[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Higher street connectivity, land use mix and residential density (collectively referred to as neighbourhood walkability) have been linked to higher levels of walking. The objective of our study was to summarize the current body of knowledge on the association between neighbourhood walkability and biosensor-assessed daily steps in adults.
We conducted a systematic search of PubMed, SCOPUS, and Embase (Ovid) for articles published prior to May 2014 on the association between walkability (based on Geographic Information Systems-derived street connectivity, land use mix, and/or residential density) and daily steps (pedometer or accelerometer-assessed) in adults. The mean differences in daily steps between adults living in high versus low walkable neighbourhoods were pooled across studies using a Bayesian hierarchical model.
The search strategy yielded 8,744 unique abstracts. Thirty of these underwent full article review of which six met the inclusion criteria. Four of these studies were conducted in Europe and two were conducted in Asia. A meta-analysis of four of these six studies indicates that participants living in high compared to low walkable neighbourhoods accumulate 766 more steps per day (95 % credible interval 250, 1271). This accounts for approximately 8 % of recommended daily steps.
The results of European and Asian studies support the hypothesis that higher neighbourhood walkability is associated with higher levels of biosensor-assessed walking in adults. More studies on this association are needed in North America.
BMC Public Health 12/2015; 15(1):768. DOI:10.1186/s12889-015-2082-x · 2.26 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The anthropometric thresholds signaling type 2 diabetes risk have not been well defined for Aboriginal communities. This study examined current thresholds in terms of ability to capture diabetes risk in the Cree of Eeyou Istchee in northern Quebec, Canada.
The study cohort for this analysis included adult participants from the Nituuchischaayihtitaau Aschii Multi-Community Environment and Health Study with complete data on anthropometric measures, fasting glucose, and insulin. Diabetes risk was defined as Homeostatic Model Assessment of Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR) value >2. Positive and negative likelihood ratios (PLR, NLR) of existing obesity thresholds were evaluated (WHO; International Diabetes Federation, IDF; Adult Treatment Panel III, ATP III). Receiver operating curves were examined to estimate optimal thresholds. In a sensitivity analysis, diabetes risk was defined as HOMA-IR >2.7.
The WHO 30 kg/m(2) body mass index (BMI) threshold performed well in women (PLR 5.56, 95% CI 1.95 to 15.9; NLR 0.24, 95% CI 0.19 to 0.31) and men (PLR 7.51, 95% CI 2.94 to 19.2; NLR 0.33, 95% CI 0.27 to 0.41). It was close to the estimated optimal threshold (28.5 kg/m(2)). The ATP III waist circumference threshold (102 cm) performed well in men (PLR 4.64, 95% CI 2.47 to 8.71; NLR 0.21, 95% CI 0.16 to 0.28) and was close to the estimated optimal threshold (101 cm). With diabetes risk defined at HOMA-IR >2.7, PLR values were slightly lower with narrower 95% CIs and optimal thresholds were slightly higher; PLR values remained above 3. For other current thresholds, estimated optimal values were higher and none had a PLR above 2.
A BMI of 30 kg/m(2) in women and men, and a 102 cm waist circumference in men, are meaningful obesity thresholds in this Aboriginal population. Other thresholds require a further evaluation.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Studies suggest a relationship between sitting time and cardiovascular disease mortality. Our aim was to identify socio-demographic, contextual, and clinical (e.g., body composition, diabetes duration) correlates of self-reported sitting time among adults with type 2 diabetes, a clinical population at high risk for cardiovascular disease. We sought to determine if there was an inverse relationship between sitting and step counts in a diabetes cohort in whom we had previously identified low step counts with further lowering in fall/winter.
The cohort included 198 adults (54 % men; age 60.0 SD 11.5 years; Body mass index 30.4 SD 5.6 kg/m(2)) (Montréal, Canada). Socio-demographic, contextual and clinical factors were assessed using standardized questionnaires and step counts with a pedometer over 14 days (concealed viewing windows). Total sitting time was estimated once per season (up to 4 times per year at -month intervals) using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire-Short version. Potential sitting time correlates were evaluated using Bayesian longitudinal hierarchical linear regression models in participants with sitting time data (n = 191).
