K. Dolag

Ludwig-Maximilians-University of Munich, München, Bavaria, Germany

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Publications (316)1032.11 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Comparisons between observed and predicted strong lensing properties of galaxy clusters have been used to claim either tension or consistency with ΛCDM cosmology. However, standard approaches to such tests are unable to quantify the preference for one cosmology over another. We advocate a Bayesian approach whereby the parameters defining the scaling relation between Einstein radii and cluster mass are treated as the observables. We demonstrate a method of estimating the likelihood for observing these parameters under the ΛCDM framework, using the X-ray selected z > 0.5 MACS clusters as a case in point and employing both N-body and hydrodynamic simulations of clusters. We account for cluster lens triaxiality within the modelling of the likelihood function. Cluster selection criteria is found to play as important a role as the uncertainty related to the description of star formation and feedback.
    Proceedings of the International Astronomical Union 07/2015; 10(S306). DOI:10.1017/S1743921314010916
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    ABSTRACT: This paper presents the Planck 2015 likelihoods, statistical descriptions of the 2-point correlation functions of CMB temperature and polarization. They use the hybrid approach employed previously: pixel-based at low multipoles, $\ell$, and a Gaussian approximation to the distribution of cross-power spectra at higher $\ell$. The main improvements are the use of more and better processed data and of Planck polarization data, and more detailed foreground and instrumental models. More than doubling the data allows further checks and enhanced immunity to systematics. Progress in foreground modelling enables a larger sky fraction, contributing to enhanced precision. Improvements in processing and instrumental models further reduce uncertainties. Extensive tests establish robustness and accuracy, from temperature, from polarization, and from their combination, and show that the {\Lambda}CDM model continues to offer a very good fit. We further validate the likelihood against specific extensions to this baseline, such as the effective number of neutrino species. For this first detailed analysis of Planck polarization, we concentrate at high $\ell$ on E modes. At low $\ell$ we use temperature at all Planck frequencies along with a subset of polarization. These data take advantage of Planck's wide frequency range to improve the separation of CMB and foregrounds. Within the baseline cosmology this requires a reionization optical depth $\tau=0.078\pm0.019$, significantly lower than without high-frequency data for explicit dust monitoring. At high $\ell$ we detect residual errors in E, typically at the {\mu}K$^2$ level; we thus recommend temperature alone as the high-$\ell$ baseline. Nevertheless, Planck high-$\ell$ polarization spectra are already good enough to allow a separate high-accuracy determination of the {\Lambda}CDM parameters, consistent with those established from temperature alone.
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    ABSTRACT: In the context of the formation of spiral galaxies the evolution and distribution of the angular momentum of dark matter halos have been discussed for more than 20 years, especially the idea that the specific angular momentum of the halo can be estimated from the specific angular momentum of its disk (e.g. Fall & Efstathiou (1980), Fall (1983) and Mo et al. (1998)). We use a new set of hydrodynamic cosmological simulations called Magneticum Pathfinder which allow us to split the galaxies into spheroidal and disk galaxies via the circularity parameter ϵ, as commonly used (e.g. Scannapieco et al. (2008)). Here, we focus on the dimensionless spin parameter λ = J |E|1/2 / (G M5/2) (Peebles 1969, 1971), which is a measure of the rotation of the total halo and can be fitted by a lognormal distribution, e.g. Mo et al. (1998). The spin parameter allows one to compare the relative angular momentum of halos across different masses and different times. Fig. 1 reveals a dichotomy in the distribution of λ at all redshifts when the galaxies are split into spheroids (dashed) and disk galaxies (dash-dotted). The disk galaxies preferentially live in halos with slightly larger spin parameter compared to spheroidal galaxies. Thus, we see that the λ of the whole halo reflects the morphology of its central galaxy. For more details and a larger study of the angular momentum properties of disk and spheroidal galaxies, see Teklu et al. (in prep.).
