[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT:
Rice is the most important staple food in the world. The rapid development of transgenic rice and its future commercialization have raised concerns regarding transgene flow and its potential environmental risk. It is known that rice is a self-pollinated crop; the outcrossing rate between common cultivars is generally less than 1%. In order to improve the detection sensitivity of rice transgene flow, a male sterile (ms) line BoA with a high outcrossing rate was used as a pollen detector in this study. A concentric circle design was adopted, in which the transgenic rice B2 containing bar gene as a pollen donor was planted in the center circle and the recipient BoA was planted in eight compass sectors. The frequency of transgene flow in compass sectors was analyzed by continuous sampling to generate cumulative data. The results of two years with sound reproducibility demonstrated that the rice gene flow was closely associated with the wind direction. According to the mean frequency of transgene flow, the eight sectors can be divided into two groups: a higher frequency group downstream of the prevailing wind (DPW) with a mean frequency ranging from 6.47 to 26.24%, and a lower frequency group lateral to or upstream of the prevailing wind (UPW) with a mean frequency of 0.39 to 3.03%. On the basis of the cumulative data, 90-96% of the cumulative gene flow events occurred in the four DPW sectors, while it was 4-10% in the four UPW sectors. By using these systematic data, simulation models and isograms of transgene flow in the eight compass sectors were calculated and drawn, respectively.