[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The U.S. Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act of 2009 requires updating of the existing text-only health warning labels on tobacco packaging with nine new warning statements accompanied by pictorial images. Survey and experimental research in the U.S. and other countries supports the effectiveness of pictorial health warning labels compared with text-only warnings for informing smokers about the risks of smoking and encouraging cessation. Yet very little research has examined differences in reactions to warning labels by race/ethnicity, education or income despite evidence that population subgroups may differ in their ability to process health information. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the potential impact of pictorial warning labels compared with text-only labels among U.S. adult smokers from diverse racial/ethnic and socioeconomic subgroups.
Participants were adult smokers recruited from two online research panels (n = 3,371) into a web-based experimental study to view either the new pictorial warnings or text-only warnings. Participants viewed the labels and reported their reactions. Adjusted regression models demonstrated significantly stronger reactions for the pictorial condition for each outcome salience (b = 0.62, p<.001); perceived impact (b = 0.44, p<.001); credibility (OR = 1.41, 95% CI = 1.22-1.62), and intention to quit (OR = 1.30, 95% CI = 1.10-1.53). No significant results were found for interactions between condition and race/ethnicity, education, or income. The only exception concerned the intention to quit outcome, where the condition-by-education interaction was nearly significant (p = 0.057).
Findings suggest that the greater impact of the pictorial warning label compared to the text-only warning is consistent across diverse racial/ethnic and socioeconomic populations. Given their great reach, pictorial health warning labels may be one of the few tobacco control policies that have the potential to reduce communication inequalities across groups. Policies that establish strong pictorial warning labels on tobacco packaging may be instrumental in reducing the toll of the tobacco epidemic, particularly within vulnerable communities.
PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(1):e52206. · 3.73 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To investigate the efficacy of etanercept in improving the symptoms and underlying inflammation in patients with tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated periodic syndrome (TRAPS).
Fifteen patients with TRAPS were enrolled in a prospective, open-label, dose-escalation study. Patients recorded attacks, symptom severity, and use of ancillary medications in a daily diary. Blood samples were collected during each period and measured for levels of acute-phase reactants. Between 7 years and 9 years after the conclusion of the initial study, patients completed a followup survey and were evaluated to determine the long-term outcome of etanercept treatment.
Etanercept treatment significantly attenuated the total symptom score and reduced the frequency of symptoms. Etanercept also reduced levels of acute-phase reactants, particularly during asymptomatic periods. During a 10-year followup period, patients continued to receive etanercept for a median of 3.3 years, with a number of patients switching to anti-interleukin-1β receptor therapy or not receiving biologic agents, most frequently citing injection site reactions and lack of efficacy as reasons for discontinuation. However, patients continuing to receive etanercept had reduced symptoms at followup.
Etanercept reduces symptoms and serum levels of inflammatory markers of TRAPS in a dose-dependent manner, but does not completely normalize symptoms or acute-phase reactant levels. Although long-term adherence to etanercept is poor, continuing to receive etanercept may provide continued symptomatic benefit.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Recovery Attitude and Treatment Evaluator-Research (RAATE-R) scale is a structured interview that assesses readiness for substance abuse treatment in five subscales: resistance to treatment, resistance to continuing care, biomedical acuity, psychological acuity, and environmental/social problems. Psychometric properties, based on an inter-rater reliability analysis of 23 raters and administration of the scale to 116 cocaine-dependent outpatients, included high interrater reliability, high internal consistency, independence of subscales, and a factor structure that partially supports the scale's original design. The authors discuss limitations of these conclusions and the lack of concurrent validity with a self-report measure of therapy readiness.
American Journal on Addictions 02/2010; 6(1):74 - 82. · 1.74 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The authors administered a five-item craving questionnaire daily to 86 outpatients to determine whether initial craving scores predicted the likelihood of initiation of abstinence within a 30-day period. Patients with higher mean craving scores during the first 3 days of the study were less likely to initiate abstinence. However the relationship between craving and abstinence initiation was not linear. Rather, patients in the top quartile of craving scores were significantly less likely to abstain than were patients in the lower three quartiles. The findings suggest that this rapid, easily administered craving questionnaire may have short-term predictive validity.
