Luis F. Rodríguez

King Abdulaziz University, Djidda, Makkah, Saudi Arabia

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Publications (224)960.83 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) at radio wavelengths can provide astrometry accurate to 10 micro-arcseconds or better (i.e. better than the target GAIA accuracy) without being limited by dust obscuration. This means that unlike GAIA, VLBI can be applied to star-forming regions independently of their internal and line-of-sight extinction. Low-mass young stellar objects (particularly T Tauri stars) are often non-thermal compact radio emitters, ideal for astrometric VLBI radio continuum experiments. Existing observations for nearby regions (e.g. Taurus, Ophiuchus, or Orion) demonstrate that VLBI astrometry of such active T Tauri stars enables the reconstruction of both the regions' 3D structure (through parallax measurements) and their internal kinematics (through proper motions, combined with radial velocities). The extraordinary sensitivity of the SKA telescope will enable similar "tomographic mappings" to be extended to regions located several kpc from Earth, in particular to nearby spiral arm segments. This will have important implications for Galactic science, galactic dynamics and spiral structure theories.
    12/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Jets are ubiquitous in the star-forming process since accretion is intimately associated with outflow. Weak free-free continuum emission in the centimeter domain is associated with these jets. Observations in the cm range are most useful to trace the base of the ionized jets, close to the YSO and its accretion disk, where jets are accelerated and collimated. Optical or near-IR images are obscured by the high extinction present. Radio recombination lines in jets (in combination with proper motions) should provide their 3D kinematics. SKA will be crucial to perform this kind of observations. Thermal radio jets are associated with both low and high mass protostars. The ionizing mechanism appears to be related to shocks in the associated outflows, as suggested by the observed correlation between the centimeter luminosity and the outflow momentum rate. From this correlation and that with the bolometric luminosity of the driving star it will be possible to discriminate with SKA between unresolved HII regions and jets, and to infer physical properties of the embedded objects. Some jets show indications of non-thermal emission (negative spectral indices) in their lobes. Linearly polarized synchrotron emission has been found in the lobes of the jet of HH 80-81, allowing us to measure the direction and intensity of the magnetic field, a clue ingredient in determining the jet collimation and ejection mechanisms. As only a fraction of the emission is polarized, very sensitive observations such as those that will be feasible with SKA are required to perform these studies in other objects. Jets are common in many kinds of astrophysical scenarios. Characterizing YSO radio jets, whose physical conditions can be reliably determined from their thermal emission, would be also useful in understanding acceleration and collimation mechanisms in all kinds of astrophysical jets.
    12/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: We present a multi-epoch radio study of the Taurus-Auriga star-forming complex made with the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array at frequencies of 4.5 GHz and 7.5 GHz. We detect a total of 610 sources, 59 of which are related to young stellar objects and 18 to field stars. The properties of 56\% of the young stars are compatible with non-thermal radio emission. We also show that the radio emission of more evolved young stellar objects tends to be more non-thermal in origin and, in general, that their radio properties are compatible with those found in other star forming regions. By comparing our results with previously reported X-ray observations, we notice that young stellar objects in Taurus-Auriga follow a G\"{u}del-Benz relation with $\kappa$=0.03, as we previously suggested for other regions of star formation. In general, young stellar objects in Taurus-Auriga and in all the previous studied regions seem to follow this relation with a dispersion of $\sim1$ dex. Finally, we propose that most of the remaining sources are related with extragalactic objects but provide a list of 46 unidentified radio sources whose radio properties are compatible with a YSO nature.