    Proceedings of the International Astronomical Union 07/2015; 10(S309):349. DOI:10.1017/S1743921314010400
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    ABSTRACT: We present Magneticum Pathfinder, a new set of hydrodynamical cosmological simulations covering a large range of cosmological scales. Among the important physical processes included in the simulations are the chemical and thermodynamical evolution of the diffuse gas as well as the evolution of stars and black holes and the corresponding feedback channels. In the high resolution boxes aimed at studies of galaxy formation and evolution, populations of both disk and spheroidal galaxies are self-consistently reproduced. These galaxy populations match the observed stellar mass function and show the same trends for disks and spheroids in the mass–size relation as observations from the SDSS. Additionally, we demonstrate that the simulated galaxies successfully reproduce the observed specific angular-momentum–mass relations for the two different morphological types of galaxies. In summary, the Magneticum Pathfinder simulations are a valuable tool for studying the assembly of cosmic and galactic structures in the universe.
    Proceedings of the International Astronomical Union 07/2015; 10(S309):145-148. DOI:10.1017/S1743921314009491
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    ABSTRACT: The total density profiles of elliptical galaxies can be fit by a single power law, i.e., ρ tot ∝ r γ with γ ≈ −2. While strong lensing observations show a tendency for the slopes to become flatter with increasing redshift, simulations indicate an opposite trend. To understand this discrepancy, we study a set of simulated spheroids formed within the cosmological framework. From our simulations we find that the steepness of the total density slope correlates with the compactness of the stellar component within the half-mass radius, and that spheroidal galaxies tend to be more compact at high redshifts than their present-day counterparts. While both these results are in agreement with observations, the observed trend of the total density slope with redshift remains in contradiction to the results from simulations.
    Proceedings of the International Astronomical Union 07/2015; 10(S311):116-119. DOI:10.1017/S1743921315003506
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    ABSTRACT: (abridged) We analyse the clustering features of Large Scale Structures (LSS) in the presence of massive neutrinos, employing a set of large-volume, high-resolution cosmological N-body simulations, where neutrinos are treated as a separate collisionless fluid. The volume of 8$\cGpc$, combined with a resolution of about $8\times 10^{10}\Ms$ for the cold dark matter (CDM) component, represents a significant improvement over previous N-body simulations in massive neutrino cosmologies. We show that most of the nonlinear evolution is generated exclusively by the CDM component. We find that accounting only for the nonlinear evolution of the CDM power spectrum allows to recover the total matter power spectrum with the same accuracy as the massless case. Indeed, we show that, the most recent version of the \halofit\ formula calibrated on $\Lambda$CDM simulations can be applied directly to the linear CDM power spectrum without requiring additional fitting parameters in the massive case. As a second step, we study the abundance and clustering properties of CDM halos, confirming that, in massive neutrino cosmologies, the proper definition of the halo bias should be made with respect to the {\em cold} rather than the {\em total} matter distribution, as recently shown in the literature. Here we extend these results to the redshift space, finding that, when accounting for massive neutrinos, an improper definition of the linear bias can lead to a systematic error of about 1-$2 \%$ in the determination of the linear growth rate from anisotropic clustering. This result is quite important if we consider that future spectroscopic galaxy surveys, as \eg\ Euclid, are expected to measure the linear growth-rate with statistical errors less than about $3 \%$ at $z\lesssim1$.
    Journal of Cosmology and Astroparticle Physics 05/2015; 2015(07). DOI:10.1088/1475-7516/2015/07/043 · 5.88 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Redshift-space clustering anisotropies caused by cosmic peculiar velocities provide a powerful probe to test the gravity theory on large scales. However, to extract unbiased physical constraints, the clustering pattern has to be modelled accurately, taking into account the effects of non-linear dynamics at small scales, and properly describing the link between the selected cosmic tracers and the underlying dark matter field. We use a large hydrodynamic simulation to investigate how the systematic error on the linear growth rate, $f$, caused by model uncertainties, depends on sample selections and comoving scales. Specifically, we measure the redshift-space two-point correlation function of mock samples of galaxies, galaxy clusters and Active Galactic Nuclei, extracted from the Magneticum simulation, in the redshift range 0.2 < z < 2, and adopting different sample selections. We estimate $f\sigma_8$ by modelling both the monopole and the full two-dimensional anisotropic clustering, using the dispersion model. We find that the systematic error on $f\sigma_8$ depends significantly on the range of scales considered for the fit. If the latter is kept fixed, the error depends on both redshift and sample selection, due to the scale-dependent impact of non-linearities, if not properly modelled. On the other hand, we show that it is possible to get unbiased constraints on $f\sigma_8$ provided that the analysis is restricted to a proper range of scales, that depends non trivially on the properties of the sample. This can have a strong impact on multiple tracers analyses, and when combining catalogues selected at different redshifts.