American Journal on Addictions 02/2010; 6(3):224 - 231. · 1.74 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Previous clinical trials showed that progression of coronary artery calcification (CAC) may be slower in hemodialysis patients treated with sevelamer than those treated with calcium-based phosphate binders. Because sevelamer decreases low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels, we hypothesized that intensive lowering of LDL-C levels with atorvastatin in hemodialysis patients treated with calcium acetate would result in CAC progression rates similar to those in sevelamer-treated patients.
Randomized, controlled, open-label, noninferiority trial with an upper bound for the noninferiority margin of 1.8.
203 prevalent hemodialysis patients at 26 dialysis centers with serum phosphorus levels greater than 5.5 mg/dL, LDL-C levels greater than 80 mg/dL, and baseline CAC scores of 30 to 7,000 units assessed by means of electron-beam computed tomography.
103 patients were randomly assigned to calcium acetate, and 100 patients to sevelamer for 12 months to achieve phosphorus levels of 3.5 to 5.5 mg/dL. Atorvastatin was added to achieve serum LDL-C levels less than 70 mg/dL in both groups.
The primary end point was change in CAC score assessed by means of electron-beam computed tomography.
After 12 months, mean serum LDL-C levels decreased to 68.8 +/- 22.0 mg/dL in the calcium-acetate group and 62.4 +/- 23.0 mg/dL in the sevelamer group (P = 0.3). Geometric mean increases in CAC scores were 35% in the calcium-acetate group and 39% in the sevelamer group, with a covariate-adjusted calcium acetate-sevelamer ratio of 0.994 (95% confidence interval, 0.851 to 1.161).
Treatment assignment was not blinded. The 1.8 a priori margin is large, CAC is a surrogate outcome, duration of treatment was short, and dropout rate was high.
With intensive lowering of LDL-C levels for 1 year, hemodialysis patients treated with either calcium acetate or sevelamer experienced similar progression of CAC.
American Journal of Kidney Diseases 06/2008; 51(6):952-65. · 5.29 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hyperphosphatemia underlies development of hyperparathyroidism, osteodystrophy, extraosseous calcification, and is associated with increased mortality in hemodialysis patients.
To determine whether calcium acetate or sevelamer hydrochloride best achieves recently recommended treatment goals of phosphorus </=5.5 mg/dL and Ca x P product </=55 mg(2)/dL(2), we conducted an 8-week randomized, double-blind study in 100 hemodialysis patients.
Comparisons of time-averaged concentrations (weeks 1 to 8) demonstrated that calcium acetate recipients had lower serum phosphorus (1.08 mg/dL difference, P= 0.0006), higher serum calcium (0.63 mg/dL difference, P < 0.0001), and lower Ca x P (6.1 mg(2)/dL(2) difference, P= 0.022) than sevelamer recipients. At each week, calcium acetate recipients were 20% to 24% more likely to attain goal phosphorus [odds ratio (OR) 2.37, 95% CI 1.28-4.37, P= 0.0058], and 15% to 20% more likely to attain goal Ca x P (OR 2.16, 95% CI 1.20-3.86, P= 0.0097). Transient hypercalcemia occurred in 8 of 48 (16.7%) calcium acetate recipients, all of whom received concomitant intravenous vitamin D. By regression analysis hypercalcemia was more likely with calcium acetate (OR 6.1, 95% CI 2.8-13.3, P < 0.0001). Week 8 intact PTH levels were not significantly different. Serum bicarbonate levels were significantly lower with sevelamer hydrochloride treatment (P < 0.0001).
Calcium acetate controls serum phosphorus and calcium-phosphate product more effectively than sevelamer hydrochloride. Cost-benefit analysis indicates that in the absence of hypercalcemia, calcium acetate should remain the treatment of choice for hyperphosphatemia in hemodialysis patients.
Kidney International 06/2004; 65(5):1914-26. · 7.92 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We investigated the relationship between educational attainment and drinking outcomes after discharge from inpatient treatment for alcohol dependence.