    12/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: We present high angular resolution ($\sim$ 0.3$"$) submillimeter continuum (0.85 mm) and line observations of the O-type protostar IRAS 16547$-$4247 carried out with the Atacama Large Millimeter/Submillimeter Array (ALMA). In the 0.85 mm continuum band, the observations revealed two compact sources (with a separation of 2$"$), one of them associated with IRAS 16547$-$4247, and the other one to the west. Both sources are well resolved angularly, revealing a clumpy structure. On the other hand, the line observations revealed a rich variety of molecular species related to both continuum sources. In particular, we found a large number of S-bearing molecules, such as the rare molecule methyl mercaptan (CH$_3$SH). At scales larger than 10,000 AU, molecules (e.g., SO$_2$ or OCS) mostly with low excitation temperatures in the upper states (E$_k$ $\lesssim$ 300 K) are present in both millimeter continuum sources, and show a southeast-northwest velocity gradient of 7 km s$^{-1}$ over 3$"$ (165 km s$^{-1}$ pc$^{-1}$). We suggest that this gradient probably is produced by the thermal (free-free) jet emerging from this object with a similar orientation at the base. At much smaller scales (about 1000 AU), molecules with high excitation temperatures (E$_k$ $\gtrsim$ 500 K) are tracing a rotating structure elongated perpendicular to the orientation of the thermal jet, which we interpret as a candidate disk surrounding IRAS 16547$-$4247. The dynamical mass corresponding to the velocity gradient of the candidate to disk is about 20 M$_\odot$, which is consistent with the bolometric luminosity of IRAS 16547$-$4247.
    11/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: We present $^{12}$CO(2-1) line and 1300 $\mu$m continuum observations made with the Submillimeter Array (SMA) of the young star DG Tau B. We find, in the continuum observations, emission arising from the circumstellar disk surrounding DG Tau B. The $^{12}$CO(2-1) line observations, on the other hand, revealed emission associated with the disk and the asymmetric outflow related with this source. Velocity asymmetries about the flow axis are found over the entire length of the flow. The amplitude of the velocity differences is of the order of 1 -- 2 km s$^{-1}$ over distances of about 300 -- 400 AU. We interpret them as a result of outflow rotation. The sense of the outflow and disk rotation is the same. Infalling gas from a rotating molecular core cannot explain the observed velocity gradient within the flow. Magneto-centrifugal disk winds or photoevaporated disk winds can produce the observed rotational speeds if they are ejected from a keplerian disk at radii of several tens of AU. Nevertheless, these slow winds ejected from large radii are not very massive, and cannot account for the observed linear momentum and angular momentum rates of the molecular flow. Thus, the observed flow is probably entrained material from the parent cloud. DG Tau B is a good laboratory to model in detail the entrainment process and see if it can account for the observed angular momentum.
    11/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: We report the detection, made using ALMA, of the 92 GHz continuum and hydrogen recombination lines (HRLs) H40$\alpha$, H42$\alpha$, and H50$\beta$ emission toward the ionized wind associated with the high-mass young stellar object G345.4938+01.4677. This is the luminous central dominating source located in the massive and dense molecular clump associated with IRAS 16562$-$3959. The HRLs exhibit Voigt profiles, a strong signature of Stark broadening. We successfully reproduce the observed continuum and HRLs simultaneously using a simple model of a slow ionized wind in local thermodynamic equilibrium, with no need a high-velocity component. The Lorentzian line wings imply electron densities of $5\times10^7$ cm$^{-3}$ on average. In addition, we detect SO and SO$_2$ emission arising from a compact ($\sim3000$ AU) molecular core associated with the central young star. The molecular core exhibits a velocity gradient perpendicular to the jet-axis, which we interpret as evidence of rotation. The set of observations toward G345.4938+01.4677 are consistent with it being a young high-mass star associated with a slow photo-ionized wind.
    The Astrophysical Journal 10/2014; 796(2). · 6.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: AB Aur is a Herbig Ae star with a transitional disk. Transitional disks present substantial dust clearing in their inner regions, most probably because of the formation of one or more planets, although other explanations are still viable. In transitional objects, accretion is found to be about an order of magnitude smaller than in classical full disks. Since accretion is believed to be correlated with outflow activity, centimeter free-free jets are expected to be present in association with these systems, at weaker levels than in classical protoplanetary (full) systems. We present new observations of the centimeter radio emission associated with the inner regions of AB Aur and conclude that the morphology, orientation, spectral index and lack of temporal variability of the centimeter source imply the presence of a collimated, ionized outflow. The radio luminosity of this radio jet is, however, about 20 times smaller than that expected for a classical system of similar bolometric luminosity. We conclude that centimeter continuum emission is present in association with stars with transitional disks, but at levels than are becoming detectable only with the upgraded radio arrays. On the other hand, assuming that the jet velocity is 300 km s$^{-1}$, we find that the ratio of mass loss rate to accretion rate in AB Aur is $\sim$0.1, similar to that found for less evolved systems.
