Lise Gauvin

Centre hospitalier de l'Université de Montréal (CHUM), Montréal, Quebec, Canada

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Publications (207)517.46 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Few studies consider how risk factors within multiple levels of influence operate synergistically to determine childhood obesity. We used recursive partitioning analysis to identify unique combinations of individual, familial, and neighborhood factors that best predict obesity in children, and tested whether these predict 2-year changes in body mass index (BMI). Data were collected in 2005-2008 and in 2008-2011 for 512 Quebec youth (8-10 years at baseline) with a history of parental obesity (QUALITY study). CDC age- and sex-specific BMI percentiles were computed and children were considered obese if their BMI was ≥95(th) percentile. Individual (physical activity and sugar-sweetened beverage intake), familial (household socioeconomic status and measures of parental obesity including both BMI and waist circumference), and neighborhood (disadvantage, prestige, and presence of parks, convenience stores, and fast food restaurants) factors were examined. Recursive partitioning, a method that generates a classification tree predicting obesity based on combined exposure to a series of variables, was used. Associations between resulting varying risk group membership and BMI percentile at baseline and 2-year follow up were examined using linear regression. Recursive partitioning yielded 7 subgroups with a prevalence of obesity equal to 8%, 11%, 26%, 28%, 41%, 60%, and 63%, respectively. The 2 highest risk subgroups comprised i) children not meeting physical activity guidelines, with at least one BMI-defined obese parent and 2 abdominally obese parents, living in disadvantaged neighborhoods without parks and, ii) children with these characteristics, except with access to ≥1 park and with access to ≥1 convenience store. Group membership was strongly associated with BMI at baseline, but did not systematically predict change in BMI. Findings support the notion that obesity is predicted by multiple factors in different settings and provide some indications of potentially obesogenic environments. Alternate group definitions as well as longer duration of follow up should be investigated to predict change in obesity.
    International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity 12/2015; 12(1). DOI:10.1186/s12966-015-0175-7 · 3.68 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Researchers and practitioners are increasingly interested in public bicycle share programs (PBSP). Greater PBSP use promotes health benefits through increased physical activity yet financial costs and distant location of docking stations are barriers to PBSP uptake and reach of health promoting amenities is poorer among lesser educated individuals. However, lack of awareness of PBSP is the first barrier to overcome. This study examined 2-year changes in lack of awareness of a transport-related innovation implemented in Spring 2009 in Montreal, Canada, namely a PBSP called BIXI© as a function of proximity to bicycle docking stations and educational attainment As part of a larger investigation, a repeated cross-sectional design was used. A sample of 7011 adults was recruited through random-digit dialling to landline telephones in three population surveys: prior to implementation (n=2000), after season 1 (n=2502), and after season 2 (n=2509). Multivariable logistic regression analyses examined associations of survey periods, proximity to docking stations, and education with lack of awareness while controlling for socio-demographic and health characteristics. At baseline, lower education and absence of docking stations within walking distance were associated with lower likelihood of awareness of the PBSP. There was a greater likelihood of being PBSP-unaware among those with lower education after season 1 implementation in comparison to those with higher education (OR=1.60, 95%CI: 1.18, 2.19). Those with lower education after season 2 implementation in neighbourhoods where PBSP was available were more likely to be PBSP-unaware in comparison to those with higher education in neighbourhoods without PBSP docking stations (OR=1.63, 95%CI: 1.01, 2.64). Although lack of awareness decreased over time, greater percentages of being PBSP-unaware were observed among those with lower education and living in neighbourhoods both with and without PBSP docking stations. Despite accessibility of the PBSP docking stations in neighbourhoods, inequalities in awareness persist.
    05/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.jth.2015.04.005
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    ABSTRACT: Walking has been associated with lower depressive symptoms. However, walking may be performed for different purposes and there is uncertainty regarding the optimal amount (duration and frequency) of walking among older adults.
