A gene-environment additive interaction between smoking and HLA-SE alleles for the risk of disease development was found, with the highest OR for individuals positive for antibodies against Fibβ36-52, CEP-1, and Fibα580-600.
The relationships between antibodies against the different ACPA specificities, HLA-SE, and smoking showed a variable pattern in individuals prior to the onset of RA. The combination of smoking and HLA-SE alleles was significantly associated with the development of some of the antibody specificities closer to onset of symptoms, and these associations remained significant at diagnosis. An additive gene-environment interaction was found for several of the antibodies for the development of RA.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Despite the success of genome-wide association studies (GWAS) in detecting a large number of loci for complex phenotypes such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA) susceptibility, the lack of information on the causal genes leaves important challenges to interpret GWAS results in the context of the disease biology. Here, we genetically fine-map the RA risk locus at 19p13 to define causal variants, and explore the pleiotropic effects of these same variants in other complex traits. First, we combined Immunochip dense genotyping (n = 23,092 case/control samples), Exomechip genotyping (n = 18,409 case/control samples) and targeted exon-sequencing (n = 2,236 case/controls samples) to demonstrate that three pro-tein-coding variants in TYK2 (tyrosine kinase 2) independently protect against RA: P1104A (rs34536443, OR = 0.66, P = 2.3×10-21), A928V (rs35018800, OR = 0.53, P = 1.2×10-9), and I684S (rs12720356, OR = 0.86, P = 4.6×10-7). Second, we show that the same three TYK2 variants protect against systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE, Pomnibus = 6×10-18 ), and provide suggestive evidence that two of the TYK2 variants (P1104A and A928V) may also protect against inflammatory bowel disease (IBD; Pomnibus = 0.005). Finally, in a phenomewide association study (PheWAS) assessing >500 phenotypes using electronic medical records (EMR) in >29,000 subjects, we found no convincing evidence for association of P1104A and A928V with complex phenotypes other than autoimmune diseases such as RA, SLE and IBD. Together, our results demonstrate the role of TYK2 in the pathogenesis of RA, SLE and IBD, and provide supporting evidence for TYK2 as a promising drug target for the treatment of autoimmune diseases.
PLoS ONE 04/2015; 10(4):e0122271. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0122271 · 3.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Immunglobulin G (IgG) sialylation represents a key checkpoint that determines the engagement of pro- or anti-inflammatory Fcγ receptors (FcγR) and the direction of the immune response. Whether IgG sialylation influences osteoclast differentiation and subsequently bone architecture has not been determined yet, but may represent an important link between immune activation and bone loss. Here we demonstrate that desialylated, but not sialylated, immune complexes enhance osteoclastogenesis in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, we find that the Fc sialylation state of random IgG and specific IgG autoantibodies determines bone architecture in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. In accordance with these findings, mice treated with the sialic acid precursor N-acetylmannosamine (ManNAc), which results in increased IgG sialylation, are less susceptible to inflammatory bone loss. Taken together, our findings provide a novel mechanism by which immune responses influence the human skeleton and an innovative treatment approach to inhibit immune-mediated bone loss.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Anti-citrullinated protein antibodies are a distinctive feature of a subset of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). A new report investigates how lung inflammation in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease affects protein citrullination, providing an additional piece of information on the potential link between airway inflammation and RA.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To study the association between postmenopausal hormone therapy (PMH) use and the risk of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) stratifying the cases by the presence/absence of antibodies against citrullinated peptides (ACPA). A subset of the Epidemiological Investigation of RA (EIRA), a population-based case-control study, comprising postmenopausal women aged 50-70 living in Sweden, between 2006 and 2011 was analysed (523 cases and 1057 controls). All participants answered an extensive questionnaire, including questions regarding PMH use and potential confounders (education, smoking, BMI, oral contraceptives, reproductive factors). We calculated odds ratios (OR) of developing ACPA-positive/-negative RA, with 95 % confidence intervals (CI) and adjusted for age, residential area and smoking. Current users of PMH had a decreased risk of ACPA-positive RA compared with never users (OR 0.6, 95 % CI 0.3-0.9). The decreased risk was observed mainly in the age-group 50-59 years (OR 0.3, 95 % CI 0.1-0.8) but not in the age-group 60-70 years (OR 0.8, 95 % CI 0.4-1.4). Among current users of a combined therapy (estrogen plus progestogens) an OR of 0.3 (95 % CI 0.1-0.7) of ACPA-positive RA was observed, while no significant association was found among women who used estrogen only (OR 0.8, 95 % CI 0.5-1.6). No association between PMH use and ACPA-negative RA was found. PMH use might reduce the risk of ACPA-positive RA in post-menopausal women over 50 years of age, but not of ACPA-negative RA. The negative influence of this treatment on the risk of other chronic conditions cannot be overlooked.