    The Astrophysical Journal Letters 08/2014; 793(1). · 5.60 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We report on Submillimeter Array observations of the 870 micron continuum and CO(3-2), 13CO(2-1) and C18O(2-1) line emission of a faint object, SMM2E, near the driving source of the HH797 outflow in the IC348 cluster. The continuum emission shows an unresolved source for which we estimate a mass of gas and dust of 30 Mjup, and the CO(3-2) line reveals a compact bipolar outflow centred on SMM2E, and barely seen also in 13CO(2-1). In addition, C18O(2-1) emission reveals hints of a possible rotating envelope/disk perpendicular to the outflow, for which we infer a dynamical mass of ~16 Mjup. In order to further constrain the accreted mass of the object, we gathered data from Spitzer, Herschel, and new and archive submillimetre observations, and built the Spectral Energy Distribution (SED). The SED can be fitted with one single modified black-body from 70 micron down to 2.1 cm, using a dust temperature of ~24 K, a dust emissivity index of 0.8, and an envelope mass of ~35 Mjup. The bolometric luminosity is 0.10 Lsun, and the bolometric temperature is 35 K. Thus, SMM2E is comparable to the known Class 0 objects in the stellar domain. An estimate of the final mass indicates that SMM2E will most likely remain substellar, and the SMM2E outflow force matches the trend with luminosity known for young stellar objects. Thus, SMM2E constitutes an excellent example of a Class 0 proto-brown dwarf candidate which forms as a scaled-down version of low-mass stars. Finally, SMM2E seems to be part of a wide (~2400 AU) multiple system of Class 0 sources.
    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 07/2014; 444(1). · 5.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present Very Large Array observations at 7 mm that trace the thermal emission of large dust grains in the HD 169142 protoplanetary disk. Our images show a ring of enhanced emission of radius ~25-30 AU, whose inner region is devoid of detectable 7 mm emission. We interpret this ring as tracing the rim of an inner cavity or gap, possibly created by a planet or a substellar companion. The ring appears asymmetric, with the western part significantly brighter than the eastern one. This azimuthal asymmetry is reminiscent of the lopsided structures that are expected to be produced as a consequence of trapping of large dust grains. Our observations also reveal an outer annular gap at radii from ~40 to ~70 AU. Unlike other sources, the radii of the inner cavity, the ring, and the outer gap observed in the 7 mm images, which trace preferentially the distribution of large (mm/cm sized) dust grains, coincide with those obtained from a previous near-infrared polarimetric image, which traces scattered light from small (micron- sized) dust grains. We model the broad-band spectral energy distribution and the 7 mm images to constrain the disk physical structure. From this modeling we infer the presence of a small (radius ~0.6 AU) residual disk inside the central cavity, indicating that the HD 169142 disk is a pre-transitional disk. The distribution of dust in three annuli with gaps in between them suggests that the disk in HD 169142 is being disrupted by at least two planets or substellar objects.
    The Astrophysical Journal. 07/2014; 791(2).
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    Luis F. Rodríguez, Luis A. Zapata, Aina Palau
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    ABSTRACT: We present sensitive 2.1 and 3.3 cm JVLA radio continuum observations of the region IC 348 SW. We detect a total of 10 compact radio sources in the region, of which seven are first reported here. One of the sources is associated with the remarkable periodic time-variable infrared source LRLL 54361, opening the possibility of monitoring this object at radio wavelengths. Four of the sources appear to be powering outflows in the region, including HH 211 and HH 797. In the case of the rotating outflow HH 797 we detect at its center a double radio source, separated by $\sim3"$. Two of the sources are associated with infrared stars that possibly have gyrosynchrotron emission produced in active magnetospheres. Finally, three of the sources are interpreted as background objects.