    Mental Health and Physical Activity 02/2015; 8. DOI:10.1016/j.mhpa.2015.02.001
  • Transportation Research Record Journal of the Transportation Research Board 12/2014; 2468(-1):74-83. DOI:10.3141/2468-09 · 0.44 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Tweens' awareness and understanding of a communication campaign were examined.•Proportions of recall and recognition decreased across survey periods.•High understanding was achieved among tweens aware of the campaign.•A significant sex by survey period interaction effect was observed for recall.•Girls and tweens in primary school had higher recognition of the campaign.
    Preventive Medicine 12/2014; 69. DOI:10.1016/j.ypmed.2014.10.018 · 2.93 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Few international studies examine public bicycle share programs (PBSP) health impacts. We describe the protocol for the International Bikeshare Impacts on Cycling and Collisions Study (IBICCS).
    BMC Public Health 10/2014; 14(1):1103. DOI:10.1186/1471-2458-14-1103 · 2.32 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Accessibility to services and amenities is related to social participation in older adults. However, the mechanisms underlying this association are not clear. Transit use and walking may be potential mediating variables. The aim of this study was to investigate whether frequency of transit use and frequency of walking mediated the relationship between accessibility to services and amenities conducive to social participation (SACSP) and social participation itself among a sample of older adults. Participants were 519 older adults from the VoisiNuAge study. Multiple mediation and separate mediation analyses were conducted to investigate whether frequency of transit use and frequency of walking mediated the association between accessibility to SACSP and social participation, controlling for sociodemographic variables. Results showed that transit use was a significant mediator in multiple and separate mediation analyses. Walking frequency was not a significant mediator in multiple mediation analyses, and conflicting results were observed for separate mediation analyses involving walking. We conclude that the association between accessibility to SACSP and social participation seems to be partly mediated by transit use, but results involving walking should be interpreted cautiously.
    10/2014; 2(1). DOI:10.1016/j.jth.2014.09.007
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    ABSTRACT: This natural experiment examines the effect of a public bicycle share program on cognitions and investigates the moderating influence of socioeconomic status on this effect. Two cross-sectional population-based surveys were conducted. Intention and self-efficacy to use the public bicycle share program were assessed by questionnaire. A difference-in-differences approach was adopted using logistic regression analyses. A significant effect of the public bicycle share program was observed on intention (exposure × time; odds ratio = 3.41; 95% confidence interval: 1.50-7.73) and self-efficacy (exposure; odds ratio = 1.61; 95% confidence interval: 1.28-2.01). A positive effect on intention was observed among individuals with low income (exposure × time; odds ratio = 27.85; 95% confidence interval: 2.51-309.25). Implementing a public bicycle share program is associated with increases in intention and self-efficacy for public bicycle share use, although some social inequalities persist.
    Journal of Health Psychology 08/2014; DOI:10.1177/1359105314542820 · 1.22 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background Childhood poverty is associated with poorer food consumption but longitudinal data are limited. The objective was to assess if food consumption differs depending on age (6, 7, 10 and 12 years) and pattern of poverty. Methods Participants were from the 1998-2010 'Quebec Longitudinal Study of Child Development' birth cohort. Poverty was defined as income below the low-income thresholds established by Statistics Canada which adjusts for household size and geographic region. Multiple imputation was used for missing data, and latent class growth analysis identified poverty trajectories. Multivariable ordinal logistic regression assessed the association between poverty and greater consumption of milk, cheese, fruits, vegetables, sweets and sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB). Results Four poverty trajectories were identified: 1 reference category (stable non-poor) and 3 higher-risk categories (stable poor, increasing and decreasing risk). The probability of more frequent consumption was lower among children from stable poor households compared to children from stable non-poor households for fruit (6, 10 and 12 years), milk and vegetables (6, 7, 10 and 12 years) but was higher for SSB (10 and 12 years). Among children from increasing and decreasing poverty households compared to stable non-poor households, the probability of greater consumption of fruits and vegetables was lower and greater consumption of SSB was higher by the age of 12 years. Conclusions While experiencing continual exposure to poverty has detrimental effects on food consumption throughout childhood, the association for milk, fruits and vegetables does not differ across age. Intermittent exposure to poverty may also have long-lasting effects.
