ABSTRACT: Hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha (HIF-1alpha) is destabilized via the ubiquitin-proteasome system. Thus HIF-1alpha expression is robustly upregulated by proteasome inhibition, but paradoxically its activity is reduced. In the present study, we investigated the mechanism underlying the paradoxical response of HIF-1alpha to proteasome inhibition. In both Hep3B and HEK293 cells, a proteasome inhibitor MG132 noticeably attenuated hypoxic induction of erythropoietin and VEGF mRNAs. MG132 inactivated HIF-1alpha C-terminal transactivation domain (CAD), independently of factor inhibiting HIF-1 (FIH) and inhibited p300 recruitment by HIF-1alpha. We next tested the possibility that CITED2 is involved in the HIF-1 inactivation. CITED2 was found to be degraded via the ubiquitin-proteasome system and thus was stabilized by proteasome inhibition. Both the activity and the p300 binding of HIF-1alpha were inhibited by CITED2 expression and recovered by CITED2 siRNA in the presence of MG132. These results suggest that CITED2 is stabilized by proteasome inhibition and inactivates HIF-1 by interfering with the HIF-1alpha-p300 interaction. This may be an important mode-of-action for proteasome inhibition-based cancer therapy.
Oncogene 04/2008; 27(13):1939-44. · 6.37 Impact Factor