    The Astrophysical Journal 06/2014; 790(1). · 6.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present results from a high-sensitivity (60 $\mu$Jy), large-scale (2.26 square degree) survey obtained with the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array as part of the Gould's Belt Survey program. We detected 374 and 354 sources at 4.5 and 7.5 GHz, respectively. Of these, 148 are associated with previously known Young Stellar Objects (YSOs). Another 86 sources previously unclassified at either optical or infrared wavelengths exhibit radio properties that are consistent with those of young stars. The overall properties of our sources at radio wavelengths such as their variability and radio to X-ray luminosity relation are consistent with previous results from the Gould's Belt Survey. Our detections provide target lists for followup VLBA radio observations to determine their distances as YSOs are located in regions of high nebulosity and extinction, making it difficult to measure optical parallaxes.
    The Astrophysical Journal 06/2014; 790(1). · 6.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present new deep ($\sigma\sim6~\mu$Jy) radio images of the HH~124~IRS Radio Cluster at 4.8 and 7.5 GHz. We detect a total of 50 radio sources, most of them compact. Variability and spectral indices were analyzed in order to determine the nature of the sources and of their radio emission. A proper motion study was also performed for several of these radio sources using radio observation previously reported. Our analysis shows that 11 radio sources can be related with Galactic objects, most of them probably young stars. Interestingly, eight of these sources are in an area less than 1 square arcminute in size. The importance of such compact clusters resides in that all its members can be observed in a single pointing with most telescopes, and are, therefore, ideal for multi-wavelength studies of variability. Another 4 of the detected sources are clearly extragalactic. Finally, we propose from statistical arguments that from the remaining sources, about 10 are Galactic, but our study does not allow us to identify which of the sources fall in that specific category. The relatively large proper motions observed for the sources in HH~124~IRS suggest that this region is located at about 400 pc from the Sun. This is significantly smaller than the $\sim$800--900 pc distance usually assigned to the nearby open cluster NGC~2264 with which HH~124 is thought to be associated. However, a reanalysis of the Hipparcos parallaxes for members of NGC~2264, a convergent point approach, and a kinematic analysis all argue in favor of a distance of order 400 pc for NGC~2264 as well.
    The Astrophysical Journal 04/2014; 788(2). · 6.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present new optical time-resolved photometry and medium-resolution spectroscopy of V2187 Cyg. We confirm its classification as a beta Cephei star based on sinusoidal light variations with a period of 0.2539 days and mean amplitudes of 0.037 and 0.042 magnitudes in "i" and "V", respectively. We classified the spectrum of this star B2-3V with no evidence of variations in the profiles of its absorption lines in timescales of hours or days. The stellar spectrum is totally absent of emission lines. We detected unexpected faint radio continuum emission (between 0.4 and 0.8 mJy at 6-cm) showing a sinusoidal variation with a period of 12.8 days. The radio spectrum is thermal. We searched in the Very Large Array archive for radio continuum emission toward other 15 beta Cephei stars. None of these additional stars, some of them much closer to the Sun than V2187 Cyg, was detected, indicating that radio emission is extremely uncommon toward beta Cephei stars.
    Revista mexicana de astronomía y astrofísica 04/2014; 50:127. · 1.07 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Synchrotron emission at radio wavelengths is commonly found in relativistic jets from active galactic nuclei (AGNs) and microquasars and allows the study of the magnetic field in these kind of jets. In contrast, the radio emission from jets from young stellar objecs (YSOs) is usually of very different nature: thermal free-free emission, which does not provide direct information about their magnetic field. Thus, that the magnetic field is still one of the most unknown physical parameters in these YSO jets. However, very recently, we detected for the first time polarized synchrotron emission from of a YSO (HH 80-81), a result that has two important consequences. First, it allows to study the magnetic field in a YSO jet by analyzing the properties of the synchrotron emission, in a similar way than in the case of AGN jets. Secondly, the presence of synchrotron emission in a YSO jet implies the presence of relativistic particles, and therefore, an acceleration mechanism that should be taken place in these "slow" jets. These results open new windows for the study of YSO jets in a wide range of wavelengths, from radio to X- and Gamma-rays.