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    ABSTRACT: By looking at the kinetic Sunyaev-Zeldovich effect (kSZ) in Planck nominal mission data, we present a significant detection of baryons participating in large-scale bulk flows around central galaxies (CGs) at redshift $z\approx 0.1$. We estimate the pairwise momentum of the kSZ temperature fluctuations at the positions of the CGC (Central Galaxy Catalogue) samples extracted from Sloan Digital Sky Survey (DR7) data. For the foreground-cleaned maps, we find $1.8$-$2.5\sigma$ detections of the kSZ signal, which are consistent with the kSZ evidence found in individual Planck raw frequency maps, although lower than found in the WMAP-9yr W band ($3.3\sigma$). We further reconstruct the peculiar velocity field from the CG density field, and compute for the first time the cross-correlation function between kSZ temperature fluctuations and estimates of CG radial peculiar velocities. This correlation function yields a $3.0$-$3.7$$\sigma$ detection of the peculiar motion of extended gas on Mpc scales, in flows correlated up to distances of 80-100 $h^{-1}$ Mpc. Both the pairwise momentum estimates and kSZ temperature-velocity field correlation find evidence for kSZ signatures out to apertures of 8 arcmin and beyond, corresponding to a physical radius of $> 1$ Mpc, more than twice the mean virial radius of halos. This is consistent with the predictions from hydro simulations that most of the baryons are outside the virialized halos. We fit a simple model, in which the temperature-velocity cross-correlation is proportional to the signal seen in a semi-analytic model built upon N-body simulations, and interpret the proportionality constant as an "effective" optical depth to Thomson scattering. We find $\tau_T=(1.4\pm0.5)\times 10^{-4}$; the simplest interpretation of this measurement is that much of the gas is in a diffuse phase, which contributes little signal to X-ray or thermal SZ observations.
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    ABSTRACT: The evolution and distribution of the angular momentum of dark matter halos have been discussed in several studies over the last decades. In particular, the idea arose that angular momentum conservation should allow to infer the total angular momentum of the entire dark matter halo from measuring the angular momentum of the baryonic component, which is populating the center of the halo, especially for disk galaxies. To test this idea and to understand the connection between the angular momentum of the dark matter halo and its galaxy, we use the Magneticum Simulations. We successfully produce populations of spheroidal and disk galaxies self-consistently. Thus, we are able to study the dependance of galactic properties on their morphology. We find that: (I) The specific angular momentum of stars in disk and spheroidal galaxies as function of their stellar mass compares well with observational results; (II) The specific angular momentum of the stars in disk galaxies is slightly smaller compared to the specific angular momentum of the cold gas, in good agreement with observations; (III) Simulations including the baryonic component show a dichotomy in the specific stellar angular momentum distribution when splitting the galaxies according to their morphological type. This dichotomy can also be seen in the spin parameter, where disk galaxies populate halos with slightly larger spin compared to spheroidal galaxies; (IV) Disk galaxies preferentially populate halos in which the angular momentum vector of the dark matter component in the central part shows a better alignment to the angular momentum vector of the entire halo; (V) The specific angular momentum of the cold gas in disk galaxies is approximately 40 percent smaller than the specific angular momentum of the total dark matter halo and shows a significant scatter.