Between 1993 and 1996, we consecutively recruited 41 women and 60 men hospitalized for alcohol dependence and followed them up monthly for 1 year. We conducted structured interviews during hospitalization and at monthly intervals after discharge for 1 year. We examined the relationship between educational attainment before treatment and postdischarge drinking outcomes, including time to relapse.
After covariate adjustment, educational level was a significant predictor of drinking outcomes.
Lower levels of educational attainment before entry into treatment predicted shorter times to first drink and relapse in both women and men. The association of educational attainment and treatment outcome for alcohol dependence warrants further investigation.
Alcoholism Clinical and Experimental Research 09/2003; 27(8):1278-85. · 3.42 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Little is known about the impact of sexual or physical abuse history on response to alcohol treatment. This prospective study investigated the relationships between sexual and physical abuse histories, participants' characteristics, and response to inpatient alcohol treatment. Forty-one women and 59 men were assessed monthly for 1 year following hospitalization for alcohol dependence. Survival analyses showed that sexual abuse history was associated with shorter times to first drink and relapse. Physical abuse history was not associated with poorer drinking outcomes. Although women were more likely than men to have a history of sexual abuse, no gender differences were found in drinking outcomes. Poorer drinking outcomes were found among participants who at baseline were not married, had less than a college education, were not employed full time, or carried a diagnosis of depression or other psychiatric disorder. When adjusted for these characteristics, the associations between sexual abuse history and times to first drink and relapse were no longer statistically significant. While sexual abuse history is a clinically meaningful predictor of return to drinking we note the importance of considering patients' background and clinical characteristics in examining the impact of sexual abuse history on drinking outcomes following treatment.
Drug and Alcohol Dependence 09/2002; 67(3):227-34. · 3.14 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Characteristics of the subsequent treatment received by people who screened positive for depression in the 1996 National Depression Screening Day were investigated.
A follow-up telephone survey was completed by 1,502 randomly selected participants from 2,800 sites.
Of 927 people for whom additional evaluation was recommended, 602 (64.9%) obtained evaluations and 503 (83.6%) received treatment. Of these 503, 260 (51.7%) received psychotherapy and medication, 130 (25.8%) received medication only, and 93 (18.5%) received psychotherapy only. Compared with people without health or mental health insurance, individuals with health insurance (66.7% versus 57.5%) and mental health insurance (74.6% versus 55.3%) were more likely to comply with the recommendation to obtain follow-up evaluation.
One-half of the people treated for depression received a combination of psychotherapy and medication. Lack of insurance was associated with not following the recommendation to obtain further evaluation and treatment.
American Journal of Psychiatry 12/2000; 157(11):1867-9. · 14.72 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We studied the relationship of self-efficacy expectancies measured during inpatient alcohol treatment and time to first drink and time to relapse following hospitalization. We also examined whether the relationship of in-hospital self-efficacy and posttreatment drinking outcome differed by gender.
We measured self-efficacy expectancies using the Situational Confidence Questionnaire (SCQ) in 100 subjects (59 men) during inpatient treatment for alcohol dependence. We followed subjects monthly for 1 year and examined the relationship of their in-hospital SCQ scores to posttreatment drinking behavior, as measured by time to first drink, time to relapse and percent abstinent days.
Self-efficacy during hospitalization was related to relapse during the 12 months following hospitalization. Survival analysis demonstrated that in-hospital SCQ scores greater than 45 were predictive of better drinking outcomes. The median number of days to relapse after treatment were 30 and 135, respectively, in those with in-hospital SCQ scores less than or equal to 45 compared with those with SCQ scores greater than 45. There were no gender differences in self-efficacy measured during hospitalization, nor were there gender differences in the relationship of self-efficacy to time to relapse. However, men with SCQ scores less than or equal to 45 had fewer abstinent days during follow-up.
Among both men and women being treated for alcohol dependence, a cut-off score of 45 on the SCQ may be especially important in helping clinicians assess patients who are at high risk for more rapid return to drinking after hospitalization.