    The European Physical Journal Conferences 12/2013; 61:03003-.
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    ABSTRACT: We report JVLA 8-10 GHz ($\lambda$=3.0-3.7 cm) monitoring observations toward the YSO cluster R Coronae Australis (R\,CrA), taken in 2012, from March 15 to September 12. These observations were planned to measure the radio flux variabilities in timescales from 0.5 hours to several days, to tens of days, and up to $\sim$200 days. We found that among the YSOs detectable in individual epochs, in general, the most reddened objects in the \textit{Spitzer} observations show the highest mean 3.5 cm Stokes \textit{I} emission, and the lowest fractional variabilities on $<$200-day timescales. The brightest radio flux emitters in our observations are the two reddest sources IRS7W and IRS7E. In addition, by comparing with observations taken in 1996-1998 and 2005, we found that the radio fluxes of these two sources have increased by a factor $\sim$1.5. The mean 3.5-cm fluxes of the three Class I/II sources IRSI, IRS2, and IRS6 appear to be correlated with their accretion rates derived by a previous near infrared line survey. The weakly accreting Class I/II YSOs, or those in later evolutionary stages, present radio flux variability on $<$0.5-hour timescales. Some YSOs were detected only during occasional flaring events. The source R\,CrA went below our detection limit during a few fading events.
    The Astrophysical Journal 11/2013; 780(2). · 6.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present Very Large Array continuum observations made at 8.3 GHz toward the dense core B59, in the Pipe Nebula. We detect six compact sources, of which five are associated with the five most luminous sources at 70 micrometer in the region, while the remaining one is probably a background source. We propose that the radio emission is free-free from the ionized outflows present in these protostars. We discuss the kinematical impact of these winds in the cloud. We also propose that these winds are optically thick in the radio but optically thin in the X-rays and that this characteristic can explain why X-rays from the magnetosphere are detected in three of them, while the radio emission is most probably dominated by the free-free emission from the external layers of the wind.
    Revista mexicana de astronomía y astrofísica 08/2013; · 1.07 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present large-scale ($\sim$ 2000 square arcminutes), deep ($\sim$ 20 $\mu$Jy), high-resolution ($\sim$ 1$''$) radio observations of the Ophiuchus star-forming complex obtained with the Karl G.\ Jansky Very Large Array at $\lambda$ = 4 and 6 cm. In total, 189 sources were detected, 56 of them associated with known young stellar sources, and 4 with known extragalactic objects; the other 129 remain unclassified, but most of them are most probably background quasars. The vast majority of the young stars detected at radio wavelengths have spectral types K or M, although we also detect 4 objects of A/F/B types and 2 brown dwarf candidates. At least half of these young stars are non-thermal (gyrosynchrotron) sources, with active coronas characterized by high levels of variability, negative spectral indices, and (in some cases) significant circular polarization. As expected, there is a clear tendency for the fraction of non-thermal sources to increase from the younger (Class 0/I or flat spectrum) to the more evolved (Class III or weak line T Tauri) stars. The young stars detected both in X-rays and at radio wavelengths broadly follow a G\"udel-Benz relation, but with a different normalization than the most radio-active types of stars. Finally, we detect a $\sim$ 70 mJy compact extragalactic source near the center of the Ophiuchus core, which should be used as gain calibrator for any future radio observations of this region.
    The Astrophysical Journal 07/2013; 775(1). · 6.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present new Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array observations of the compact (~ 0.05"), time-variable radio source projected near the center of the ultracompact HII region W3(OH). The analysis of our new data as well as of VLA archival observations confirms the variability of the source on timescales of years and for a given epoch indicates a spectral index of \alpha = 1.3 +- 0.3 (S_\nu \propto \nu^\alpha). This spectral index and the brightness temperature of the source (~6,500 K) suggest that we are most probably detecting partially optically thick free-free radiation. The radio source is probably associated with the ionizing star of W3(OH), but an interpretation in terms of an ionized stellar wind fails because the detected flux densities are orders of magnitude larger than expected. We discuss several scenarios and tentatively propose that the radio emission could arise in a static ionized atmosphere around a fossil photoevaporated disk.