    Journal of Epidemiology &amp Community Health 06/2014; 68(10). DOI:10.1136/jech-2014-203951 · 3.29 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Favorable public opinion and support for policies are essential to favor the sustainability of environmental interventions. This study examined public perceptions and support for active living policies associated with implementing a public bicycle share program (PBSP).
    Journal of physical activity & health 06/2014; DOI:10.1123/jpah.2013-0206 · 1.95 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background Two thirds of the U.S. population is overweight or obese, but those living in poverty are disproportionately affected. Although 30%−50% of Americans report currently trying to lose weight, some strategies may be counterproductive. Little is known about how income may be associated with weight-loss strategies. Purpose This study aims to determine the association between income and weight-loss strategies in the general U.S. population. Methods Cross-sectional data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were collected in 1999−2010 and analyzed in 2012. Annual household income was categorized as <$20,000, $20,000−$44,999, $45,000−$74,999, ≥$75,000 (ref). Analyses were stratified by age (youth: aged 8−19 years, n=3,184; adults: aged ≥20 years, n=5,643) and included sampling weights. Multivariable logistic regression assessed the likelihood of using specific strategies and utilizing strategies consistent with recommendations (such as exercising or reducing fat or sweets) and inconsistent (such as skipping meals or fasting) and adjusted for gender, age, ethnicity, and whether the person was overweight or obese. Analyses among adults were also adjusted for marital status and education. Results Compared to the ref, both youth and adults with household income <$20,000/year were 33% (95% CI=0.5, 0.9) and 50% (95% CI=0.4, 0.6) less likely to use strategies consistent with recommendations to lose weight, respectively. Youth from households with income <$20,000/year were 2.5 times (95% CI=1.8, 3.5) more likely to use inconsistent strategies, but this association was not observed among adults. Conclusions Stronger efforts to emphasize weight-loss strategies consistent with recommendations and the distinction between consistent and inconsistent strategies are needed, especially among lower socioeconomic groups.
    American Journal of Preventive Medicine 06/2014; 46(6):585–592. DOI:10.1016/j.amepre.2014.01.022 · 4.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: DNA methylation allows for the environmental regulation of gene expression and is believed to link environmental stressors to such mental-illness phenotypes as eating disorders. Numerous studies have shown an association between Bulimia Nervosa (BN) and variations in Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF). BDNF has also been linked to Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) and to such traits as reward dependence. We examined the extent to which BDNF methylation corresponded to bulimic or normal-eater status, and also to presence of comorbid Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) and childhood abuse. Our sample consisted of 64 women with BN and 32 normal-eater (NE) control women. Participants were assessed for eating-disorder symptoms, comorbid psychopathology, and childhood trauma, and then provided blood samples for methylation analyses. We observed a significant site x group (BN vs. NE) interaction indicating that women with BN showed increases in methylation at specific regions of the BDNF promoter. Furthermore, examining effects of childhood abuse and BPD, we observed significant site x group interactions such that groups composed of individuals with childhood abuse or BPD had particularly high levels of methylation at selected CpG sites. Our findings suggest that BN, especially when co-occurring with childhood abuse or BPD, is associated with a propensity towards elevated methylation at specific BDNF promoter region sites. These findings imply that hypermethylation of the BDNF gene may be related to eating disorder status, developmental stress exposure, and comorbid psychopathology.
    Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry 05/2014; 54. DOI:10.1016/j.pnpbp.2014.04.010 · 4.03 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: DNA methylation allows for the environmental regulation of gene expression and is believed to link environmental stressors to such mental-illness phenotypes as eating disorders. Numerous studies have shown an association between bulimia nervosa (BN) and variations in brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). BDNF has also been linked to borderline personality disorder (BPD) and to such traits as reward dependence. We examined the extent to which BDNF methylation corresponded to bulimic or normal-eater status, and also to the presence of comorbid borderline personality disorder (BPD) and childhood abuse. Our sample consisted of 64 women with BN and 32 normal-eater (NE) control women. Participants were assessed for eating-disorder symptoms, comorbid psychopathology, and childhood trauma, and then they were required to provide blood samples for methylation analyses. We observed a significant site × group (BN vs. NE) interaction indicating that women with BN showed increases in methylation at specific regions of the BDNF promoter. Furthermore, examining effects of childhood abuse and BPD, we observed significant site × group interactions such that groups composed of individuals with childhood abuse or BPD had particularly high levels of methylation at selected CpG sites. Our findings suggest that BN, especially when co-occurring with childhood abuse or BPD, is associated with a propensity towards elevated methylation at specific BDNF promoter region sites. These findings imply that hypermethylation of the BDNF gene may be related to eating disorder status, developmental stress exposure, and comorbid psychopathology.
    Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry 01/2014; 54:43–49. · 4.03 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: 1) To describe grassroots projects aimed at the built environment and associated with active transportation on the Island of Montreal; and 2) to examine associations between the number of projects and indicators of neighbourhood material and social deprivation and the built environment. We identified funding agencies and community groups conducting projects on built environments throughout the Island of Montreal. Through website consultation and a snowballing procedure, we inventoried projects that aimed at transforming built environments and that were carried out by community organizations between January 1, 2006, and November 1, 2010. We coded and validated information about project activities and created an interactive map using Geoclip software. Correlational analyses quantified associations between number of projects, neighbourhood characteristics and deprivation. A total of 134 community organizations were identified, and 183 grassroots projects were inventoried. A large number of projects were aimed at increasing awareness of/improving active or public transportation (n=95), improving road safety (n=84) and enhancing neighbourhood beautification and greening (n=69). The correlation between the presence of projects and the extent of neighbourhood material deprivation was small (Kendall's t=0.26, p<0.001), but in areas with greater social deprivation there were more projects (Kendall's t=0.38, p<0.001). Larger numbers of projects were also associated with the presence of more extensive land-use mix (Kendall's t=0.23, p<0.001) and a greater proportion of road intersections with injured pedestrians, cyclists and motor vehicle users (Kendall's t=0.43, p<0.001). There is significant community mobilization around built environments and active transportation. Investigations of the implementation processes and impacts are warranted.
    01/2014; 106(1):eS21-5.
  • Transportation Research Record Journal of the Transportation Research Board 01/2014; · 0.44 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This study examines associations between area deprivation and perceived neighbourhood safety with active transport to school among preadolescents living in urban Quebec.
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    ABSTRACT: Cross-sectional studies show that walking is associated with depression among older adults, but longitudinal associations have rarely been examined. The aim of this study was to investigate longitudinal associations between walking frequency and depressive symptoms in older adults to determine which variable is the stronger prospective predictor of the other. Longitudinal; four repeated measures over 5 years. Population-based sample of urban-dwelling older adults living in the Montreal metropolitan area. Participants from the VoisiNuAge study aged 68 to 84 (N = 498). Main exposures: depressive symptoms (Geriatric Depression Scale) and number of walking days in previous week (Physical Activity Scale for the Elderly). Covariates: age, education, and number of chronic illnesses. Cross-lagged panel analyses were performed in the entire sample and in sex-stratified subsamples. Depressive symptoms predicted walking frequency at subsequent time points (and more precisely, higher depressive symptoms were related to fewer walking days), but walking frequency did not predict depressive symptoms at subsequent time points. Stratified analyses revealed that prospective associations were statistically significant in women but not men. The longitudinal association between walking frequency and depressive symptoms is one in which depressive symptoms predict reduced walking frequency later. Higher depressive symptoms are more likely a cause of reduced walking because of time precedence than vice versa. Future research on longitudinal relationships between meeting physical activity recommendations and depression are warranted.