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    ABSTRACT: We present an implementation of smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) with improved accuracy for simulations of galaxies and the large-scale structure. In particular, we combine, implement, modify and test a vast majority of SPH improvement techniques in the latest instalment of the GADGET code. We use the Wendland kernel functions, a particle wake-up time-step limiting mechanism and a time-dependent scheme for artificial viscosity, which includes a high-order gradient computation and shear flow limiter. Additionally, we include a novel prescription for time-dependent artificial conduction, which corrects for gravitationally induced pressure gradients and largely improves the SPH performance in capturing the development of gas-dynamical instabilities. We extensively test our new implementation in a wide range of hydrodynamical standard tests including weak and strong shocks as well as shear flows, turbulent spectra, gas mixing, hydrostatic equilibria and self-gravitating gas clouds. We jointly employ all modifications; however, when necessary we study the performance of individual code modules. We approximate hydrodynamical states more accurately and with significantly less noise than standard SPH. Furthermore, the new implementation promotes the mixing of entropy between different fluid phases, also within cosmological simulations. Finally, we study the performance of the hydrodynamical solver in the context of radiative galaxy formation and non-radiative galaxy cluster formation. We find galactic disks to be colder, thinner and more extended and our results on galaxy clusters show entropy cores instead of steadily declining entropy profiles. In summary, we demonstrate that our improved SPH implementation overcomes most of the undesirable limitations of standard SPH, thus becoming the core of an efficient code for large cosmological simulations.
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    ABSTRACT: We calibrate the halo mass function accounting for halo baryons and present fitting formulae for spherical overdensity masses $M_{500\textrm c}$, $M_{200\textrm c}$, and $M_{200\textrm m}$. We use the hydrodynamical Magneticum simulations, which are well suited because of their high resolution and large cosmological volumes of up to $\sim2$ Gpc$^3$. Baryonic effects globally decrease the masses of galaxy clusters, which, at given mass, results in a decrease of their number density. This effect vanishes at high redshift $z\sim2$ and for high masses $\gtrsim 5\times10^{14}M_\odot$. We perform cosmological analyses of three idealized approximations to the cluster surveys by the South Pole Telescope (SPT), Planck, and eROSITA. For the SPT-like and the Planck-like samples, we find that the impact of baryons on the cosmological results is negligible. In the eROSITA-like case, we find that neglecting the baryonic impact leads to an underestimate of $\Omega_\textrm m$ by about 0.01, which is comparable to the expected uncertainty from eROSITA. We compare our mass function fits with the literature. In particular, in the analysis of our Planck-like sample, results obtained using our mass function are shifted by $\Delta(\sigma_8)\simeq0.05$ with respect to results obtained using the Tinker et al. (2008) fit. This shift represents a large fraction of the observed difference between the latest results from Planck clusters and CMB anisotropies, and the tension is essentially removed. We discuss biases that can be introduced through inadequate mass function parametrizations that introduce false cosmological sensitivity. Additional work to calibrate the halo mass function is therefore crucial for progress in cluster cosmology.
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    ABSTRACT: We present the all-sky Planck catalogue of Sunyaev-Zeldovich (SZ) sources detected from the 29 month full-mission data. The catalogue (PSZ2) is the largest SZ-selected sample of galaxy clusters yet produced and the deepest all-sky catalogue of galaxy clusters. It contains 1653 detections, of which 1203 are confirmed clusters with identified counterparts in external data-sets, and is the first SZ-selected cluster survey containing > 103 confirmed clusters. We present a detailed analysis of the survey selection function in terms of its completeness and statistical reliability, placing a lower limit of 83% on the purity. Using simulations, we find that the Y5R500 estimates are robust to pressure-profile variation and beam systematics, but accurate conversion to Y500 requires. the use of prior information on the cluster extent. We describe the multi-wavelength search for counterparts in ancillary data, which makes use of radio, microwave, infra-red, optical and X-ray data-sets, and which places emphasis on the robustness of the counterpart match. We discuss the physical properties of the new sample and identify a population of low-redshift X-ray under- luminous clusters revealed by SZ selection. These objects appear in optical and SZ surveys with consistent properties for their mass, but are almost absent from ROSAT X-ray selected samples.