The average sitting time was 308 (SD 161) minutes/day without variation across seasons. Sitting time correlates were being an immigrant (56 fewer minutes/day spent sitting compared to non- immigrants, 95 % credible interval, CrI: -100, -11) and having a university degree (55 more minutes/day spent sitting compared to those without a university degree, 95 % CrI: 10, 100) after adjustment for potential correlates observed in univariate analyses (sex, age, job status, waist circumference, depressed mood, steps). Correlation between sitting and steps, adjusted for age and sex, was -0.144 (95 % CI: -0.280, 0.002).
There was low correlation between sitting time and step counts. Therefore, high sitting time and low step counts are behaviours that may need to be independently targeted. Interventions to reduce sitting time in adults with type 2 diabetes may need to target non-immigrants and those with a university degree.
BMC Public Health 08/2015; 15(1):793. DOI:10.1186/s12889-015-2086-6 · 2.26 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Citation: Laliberté V, Joseph L and Gold I (2015) A Bayesian approach to latent class modeling for estimating the prevalence of schizophrenia using administrative databases. Front. Psychiatry 6:99. Estimating the incidence and the prevalence of psychotic disorders in the province of Quebec has been the object of some interest in recent years as a contribution to the epidemiological study of the causes of psychotic disorders being carried out primarily in UK and Scandinavia. A number of studies have used administrative data from the Régie de l'assurance maladie du Québec (RAMQ) that includes nearly all Quebec citizens to obtain geographical and temporal prevalence estimates for the illness. However, there has been no investigation of the validity of RAMQ diagnoses for psychotic disorders, and without a measure of the sensitivity and the specificity of these diagnoses, it is impossible to be confident in the accuracy of the estimates obtained. This paper proposes the use of latent class analysis to ascertain the validity of a diagnosis of schizophrenia using RAMQ data.
Frontiers in Psychiatry 08/2015; 6. DOI:10.3389/fpsyt.2015.00099
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
Operator fatigue may negatively influence adenoma detection (AD) during screening colonoscopy.
To better characterize factors affecting AD, including the number of hours worked, and the number and type of procedures performed before an index screening colonoscopy.
A retrospective cohort study was conducted involving individuals undergoing a screening colonoscopy at a major tertiary care hospital in Montreal, Quebec. Individuals were identified using an endoscopic reporting database; AD was identified by an electronic chart review. A hierarchical logistic regression analysis was performed to determine the association between patient- and endoscopist-related variables and AD.
A total of 430 consecutive colonoscopies performed by 10 gastroenterologists and two surgeons were included. Patient mean (± SD) age was 63.4±10.9 years, 56.3% were males, 27.7% had undergone a previous colonoscopy and the cecal intubation rate was 95.7%. The overall AD rate was 25.7%. Age was associated with AD (OR 1.06 [95% CI 1.03 to 1.08]), while female sex (OR 0.44 [95% CI 0.25 to 0.75]), an indication for average-risk screening (OR 0.47 [95% CI 0.27 to 0.80]) and an increase in the number of hours during which endoscopies were performed before the index colonoscopy (OR 0.87 [95% CI 0.76 to 0.99]) were associated with lower AD rates. On exploratory univariable analysis, a threshold of 3 h of endoscopy time performed before the index colonoscopy was associated with decreased AD.
The number of hours devoted to endoscopies before the index colonoscopy was inversely associated with AD rate, with decreased performance possibly as early as within 3 h. This metric should be confirmed in future studies and considered when optimizing scheduling practices.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Despite progress in automated blood pressure measurement (BPM) technology, there is limited research linking hard outcomes to automated office BPM (OBPM) treatment targets and thresholds. Equivalences for automated BPM devices have been estimated from approximations of standardized manual measurements of 140/90 mmHg. Until outcome-driven targets and thresholds become available for automated measurement methods, deriving evidence-based equivalences between automated methods and standardized manual OBPM is the next best solution. The MeasureBP study group was initiated by the Canadian Hypertension Education Program to close this critical knowledge gap. MeasureBP aims to define evidence-based equivalent values between standardized manual OBPM and automated BPM methods by synthesizing available evidence using a systematic review and individual subject-level data meta-analyses. This manuscript provides a review of the literature and MeasureBP study protocol. These results will lay the evidenced-based foundation to resolve uncertainties within blood pressure guidelines which, in turn, will improve the management of hypertension.