European Journal of Epidemiology 03/2015; 30(5). DOI:10.1007/s10654-015-0004-y · 5.34 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Structural Genomics Consortium (SGC) and its clinical, industry and disease-foundation partners are launching open-source preclinical translational medicine studies.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Do recent infections affect the risk of rheumatoid arthritis (RA)?
We used the population-based case-control study EIRA (N=6401) on incident RA and healthy controls, matched for sex, age, calendar period and area of residence. Gastroenteritis, urinary tract infection, genital infection, prostatitis, sinusitis, tonsillitis and pneumonia during the 2 years before inclusion in the study were investigated. Conditional logistic regression was used to calculate OR, adjusting for smoking and socioeconomic status.
Infections in the gastrointestinal and urogenital tract before clinical onset were associated with a lowered risk of RA: gastroenteritis (OR=0.71 (95% CI 0.63 to 0.80)), urinary tract infections (OR=0.78 (95% CI 0.68 to 0.90)) and genital infections (OR=0.80 (95% CI 0.64 to 1.00)), while a non-significant association of similar magnitude was observed for the less common prostatitis (OR=0.64 (95% CI 0.38 to 1.08)). In contrast, no associations were observed for sinusitis, tonsillitis or pneumonia.
Gastrointestinal and urogenital infections, but not respiratory infections, are associated with a significantly lowered risk of RA. The results indicate that infections in general do not affect the risk for RA, but that certain infections, hypothetically associated with changes in the gut microbiome, could diminish the risk.
Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases 02/2015; 74(5). DOI:10.1136/annrheumdis-2014-206493 · 10.38 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective
Family history of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is one of the strongest risk factors for developing RA, and information on family history is, therefore, routinely collected in clinical practice. However, as more genetic and environmental risk factors shared by relatives are identified, the importance of family history may diminish. The aim of this study was to determine how much of the familial risk of RA can be explained by established genetic and nongenetic risk factors.Methods
History of RA among first-degree relatives of individuals in the Epidemiological Investigation of Rheumatoid Arthritis case-control study was assessed through linkage to the Swedish Multigeneration Register and the Swedish Patient Register. We used logistic regression models to investigate the decrease in familial risk after successive adjustment for combinations of nongenetic risk factors (smoking, alcohol intake, parity, silica exposure, body mass index, fatty fish consumption, and education), and genetic risk factors (shared epitope [SE] and 76 single-nucleotide polymorphisms [SNPs]).ResultsEstablished nongenetic risk factors did not explain familial risk of either seropositive or seronegative RA to any significant degree. Genetic risk factors accounted for a limited proportion of the familial risk of seropositive RA (unadjusted odds ratio [OR] 4.10, SE-adjusted OR 3.72, SNP-adjusted OR 3.46, and SE and SNP-adjusted OR 3.35).Conclusion
Established risk factors only provided an explanation for familial risk of RA in minor part, suggesting that many (familial) risk factors remain to be identified, in particular for seronegative RA. Family history of RA therefore remains an important clinical risk factor for RA, the value of which has not yet been superseded by other information. There is thus a need for further etiologic studies of both seropositive and seronegative RA.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To determine the relationship between changes in antibody levels towards citrullinated peptides derived from different candidate autoantigens and therapeutic outcome in early rheumatoid arthritis (RA).
Baseline and 3-month serum samples from 316 patients with early RA enrolled in the Swedish Farmacotherapy (SWEFOT) trial were analysed for antibodies against cyclic citrullinated peptides (CCP) and citrullinated peptides derived from vimentin (cVim), fibrinogen (cFib) and α-enolase (CEP-1). At 3-month follow-up, methotrexate monotherapy-inadequate responders were randomised to add-on therapy with sulfasalazine and hydroxychloroquine or infliximab. In these patients, anticitrullinated peptide antibodies (ACPA) were also assessed at 12 and 24 months. The proportion of antibody-positive patients and relative changes in antibody levels were compared across ACPA specificities and related to therapeutic response and radiographic progression.
During the 2-year follow-up, the proportion of patients testing positive declined significantly regarding antibodies to cVim, cFib and CEP-1, while anti-CCP antibody occurrence remained stable over time. Turning anti-cVim antibody negative was most common, and anti-cVim antibody seroreversion during the first three months associated with significantly less 2-year radiographic progression compared with patients who remained positive. Median antibody levels of all tested ACPAs declined uniformly during initial methotrexate therapy and following response to add-on therapy, with no significant relation to treatment regimen or radiographic progression.
The influence of early antirheumatic therapy on ACPA seroreversions was markedly different across specificities, and early disappearance of anti-cVim antibodies associated with better radiological outcome. Thus, these data suggest that the disappearance of particular ACPA reactivities may be beneficial in early RA.
WHO database at the Karolinska institute: CT20080004; and clinicaltrials.gov: NCT00764725.
Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases 12/2014; DOI:10.1136/annrheumdis-2014-205698 · 10.38 Impact Factor