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    ABSTRACT: We present results based on full-mission Planck observations of temperature and polarization anisotropies of the CMB. These data are consistent with the six-parameter inflationary LCDM cosmology. From the Planck temperature and lensing data, for this cosmology we find a Hubble constant, H0= (67.8 +/- 0.9) km/s/Mpc, a matter density parameter Omega_m = 0.308 +/- 0.012 and a scalar spectral index with n_s = 0.968 +/- 0.006. (We quote 68% errors on measured parameters and 95% limits on other parameters.) Combined with Planck temperature and lensing data, Planck LFI polarization measurements lead to a reionization optical depth of tau = 0.066 +/- 0.016. Combining Planck with other astrophysical data we find N_ eff = 3.15 +/- 0.23 for the effective number of relativistic degrees of freedom and the sum of neutrino masses is constrained to < 0.23 eV. Spatial curvature is found to be |Omega_K| < 0.005. For LCDM we find a limit on the tensor-to-scalar ratio of r <0.11 consistent with the B-mode constraints from an analysis of BICEP2, Keck Array, and Planck (BKP) data. Adding the BKP data leads to a tighter constraint of r < 0.09. We find no evidence for isocurvature perturbations or cosmic defects. The equation of state of dark energy is constrained to w = -1.006 +/- 0.045. Standard big bang nucleosynthesis predictions for the Planck LCDM cosmology are in excellent agreement with observations. We investigate annihilating dark matter and deviations from standard recombination, finding no evidence for new physics. The Planck results for base LCDM are in agreement with BAO data and with the JLA SNe sample. However the amplitude of the fluctuations is found to be higher than inferred from rich cluster counts and weak gravitational lensing. Apart from these tensions, the base LCDM cosmology provides an excellent description of the Planck CMB observations and many other astrophysical data sets.
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    ABSTRACT: We predict and investigate four types of imprint of a stochastic background of primordial magnetic fields (PMFs) on the cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropies: the impact of PMFs on the CMB spectra; the effect on CMB polarization induced by Faraday rotation; magnetically-induced non-Gaussianities; and the magnetically-induced breaking of statistical isotropy. Overall, Planck data constrain the amplitude of PMFs to less than a few nanogauss. In particular, individual limits coming from the analysis of the CMB angular power spectra, using the Planck likelihood, are $B_{1\,\mathrm{Mpc}}< 4.4$ nG (where $B_{1\,\mathrm{Mpc}}$ is the comoving field amplitude at a scale of 1 Mpc) at 95% confidence level, assuming zero helicity, and $B_{1\,\mathrm{Mpc}}< 5.6$ nG when we consider a maximally helical field. For nearly scale-invariant PMFs we obtain $B_{1\,\mathrm{Mpc}}<2.1$ nG and $B_{1\,\mathrm{Mpc}}<0.7$ nG if the impact of PMFs on the ionization history of the Universe is included in the analysis. From the analysis of magnetically-induced non-Gaussianity we obtain three different values, corresponding to three applied methods, all below 5 nG. The constraint from the magnetically-induced passive-tensor bispectrum is $B_{1\,\mathrm{Mpc}}< 2.8$ nG. A search for preferred directions in the magnetically-induced passive bispectrum yields $B_{1\,\mathrm{Mpc}}< 4.5$ nG, whereas the the compensated-scalar bispectrum gives $B_{1\,\mathrm{Mpc}}< 3$ nG. The analysis of the Faraday rotation of CMB polarization by PMFs uses the Planck power spectra in $EE$ and $BB$ at 70 GHz and gives $B_{1\,\mathrm{Mpc}}< 1380$ nG. In our final analysis, we consider the harmonic-space correlations produced by Alfv\'en waves, finding no significant evidence for the presence of these waves. Together, these results comprise a comprehensive set of constraints on possible PMFs with Planck data.