Current Hypertension Reports 04/2015; 17(4):533. DOI:10.1007/s11906-015-0533-5 · 3.44 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
We examined the impact of data source and exposure measurement error for ambient NO2 on risk estimates derived from a case-crossover study of emergency room visits for asthma in Windsor, Canada between 2002 and 2009.
Paired personal and fixed-site NO2 data were available from an independent population (47 children and 48 adults) in Windsor between 2005 and 2006. We used linear regression to estimate the relationship and measurement error variance induced between fixed site and personal measurements of NO2, and through a series of simulations, evaluated the potential for a Bayesian model to adjust for this change in scale and measurement error. Finally, we re-analyzed data from the previous case-crossover study adjusting for the estimated change in slope and measurement error.
Correlations between paired NO2 measurements were weak (R(2)≤0.08) and slopes were far from unity (0.0029≤β≤0.30). Adjusting the previous case-crossover analysis suggested a much stronger association between personal NO2 (per 1ppb) (Odds Ratio (OR)=1.276, 95% Credible Interval (CrI): 1.034, 1.569) and emergency room visits for asthma among children relative to the fixed-site estimate (OR=1.024, 95% CrI 1.004-1.045).
Our findings suggest that risk estimates based on fixed-site NO2 concentrations may differ substantially from estimates based on personal exposures if the change in scale and/or measurement error is large. In practice, one must always keep the scale being used in mind when interpreting risk estimates and not assume that coefficients for ambient concentrations reflect risks at the personal level.
Environmental Research 02/2015; 137. DOI:10.1016/j.envres.2015.01.006 · 4.37 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective
To estimate the early prevalence of various electrocardiographic (EKG) abnormalities in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and to evaluate possible associations between repolarization changes (increased corrected QT [QTc] and QT dispersion [QTd]) and clinical and laboratory variables, including the anti-Ro/SSA level and specificity (52 or 60 kd).Methods
We studied adult SLE patients from 19 centers participating in the Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics (SLICC) Inception Registry. Demographics, disease activity (Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Disease Activity Index 2000 [SLEDAI-2K]), disease damage (SLICC/American College of Rheumatology Damage Index [SDI]), and laboratory data from the baseline or first followup visit were assessed. Multivariate logistic and linear regression models were used to asses for any cross-sectional associations between anti-Ro/SSA and EKG repolarization abnormalities.ResultsFor the 779 patients included, mean ± SD age was 35.2 ± 13.8 years, 88.4% were women, and mean ± SD disease duration was 10.5 ± 14.5 months. Mean ± SD SLEDAI-2K score was 5.4 ± 5.6 and mean ± SD SDI score was 0.5 ± 1.0. EKG abnormalities were frequent and included nonspecific ST-T changes (30.9%), possible left ventricular hypertrophy (5.4%), and supraventricular arrhythmias (1.3%). A QTc ≥440 msec was found in 15.3%, while a QTc ≥460 msec was found in 5.3%. Mean ± SD QTd was 34.2 ± 14.7 msec and QTd ≥40 msec was frequent (38.1%). Neither the specificity nor the level of anti-Ro/SSA was associated with QTc duration or QTd, although confidence intervals were wide. Total SDI was significantly associated with a QTc interval exceeding 440 msec (odds ratio 1.38 [95% confidence interval 1.06, 1.79]).ConclusionA substantial proportion of patients with recent-onset SLE exhibited repolarization abnormalities, although severe abnormalities were rare.
Arthritis Care and Research 01/2015; 67(1):128-135. DOI:10.1002/acr.22370 · 4.71 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To estimate rheumatoid arthritis (RA) prevalence in Quebec using administrative health data, comparing across regions.
Cases of RA were ascertained from physician billing and hospitalization data, 1992-2008. We used three case definitions: 1) >= 2 billing diagnoses, submitted by any physician, >= 2 months apart, but within 2 years; 2) >= 1 diagnosis, by a rheumatologist; 3) >=1 hospitalization diagnosis (all based on ICD-9 code 714, and ICD-10 code M05). We combined data across these three case definitions, using Bayesian hierarchical latent class models to estimate RA prevalence, adjusting for the imperfect sensitivity and specificity of the data. We compared urban versus rural regions.