Journal of studies on alcohol 04/2000; 61(2):345-51.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This was a multicenter investigation examining the efficacy of 4 psychosocial treatments for cocaine-dependent patients.
Four hundred eighty-seven patients were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 manual-guided treatments: individual drug counseling plus group drug counseling (GDC), cognitive therapy plus GDC, supportive-expressive therapy plus GDC, or GDC alone. Treatment was intensive, including 36 possible individual sessions and 24 group sessions for 6 months. Patients were assessed monthly during active treatment and at 9 and 12 months after baseline. Primary outcome measures were the Addiction Severity Index-Drug Use Composite score and the number of days of cocaine use in the past month.
Compared with the 2 psychotherapies and with GDC alone, individual drug counseling plus GDC showed the greatest improvement on the Addiction Severity Index-Drug Use Composite score. Individual group counseling plus GDC was also superior to the 2 psychotherapies on the number of days of cocaine use in the past month. Hypotheses regarding the superiority of psychotherapy to GDC for patients with greater psychiatric severity and the superiority of cognitive therapy plus GDC compared with supportive-expressive therapy plus GDC for patients with antisocial personality traits or external coping style were not confirmed.
Compared with professional psychotherapy, a manual-guided combination of intensive individual drug counseling and GDC has promise for the treatment of cocaine dependence.
Archives of General Psychiatry 07/1999; 56(6):493-502. · 13.77 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Women with current posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) comprise 30-59% of substance abuse treatment samples and experience a more severe course than women with either disorder alone. As yet, no effective treatment for this population has been identified. This paper reports outcome results on 17 women who completed a new manual-based 24-session cognitive behavioral group therapy protocol treatment, based on assessments at pretreatment, during treatment, posttreatment, and at 3-month follow-up. Results showed significant improvements in substance use, trauma-related symptoms, suicide risk, suicidal thoughts, social adjustment, family functioning, problem solving, depression, cognitions about substance use, and didactic knowledge related to the treatment. Patients' treatment attendance, alliance, and satisfaction were also very strong. Treatment completers were more impaired than dropouts, yet more engaged in the treatment. Overall, our data suggest that women with PTSD and substance abuse can be helped when provided with a treatment designed for them. All results are clearly tentative, however, due to the lack of a control group, multiple comparisons, and absence of assessment of dropouts.
Journal of Traumatic Stress 08/1998; 11(3):437-56. · 2.72 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study examined the prevalence of lifetime traumatic events and current symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among treatment-seeking cocaine-dependent outpatients and compared patients with and without PTSD on current substance use, psychopathology, and sociodemographic characteristics.
The subjects were 122 adult cocaine-dependent outpatients participating in a treatment outcome study of psychosocial therapy. In addition to standard self-report and interview measures of psychopathology and substance use, the subjects completed the Trauma History Questionnaire and the PTSD Checklist before entering treatment.
These patients experienced a large number of lifetime traumatic events (mean = 5.7); men experienced more general disasters and crime-related traumas than women, and women experienced more physical and sexual abuse than men. According to self-report measures, 20.5% of the subjects currently met the DSM-III-R criteria for PTSD; the rate of PTSD was 30.2% among women and 15.2% among men. Patients with PTSD had significantly higher rates of co-occurring axis I and axis II disorders, interpersonal problems, medical problems, resistance to treatment, and psychopathology symptoms than patients without PTSD. Psychopathology symptoms represented the most consistent difference between the two groups and provided the best prediction of PTSD status in a logistic regression. However, the groups did not differ significantly in current substance use or sociodemographic characteristics.
These findings underscore the value of screening substance abusers for PTSD, because it can identify a small but substantial number who might require additional treatment. Further studies of the relationship between PTSD and substance abuse appear warranted.
American Journal of Psychiatry 03/1998; 155(2):214-9. · 14.72 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The effect of depression on return to drinking among individuals with alcohol dependence is controversial. From February 1, 1993, to April 15, 1996, we consecutively recruited 40 women and 61 men hospitalized for alcohol dependence and followed them up monthly for 1 year to assess the effect of depression on drinking outcomes.