    Journal of the American Geriatrics Society 11/2013; 61(12). DOI:10.1111/jgs.12546 · 4.22 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Childhood poverty heightens the risk of obesity in adulthood, but the age at which this risk appears is unclear. We analysed the association between poverty trajectories with body mass index (BMI) Z-scores or the risk of being overweight or obese across four ages (6 years, 8 years, 10 years and 12 years) in childhood. Data were from the 1998-2010 'Quebec Longitudinal Study of Child Development' cohort (n=698). Poverty was defined using Statistics Canada's thresholds, and trajectories were characterised with a Latent Class Growth Analysis. Multivariable linear and logistic regression models adjusted for sex, whether the mother was an immigrant, maternal education and birth weight. Four income trajectories were identified: a reference group (stable non-poor), and 3 higher exposure categories (increasing likelihood of poverty, decreasing likelihood of poverty or stable poor). Compared with children from stable non-poor households, children from stable poor households had BMI Z-scores that were 0.39 and 0.43 larger than children from stable non-poor households at age 10 years and 12 years, respectively (p<0.05). Compared with children from stable non-poor households, children from stable poor households were 2.22, 2.34, and 3.04 times more likely to be overweight or obese at age 8 years, 10 years and 12 years, respectively (p<0.05). A latency period for the detrimental effects of child poverty on the risk of overweight or obesity was detected. Whether the effects continue to widen with increasing duration of exposure to poverty as the children age should be investigated.
    Journal of epidemiology and community health 11/2013; 68(3). DOI:10.1136/jech-2012-201881 · 3.29 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Place and health researchers are increasingly interested in integrating individuals' mobility and the experience they have with multiple settings in their studies. In practice, however, few tools exist which allow for rapid and accurate gathering of detailed information on the geographic location of places where people regularly undertake activities. We describe the development and validation of a new activity location questionnaire which can be useful in accounting for multiple environmental influences in large population health investigations. To develop the questionnaire, we relied on a literature review of similar data collection tools and on results of a pilot study wherein we explored content validity, test-retest reliability, and face validity. To estimate convergent validity, we used data from a study of users of a public bicycle share program conducted in Montreal, Canada in 2011. We examined the spatial congruence between questionnaire data and data from three other sources: 1) one-week GPS tracks; 2) activity locations extracted from the GPS tracks; and 3) a prompted recall survey of locations visited during the day. Proximity and convex hull measures were used to compare questionnaire-derived data and GPS and prompted recall survey data. In the sample, 75% of questionnaire-reported activity locations were located within 400 meters of an activity location recorded on the GPS track or through the prompted recall survey. Results from convex hull analyses suggested questionnaire activity locations were more concentrated in space than GPS or prompted-recall locations. The new questionnaire has high convergent validity and can be used to accurately collect data on regular activity spaces in terms of locations regularly visited. The methods, measures, and findings presented provide new material to further study mobility in place and health research.
    International Journal of Health Geographics 09/2013; 12(1):40. DOI:10.1186/1476-072X-12-40 · 2.62 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Fear of falling, a frequent fear among community-dwelling seniors, can interfere with their activity level and social participation and negatively impact on their health and quality of life. Thus, it is an important factor to consider by occupational and physical therapists involved with this population. Based on the most recent studies in this field of research, this paper aims to provide occupational and physical therapists with a better understanding of the impact of fear of falling on seniors’ health and quality of life, and offer them guidance on how to assess fear of falling and other fall-related psychological factors and how to intervene on these factors.
    Physical & Occupational Therapy in Geriatrics 08/2013; 31(3). DOI:10.3109/02703181.2013.797951

Publication Stats

3k Citations
517.46 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2010–2015
    • Centre hospitalier de l'Université de Montréal (CHUM)
      Montréal, Quebec, Canada
    • University of South Australia 
      • School of Health Sciences
      Adelaide, South Australia, Australia
  • 1999–2014
    • Université de Montréal
      • Department of Social and Preventive Medicine
      Montréal, Quebec, Canada
  • 2007–2013
    • Université du Québec à Montréal
      Montréal, Quebec, Canada
    • Queen's University
      • Department of Kinesiology/ Physical and Health Education
      Kingston, Ontario, Canada
  • 2009
    • Douglas Mental Health University Institute
      • Psychiatry
      Montréal, Quebec, Canada
  • 1996–2006
    • Concordia University Montreal
      • Department of Exercise Science
      Montréal, Quebec, Canada
  • 2004
    • University of Chicago
      Chicago, Illinois, United States
  • 1998
    • University of California, San Francisco
      • Department of Family and Community Medicine
      San Francisco, CA, United States