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    ABSTRACT: We have constructed all-sky y-maps of the thermal Sunyaev-Zeldovich (tSZ) effect by applying specifically tailored component separation algorithms to the 30 to 857 GHz frequency channel maps from the Planck satellite survey. These reconstructed y-maps are delivered as part of the Planck 2015 release. The y-maps are characterised in terms of noise properties and residual foreground contamination, mainly thermal dust emission at large angular scales and CIB and extragalactic point sources at small angular scales. Specific masks are defined to minimize foreground residuals and systematics. Using these masks we compute the y-map angular power spectrum and higher order statistics. From these we conclude that the y-map is dominated by tSZ signal in the multipole range, 20-600. We compare the measured tSZ power spectrum and higher order statistics to various physically motivated models and discuss the implications of our results in terms of cluster physics and cosmology.
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    ABSTRACT: We present an implementation of thermal conduction including the anisotropic effects of magnetic fields for SPH. The anisotropic thermal conduction is mainly proceeding parallel to magnetic fields and suppressed perpendicular to the fields. We derive the SPH formalism for the anisotropic heat transport and solve the corresponding equation with an implicit conjugate gradient scheme. We discuss several issues of unphysical heat transport in the cases of extreme ansiotropies or unmagnetized regions and present possible numerical workarounds. We implement our algorithm into the GADGET code and study its behaviour in several test cases. In general, we reproduce the analytical solutions of our idealised test problems, and obtain good results in cosmological simulations of galaxy cluster formations. Within galaxy clusters, the anisotropic conduction produces a net heat transport similar to an isotropic Spitzer conduction model with an efficiency of one per cent. In contrast to isotropic conduction our new formalism allows small-scale structure in the temperature distribution to remain stable, because of their decoupling caused by magnetic field lines. Compared to observations, isotropic conduction with more than 10 per cent of the Spitzer value leads to an oversmoothed temperature distribution within clusters, while the results obtained with anisotropic thermal conduction reproduce the observed temperature fluctuations well. A proper treatment of heat transport is crucial especially in the outskirts of clusters and also in high density regions. It's connection to the local dynamical state of the cluster also might contribute to the observed bimodal distribution of cool core and non cool core clusters. Our new scheme significantly advances the modelling of thermal conduction in numerical simulations and overall gives better results compared to observations.
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    ABSTRACT: Giant Radio Halos (RH) are diffuse, Mpc-sized, synchrotron radio sources observed in a fraction of merging galaxy clusters. The current scenario for the origin of RHs assumes that turbulence generated during cluster mergers re-accelerates pre-existing fossil and/or secondary electrons in the intra-cluster-medium (ICM) to the energies necessary to produce the observed radio emission. Moreover, more relaxed clusters could host diffuse "off state" halos produced by secondary electrons. In this Chapter we use Monte Carlo simulations, that combine turbulent-acceleration physics and the generation of secondaries in the ICM, to calculate the occurrence of RHs in the Universe, their spectral properties and connection with properties of the hosting clusters. Predictions for SKA1 surveys are presented at low (100-300 MHz) and mid (1-2 GHz) frequencies assuming the expected sensitivities and spatial resolutions of SKA1. SKA1 will step into an unexplored territory allowing us to study the formation and evolution of RHs in a totally new range of cluster masses and redshift, allowing firm tests of the current theoretical hypothesis. In particular, the combination of SKA1-LOW and SUR will allow the discovery of ~1000 ultrasteep- spectrum halos and to detect for the very first time "off state" RHs. We expect that at least ~2500 giant RHs will be discovered by SKA1-LOW surveys up to z~0.6. Remarkably these surveys will be sensitive to RHs in a cluster mass range (down to ~10^14 solar masses) and redshifts (up to ~1) that are unexplored by current observations. SKA1 surveys will be highly competitive with present and future SZ-surveys in the detection of high-redshift massive objects.
