[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) on glycemic control and pregnancy outcomes in Type 1 diabetic pregnant women. We retrospectively evaluated 42 subjects, 20 treated with CSII and 22 with multiple dose insulin injections (MDI). The two groups were comparable for age, pre-pregnancy BMI, and primiparous rate, whereas women in the CSII group showed a tendency toward a longer diabetes duration (p = 0.06). Pre-pregnancy diabetic retinopathy and/or nephropathy were present in nine women of CSII and three of MDI. In all women metabolic control improved during pregnancy, without differences between the two groups and at the end of gestation HbA1c was 6.3 +/- 0.6 in CSII and 6.1 +/- 1.1% in MDI. Moreover, there were no differences in weight gain, whereas insulin requirement resulted significantly (p = 0.009) lower in CSII than in MDI. We recorded only one severe hypoglycaemic episode in both groups. No cases of deteriorations of the chronic diabetic complications were observed. The delivery occurred at 36.4 +/- 2.2 weeks; birth weight, the rate of large for gestational age, and the parameters of foetal morbidity were similar in both groups. In conclusions, CSII and MDI are both effective in improving maternal glucose control and have both similar pregnancy outcomes.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The superiority of continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) over multiple daily injections (MDI) with glargine is uncertain. In this randomized cross-over study, we compared CSII and MDI with glargine in patients with Type 1 diabetes well controlled with CSII. The primary end-point was glucose variability.
Thirty-nine patients [38.1 +/- 9.3 years old (mean +/- sd), diabetes duration 16.6 +/- 8.2 years, glycated haemoglobin (HbA(1c)) 7.6 +/- 0.8%], already on CSII for at least 6 months, were randomly assigned to CSII with lispro or MDI with lispro and glargine. After 4 months they were switched to the alternative treatment. During the last month of each treatment blood glucose variability was analysed using glucose standard deviation, mean amplitude of glycaemic excursions (MAGE), lability index and average daily risk range (ADRR). As secondary end-points we analysed blood glucose profile, HbA(1c), number of episodes of hypo- and hyperglycaemia, lipid profile, free fatty acids (FFA), growth hormone and treatment satisfaction.
During CSII, glucose variability was 5-12% lower than during MDI with glargine. The difference was significant only before breakfast considering glucose standard deviation (P = 0.011), significant overall using MAGE (P = 0.016) and lability index (P = 0.005) and not significant using ADRR. Although HbA(1c) was similar during both treatments, during CSII blood glucose levels were significantly lower, hyperglycaemic episodes were fewer, daily insulin dose was less, FFA were lower and treatment satisfaction was greater than during MDI with glargine. The frequency of hypoglycaemic episodes was similar during both treatments.
During CSII, glucose variability is lower, glycaemic control better and treatment satisfaction higher than during MDI with glargine.
Diabetic Medicine 04/2008; 25(3):326-32. · 3.24 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The effects of pancreas transplantation (PTx) on diabetic retinopathy (DR) are still debated. We studied the course of DR in 48 patients (age: 40 +/- 7 years; males/females 26/22, body mass index (BMI): 23.0 +/- 2.4 kg/m2, duration of diabetes: 24 +/- 8 years) bearing a successful PTx (combined with a kidney). Follow-up ranged 6-60 months (median: 17 months). Before transplantation, according to the Eurodiab Study classification, 12 patients (25%) had nonproliferative retinopathy (NPDR; mild, moderate or severe), and 36 patients (75%) had laser-treated and/or proliferative retinopathy (LT/PDR). During the follow-up, in the NPDR group improvement/deterioration was defined as regression/progression to a lower/higher retinopathy grade; in the LT/PTD group, stabilization was defined as no new neo-vessel formation or development of new lesions requiring laser-treatment. In the NPDR group, five (41.7%) patients improved of one or more lesion grading, three (25%) patients showed no change, and four (33.3%) patients progressed of one grade. In the LT/PDR group, the post-transplant data were: stabilization in 35 (97%) patients, and worsening in one (3%) patient. The number of improved/stabilized patients was significantly higher in the transplanted than in a control group of nontransplanted type 1 diabetic patients. In conclusion, despite a relatively short follow-up period, successful PTx in our cohort of patients was associated with improvement and/or stabilization of DR in the majority of recipients.