Using our case definitions and no adjustment for error, we defined 75,760 cases for an over-all RA prevalence of 9.9 per thousand residents. After adjusting for the imperfect sensitivity and specificity of our case definition algorithms, we estimated Quebec RA prevalence at 5.6 per 1000 females and 4.1 per 1000 males. The adjusted RA prevalence estimates for older females were the highest for any demographic group (9.9 cases per 1,000), and were similar in rural and urban regions. In younger males and females, and in older males, RA prevalence estimates were lower in rural versus urban areas.
Without adjustment for error inherent in administrative databases, RA prevalence in Quebec was approximately 1%, while adjusted estimates are approximately half that. The lower prevalence in rural areas, seen for most demographic groups, may suggest either true regional variations in RA risk, or under-ascertainment of cases in rural Quebec.
BMC Research Notes 12/2014; 7(1):937. DOI:10.1186/1756-0500-7-937
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Multiplexed point-of-care (POC) devices can rapidly screen for HIV-related co-infections (eg, hepatitis C (HCV), hepatitis B (HBV), syphilis) in one patient visit, but global evidence for this approach remains limited. This study aimed to evaluate a multiplex POC testing strategy to expedite screening for HIV-related co-infections in at-risk populations.
A multiplex strategy was developed with two subsequent versions of an investigational device Miriad. It was evaluated in two non-comparable settings and populations in two countries for feasibility of conduct, detection of new infections, preference and accuracy. Version 1 was evaluated in 375 sexually transmitted disease clinic attendees in Mumbai, India; version 2 was evaluated in 119 injection drug users in Montreal, Canada.
Feasibility (completion rate) of the multiplex strategy was high (86.1% Mumbai; 92.4% Montreal). A total of 170 new infections were detected in Mumbai (56 HIV, 75 HBV, 37 syphilis, 2 HCV) versus 2 in Montreal. Preference was 60% in Mumbai and 97% in Montreal. Miriad version 1 specificities were high: HIV 99.7% (98.3% to 100%), HBV 99.3% (97.6% to 99.9%), HCV 99.7% (98.5% to 99.9%), syphilis 85.2% (80.9% to 88.8%); sensitivities were as follows: HIV 100% (94.8% to 100%), HBV 13.3% (6.6% to 23.2%), HCV 50% (1.3% to 98.7%), syphilis 86.1% (70.5% to 95.3%). With version 2, specificities improved: HIV 100% (97.2% to 100%), HBV 100% (97.3% to 100%), HCV 85.3% (73.8% to 93.0%), syphilis 98.1% (93.3% to 99.8%); sensitivities were: HIV 100% (47.3% to 100%), HCV 80.4% (66.1% to 90.6%), syphilis 100% (22.4% to 100%).
A quad multiplex POC strategy for HIV and co-infections was feasible to operationalise and preferred by patients in both settings. Many new infections were identified in Mumbai and accuracy improved with version 2 of the assay. Such a strategy will help expedite screening for co-infections, particularly where baseline screening is low. These findings are valuable to practitioners, researchers, policymakers and funders involved in initiatives for all four diseases with implications for scale-up.
Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
BMJ Open 12/2014; 4(12):e005040. DOI:10.1136/bmjopen-2014-005040 · 2.27 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Commuters may be exposed to increased levels of traffic-related air pollution owing to close proximity to traffic-emissions. We collected in-vehicle and roof-top air pollution measurements over 238 commutes in Montreal, Toronto, and Vancouver, Canada between 2010 and 2013. Voice recordings were used to collect real-time information on traffic density and the presence of diesel vehicles and multivariable linear regression models were used to estimate the impact of these factors on in-vehicle pollutant concentrations (and indoor/outdoor ratios) along with parameters for road type, land use, and meteorology. In-vehicle PM2.5 and NO2 concentrations consistently exceeded regional outdoor levels and each unit increase in the rate of encountering diesel vehicles (count/minute) was associated with substantial increases (>100%) in in-vehicle concentrations of ultrafine particles (UFPs), black carbon, and PM2.5 as well as strong increases (>15%) in indoor/outdoor ratios. A model based on meteorology and the length of highway roads within a 500 meter buffer explained 53% of the variation in in-vehicle UFPs; however, models for PM2.5 (R2=0.24) and black carbon (R2=0.30) did not perform as well. Our findings suggest that vehicle commuters experience increased exposure to air pollutants and that traffic characteristics, land use, road types, and meteorology are important determinants of these exposures.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Little is known about minor adverse events (MAEs) following outpatient colonoscopies and associated health care resource utilization.