We conducted structured interviews during hospitalization and monthly following discharge for 1 year to determine whether depression at treatment entry affected the likelihood of return to drinking and whether this effect differed between sexes. Using survival analysis, we examined the effect of depressive symptoms and a diagnosis of current major depression at treatment entry on times to first drink and relapse during follow-up.
A diagnosis of current major depression at the time of hospitalization was associated with shorter times to first drink (hazard ratio, 2.03; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.28-3.21; P=.003) and relapse (hazard ratio, 2.12; 95% CI, 1.32-3.39; P=.002). There was no significant difference between women and men in this effect. Depressive symptoms as measured by the Beck Depression Inventory did not predict time to first drink or relapse in women or men.
A diagnosis of current major depression at entry into inpatient treatment for alcohol dependence predicted shorter times to first drink and relapse in women and men. Our results differ from earlier reports that men and women differ in the effect of depression on return to drinking.
Archives of General Psychiatry 03/1998; 55(3):259-65. · 13.77 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This paper addresses those patients who neither complete treatment nor drop out from clinical trials but who deviate from the protocol treatment by seeking or receiving additional treatment. Psychotherapy researchers may be missing important information by withdrawing these: patients from analyses or combining them with dropouts from treatment. In a multisite psychotherapy outcome study for patients with cocaine dependence, patients who deviated from protocol could be distinguished from completers and dropouts on pretreatment patient characteristics. Patients who deviated from protocol were more likely to be African American, to have higher psychiatric severity, and to have had more previous drug treatment attempts. Data indicate that there is a value in obtaining follow-up assessment after the protocol deviation and including these patients in data analysis to avoid bias in findings. Differential outcome for protocol deviation patients compared to dropouts and completers is discussed.
Psychotherapy Research 01/1998; 8(3):287-306. · 1.75 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The effectiveness of a voluntary depression screening program was assessed by determining 1) whether participants in the 1994 National Depression Screening Day went for recommended follow-up examinations and 2) the characteristics that differentiated those who did and did not return.
Randomly selected participants (N = 1,169) from 99 facilities completed a follow-up telephone survey.
Of 805 people for whom follow-up was recommended, 56.5% (N = 455) went for an appointment. The severity of depressive symptoms in these subjects ranged from severe (33.4%, N = 152) and marked (41.3%, N = 188) to minimal (17.1%, N = 78) and normal (8.1%, N = 37). Subjects with marked or severe depression were more likely to respond to the screening recommendation than were those with minimal depressive symptoms. However, at each level of symptom severity, subjects who had received previous treatment were more likely to adhere to the screening recommendation than were those with no previous treatment. Of those who returned for a recommended follow-up, 72.1% were diagnosed with depression. Of those who did not return, 29.5% cited lack of insurance, under insurance, or inadequate finances, and 38.0% felt they could "handle" depression on their own.
Voluntary screening for depression is an effective way to bring certain untreated depressed individuals to treatment. Inadequate insurance and the belief that individuals can manage depression on their own continue to be barriers to seeking treatment among some depressed individuals who attend a depression screening program.
American Journal of Psychiatry 11/1997; 154(10):1391-7. · 14.72 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The National Institute on Drug Abuse Collaborative Cocaine Treatment Study is a large, multisite psychotherapy clinical trial for outpatients who meet the DSM-IV criteria for cocaine dependence. For 480 randomized patients, the outcomes of 4 treatments are compared for an 18-month period. All treatments include group drug counseling. One treatment also adds cognitive therapy, one adds supportive-expressive psychodynamic therapy, and one adds individual drug counseling; one consists of group drug counseling alone. In addition, 2 specific interaction hypotheses, one involving psychiatric severity and the other involving degree of antisocial personality characteristics, are being tested. This article describes the main aims of the project, the background and rationale for the study design, the rationale for the choice of treatments and patient population, and a brief description of the research plan.
Archives of General Psychiatry 09/1997; 54(8):721-6. · 13.77 Impact Factor