    The Astrophysical Journal 06/2013; 772(2). · 6.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present (sub)millimeter line and continuum observations in a mosaicing mode of the massive star forming region Cepheus A East made with the Submillimeter Array (SMA). Our mosaic covers a total area of about 3$'$ $\times$ 12$'$ centered in the HW 2/3 region. For the first time, this observational study encloses a high angular resolution ($\sim$ 3$''$) together with a large scale mapping of Cepheus A East. We report compact and high velocity $^{12}$CO(2-1) emission associated with the multiple east-west bright H$_2$ condensations present in the region. Blueshifted and redshifted gas emission is found towards the east as well as west of HW 2/3. The observations suggest the presence of multiple large-scale east-west outflows that seems to be powered at smaller scales by radio sources associated with the young stars HW2, HW3c and HW3d. A kinematical study of part of the data suggests that the molecular outflow powered by HW2 is precesing with time as recently reported. Our data reveal five periodic ejections of material separated approximately every 10$^\circ$ as projected in the plane of the sky. The most recent ejections appear to move toward the plane of the sky. An energetic explosive event as the one that occurred in Orion BN/KL or DR21 does not explain the kinematics, and the dynamical times of the multiple ejections found here. The continuum observations only revealed a strong millimeter source associated with the HW 2/3 region. High angular resolution observations allow us to resolve this extended dusty object in only two compact sources (with spatial sizes of approximately 300 AU) associated with HW2 and HW3c. Finally, the bright optical/X-Ray HH 168 -- GDD37 object might be produced by strong shocks related with the outflow from HW3c.
    05/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: Sensitive high angular resolution ($\sim$ 2$"$) CO(2-1) line observations made with the Submillimeter Array (SMA) of the flow emanating from the high-mass star forming region DR21 located in the Cygnus X molecular cloud are presented. These new interferometric observations indicate that this well known enigmatic outflow appears to have been produced by an explosive event that took place about 10,000 years ago, and that might be related with the disintegration of a massive stellar system, as the one that occurred in Orion BN/KL 500 years ago, but about 20 times more energetic. This result therefore argues in favor of the idea that the disintegration of young stellar systems perhaps is a frequent phenomenon present during the formation of the massive stars. However, many more theoretical and observational studies are still needed to confirm our hypothesis.
    The Astrophysical Journal Letters 02/2013; 765(2). · 5.60 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

3k Citations
960.83 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2013–2014
    • King Abdulaziz University
      • Faculty of Sciences
      Djidda, Makkah, Saudi Arabia
    • Max Planck Institute for Radio Astronomy
      Bonn, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany
  • 1990–2014
    • University of Santiago, Chile
      • Departamento de Economía
      CiudadSantiago, Santiago Metropolitan, Chile
    • Atomic Energy and Alternative Energies Commission
      Fontenay, Île-de-France, France
    • Instituto Nacional de Astrofísica, Óptica y Electrónica (INAOE)
      Cholula de Riva dabia, Puebla, Mexico
  • 1987–2014
    • Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México
      • • Centre of Radio Astronomy and Astrophysics
      • • Institute of Astronomy
      Ciudad de México, The Federal District, Mexico
  • 1994–2013
    • National Radio Astronomy Observatory
      Charlottesville, Virginia, United States
  • 1987–2013
    • Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics
      • Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory
      Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States
  • 2010
    • Spanish National Research Council
      • Andalusian Astrophysics Institute
      Madrid, Madrid, Spain
  • 2001
    • University of Chile
      CiudadSantiago, Santiago Metropolitan, Chile
  • 1989–1999
    • Instituto De Astrofisica De Andalucia
      Granata, Andalusia, Spain
  • 1993–1994
    • University of Barcelona
      • Department of Astronomy and Metereology
      Barcino, Catalonia, Spain
  • 1991
    • Institut d'Estudis Catalans
      Barcino, Catalonia, Spain