To estimate the rates of incident MAE at two, 14 and 30 days postcolonoscopy, and associated health care resource utilization. A secondary aim was to identify factors associated with cumulative 30-day MAE incidence.
A longitudinal cohort study was conducted among individuals undergoing an outpatient colonoscopy at the Montreal General Hospital (Montreal, Quebec). Before colonoscopy, consecutive individuals were enrolled and interviewed to obtain data regarding age, sex, comorbidities, use of antiplatelets⁄anticoagulants and previous symptoms. Endoscopy reports were reviewed for intracolonoscopy procedures (biopsy, polypectomy). Telephone or Internet follow-up was used to obtain data regarding MAEs (abdominal pain, bloating, diarrhea, constipation, nausea, vomiting, blood in the stools, rectal or anal pain, headaches, other) and health resource use (visits to emergency department, primary care doctor, gastroenterologist; consults with nurse, pharmacist or telephone hotline). Rates of incident MAEs and health resources utilization were estimated using Bayesian hierarchical modelling to account for patient clustering within physician practices.
Of the 705 individuals approached, 420 (59.6%) were enrolled. Incident MAE rates at the two-, 14- and 30-day follow-ups were 17.3% (95% credible interval [CrI] 8.1% to 30%), 10.5% (95% CrI 2.9% to 23.7%) and 3.2% (95% CrI 0.01% to 19.8%), respectively. The 30-day rate of health resources utilization was 1.7%, with 0.95% of participants seeking the services of a physician. No predictors of the cumulative 30-day incidence of MAEs were identified. Discussion: The incidence of MAEs was highest in the 48 h following colonoscopy and uncommon after two weeks, supporting the Canadian Association of Gastroenterology's recommendation for assessment of late complications at 14 days. Predictors of new onset of MAEs were not identified, but wide CrIs did not rule out possible associations. Although <1% of participants reported consulting a physician for MAEs, this figure may represent a substantial number of visits given the increasing number of colonoscopies performed annually.
Postcolonoscopy MAEs are common, occur mainly in the first two weeks postcolonoscopy and result in little use of health resources.
Canadian journal of gastroenterology = Journal canadien de gastroenterologie 12/2014; 28(11):595-599. · 1.98 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To estimate the population-based prevalence and healthcare use for osteoarthritis (OA) by First Nations (FN) and non-First Nations (non-FN) in Alberta, Canada.
A cohort of adults with OA (≥ 2 physician claims in 2 yrs or 1 hospitalization with ICD-9-Clinical Modification code 715x or ICD-10-Canadian Adaptation code M15-19, 1993-2010) was defined with FN determination by premium payer status. Prevalence rates (2007/8) were estimated from the cohort and the population registered with the Alberta Health Care Insurance Plan. Rates of outpatient primary care and specialist visits (orthopedics, rheumatology, internal medicine), arthroplasty (hip and knee), and all-cause hospitalization were estimated.
OA prevalence in FN was twice that of the non-FN population [16.1 vs 7.8 cases/100 population, standardized rate ratio (SRR) adjusted for age and sex 2.06, 95% CI 2.00-2.12]. The SRR (adjusted for age, sex, and location of residence) for primary care visits for OA was nearly double in FN compared with non-FN (SRR 1.88, 95% CI 1.87-1.89), and internal medicine visits were increased (SRR 1.25, 95% CI 1.25-1.26). Visit rates with an orthopedic surgeon (SRR 0.49, 95% CI 0.48-0.50) or rheumatologist (SRR 0.62, 95% CI 0.62-0.63) were substantially lower in FN with OA. Hip and knee arthroplasties were performed less frequently in FN with OA (SRR 0.48, 95% CI 0.47-0.49), but all-cause hospitalization rates were higher (SRR 1.59, 95% CI 1.58-1.60).
We estimate a 2-fold higher prevalence of OA in the FN population with differential healthcare use. Reasons for higher use of primary care and lower use of specialty services and arthroplasty compared with the general population are not yet understood.
The Journal of Rheumatology 11/2014; 42(2). DOI:10.3899/jrheum.140551 · 3.19 Impact Factor