Transplant International 06/2005; 18(5):619-22. · 3.16 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pancreas transplant alone (PTA) represents a growing proportion of overall pancreas transplantations, with 1-year patient and graft survivals of almost 100% and higher than 80%, respectively. PTA can restore normoglycemia without exogenous insulin administration and eliminate acute diabetic complications. In our series of 28 PTA, performed with portal-enteric drainage, 2-year patient and pancreas survivals were 100% and 87%, respectively. In patients with successful transplantation, rapid normalization of blood glucose level and HbA1c concentration was observed, due to restored endogenous insulin secretion. Several classical cardiovascular risk factors were measured before and after transplant, with significant improvements shortly after transplantation. Diabetic retinopathy improved in 58.8% of examined eyes, stabilized in 35.3%, and worsened in 5.9%. In conclusion, PTA represents a clinically relevant option for patients with type 1 diabetes without advanced renal disease. It restores normoglycemia in the vast majority of patients and seems to have a positive impact on late diabetic complications.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Insulin resistance, defined as the inability of insulin to exert a normal biological action at the level of its target tissues, is one of the principal pathogenetic defects of type 2 diabetes. Metformin, the most widely-prescribed insulin-sensitizing agent in current clinical use, improves blood glucose control mainly by improving insulin-mediated suppression of hepatic glucose production, and by enhancing insulin-stimulated glucose disposal in skeletal muscle. Experimental studies show that metformin-mediated improvements in insulin sensitivity may be associated with several mechanisms, including increased insulin receptor tyrosine kinase activity, enhanced glycogen synthesis, and an increase in the recruitment and activity of GLUT4 glucose transporters. In adipose tissue, metformin promotes the re-esterification of free fatty acids and inhibits lipolysis, which may indirectly improve insulin sensitivity through reduced lipotoxicity. The improved glycaemia with metformin is not associated with increased circulating levels of insulin, and the risk of hypoglycaemia with metformin is minimal. The therapeutic profile of metformin supports its use for the control of blood glucose, in diabetic patients and for the prevention of diabetes in subjects with impaired glucose tolerance. Moreover, the improvement by metformin of cardiovascular risk factors associated with the dysmetabolic syndrome may account for the significant improvements in macrovascular outcomes observed in the UK Prospective Diabetes Study.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The effects of pancreas transplant alone (PTA) on cardiovascular risk factors (CRF) and cardiac function in type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) patients are still unsettled.
We studied 13 T1DM patients who received PTA with portal drainage and 11 matched control patients. Parameters of glucose and lipid metabolism and several additional classic CRF were assessed before and up to 6 months posttransplant. Cardiac morphology and function were assessed by Doppler echocardiographic examination.
Insulin independence was promptly achieved and then maintained after PTA. Total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels were significantly lower after transplantation, whereas high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations did not change. Both systolic and diastolic blood pressure values and fibrinogen levels improved significantly. In addition, PTA determined a significant amelioration of several morphologic and functional cardiac indices. None of the measured parameters changed in the control patients.
PTA with portal drainage induces an early improvement of CRF and ameliorates cardiac function in patients with T1DM.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The relationships between lipid levels and atherosclerotic lesions of carotid arteries in kidney graft recipients are still unclear.
We evaluated carotid morphology in 53 recipients of functioning renal transplantation, and studied the relationship of carotid artery wall lesions with relevant clinical and laboratory risk factors for cardiovascular disease. The patients were on stable, cyclosporine-based immunosuppressive therapy.
The main clinical characteristics of patients were: age, 46.5 +/- 10.1 years; males/females, 40/13; body mass index, 25.8 +/- 4.4 kg/m2; duration of transplantation, 43 +/- 52 months. Ultrasonographic scanning of carotid arteries showed the presence of lesions (intimal-media thickness and/or plaque) in 28 patients (52.8%). These recipients differed from patients without carotid lesions in terms of age (50.4 +/- 9.0 vs 42.2 +/- 9.7 years, p < 0.01) and duration of pre-transplant dialysis (4.6 +/- 3.4 vs 2.3 +/- 1.9 years, p < 0.01), whereas no statistically significant difference was observed as for total cholesterol (230 +/- 44 vs 235 +/- 35 mg/dl), LDL-cholesterol (142 +/- 32 vs 143 +/- 30 mg/dl), HDL-cholesterol (52 +/- 12 vs 58 +/- 20 mg/dl) and triglycerides (178 +/- 94 vs 167 +/- 89 mg/dl). The percentage of post-transplant diabetes was 3-fold higher in patients with carotid lesions (25 vs 8%). No difference was observed as for the following parameters: body mass index, duration of transplantation, fibrinogen levels, DDimer concentrations, reactive C-protein values, prevalence of hypertension, percentage of smokers vs non-smokers.
The present study supports the view that carotid artery lesions in kidney graft recipients on stable, cyclosporine-based immunosuppressive therapy may not be related to circulating lipid values.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Sir: Post-transplant alterations of glucose metabolism, in particular post-transplant diabetes mellitus (PTDM), are serious complications of transplantation therapy and are mainly due to the effect of immunosuppression . The reported prevalences of glucose intolerance and PTDM vary widely, and are approximately 3%‐30% in renal and liver transplantation . Most of the published studies suffer from methodogical inconsistencies, in particular regarding the criteria used for the diagnosis of diabetes and other forms of glucose intolerance. Recently, the American Diabetes Association (ADA) and the World Health Organization (WHO) have proposed new diagnostic criteria . To our knowledge, no study has used such criteria to assess the prevalence of glucose metabolism alterations in transplanted patients. With permission of our local ethics committee, we studied 130 kidney recipients (97 men) with pretransplant fasting plasma glucose concentrations less than 110 mg/dl. Based on their post-transplant fasting plasma glucose, we found that the prevalences of impaired fasting glycemia (IFG) and PTDM were 14% and 7%, respectively. When compared with kidney recipients with normal fasting plasma glucose, patients with IFG and PTDM had similar age (48±10 vs. 43±10 years), but higher body mass index (26.2±4.1 vs. 24.5±3.7 kg/m 2 , p