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    ABSTRACT: We present constraints on the origins of fast radio bursts (FRBs) using one of the largest currently available cosmological hydrodynamic simulations. We use these simulations to calculate contributions to the dispersion measures (DMs) of FRBs from the Milky Way, from the local Universe out to ~100Mpc, from cosmological large-scale structure and from potential FRB host galaxies, and we then compare the results of these simulations to the DMs for observed FRBs. We find that the foreground Milky Way contribution has previously been underestimated by a factor of ~2, and that the the distribution of foreground-subtracted DMs is consistent with a cosmological origin, corresponding to a population of sources observable out to a maximum redshift z~0.6-0.9. We consider models for the spatial distribution and occurrence of FRBs in which they are randomly distributed in the Universe, track the star-formation rate of their host galaxies, track total stellar mass, or require the presence of a central supermassive black hole. While the current data (nine extragalactic FRBs) do not allow us to distinguish between these possibilities, we show that the predicted distributions of DM for these different models will differ considerably once we begin detecting significant fractions of FRBs at higher DMs and higher redshifts. We additionally consider the distribution of fluences for observed FRBs, and show that the observations are consistent with the hypothesis that FRBs are standard candles, each burst producing the same radiated isotropic energy. Comparing the combined DM and fluence distributions with our cosmological model, we find that the data are consistent with a constant isotropic burst energy of ~4e40 erg if FRBs are embedded in host galaxies, or two times higher if FRBs are randomly distributed over the cosmic volume. (abridged)
    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 12/2014; 451(4). DOI:10.1093/mnras/stv1190 · 5.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present results of cosmological simulations of disk galaxies carried out with the GADGET-3 TreePM+SPH code, where star formation and stellar feedback are described using our MUlti Phase Particle Integrator (MUPPI) model. This description is based on simple multi-phase model of the interstellar medium at unresolved scales, where mass and energy flows among the components are explicitly followed by solving a system of ordinary differential equations. Thermal energy from SNe is injected into the local hot phase, so as to avoid that it is promptly radiated away. A kinetic feedback prescription generates the massive outflows needed to avoid the over-production of stars. We use two sets of zoomed-in initial conditions of isolated cosmological halos with masses (2-3) * 10^{12} Msun, both available at several resolution levels. In all cases we obtain spiral galaxies with small bulge-over-total stellar mass ratios (B/T \approx 0.2), extended stellar and gas disks, flat rotation curves and realistic values of stellar masses. Gas profiles are relatively flat, molecular gas is found to dominate at the centre of galaxies, with star formation rates following the observed Schmidt-Kennicutt relation. Stars kinematically belonging to the bulge form early, while disk stars show a clear inside-out formation pattern and mostly form after redshift z=2. However, the baryon conversion efficiencies in our simulations differ from the relation given by Moster et al. (2010) at a 3 sigma level, thus indicating that our stellar disks are still too massive for the Dark Matter halo in which they reside. Results are found to be remarkably stable against resolution. This further demonstrates the feasibility of carrying out simulations producing a realistic population of galaxies within representative cosmological volumes, at a relatively modest resolution.
    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 11/2014; 447(1). DOI:10.1093/mnras/stu2400 · 5.23 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

8k Citations
1,032.11 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2012–2015
    • Ludwig-Maximilians-University of Munich
      • Department of Physics
      München, Bavaria, Germany
  • 2004–2015
    • Max Planck Institute for Astrophysics
      Arching, Bavaria, Germany
    • Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory
      Berkeley, California, United States
    • INFN - Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare
      Frascati, Latium, Italy
    • National Institute of Astrophysics
      • Institute of Space Astrophysics and Cosmic Physics IASF - Rome
      Roma, Latium, Italy
  • 2007–2014
    • The Astronomical Observatory of Brera
      Merate, Lombardy, Italy
    • University of Rome Tor Vergata
      • Dipartimento di Fisica
      Roma, Latium, Italy
  • 2013
    • Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics
      Arching, Bavaria, Germany
  • 2012–2013
    • Technische Universität München
      München, Bavaria, Germany
  • 2003–2008
    • University of Padova
      • Department of Physics and Astronomy "Galileo Galilei"
      Padua, Veneto, Italy
  • 2004–2005
    • University of Bologna
      Bolonia, Emilia-Romagna, Italy
  • 2002
    • University of Pennsylvania
      • Department of Physics and Astronomy
      Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States
  • 2001
    • Liverpool John Moores University
      Liverpool, England, United Kingdom