Luc Frimat

Université Paris Descartes, Lutetia Parisorum, Île-de-France, France

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Publications (125)234.57 Total impact

  • Bruno Moulin, Luc Frimat
    Néphrologie & Thérapeutique 04/2014; 10(2):71-3. · 0.50 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Aims/hypothesis The aim was to study geographic variations and recent trends in the incidence of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) by diabetes status and type, and in patient condition and modalities of care at initiation of renal replacement therapy. Methods Data from the French population-based dialysis and transplantation registry of all ESRD patients were used to study geographic variations in 5,857 patients without diabetes mellitus, 227 with type 1 diabetes mellitus, and 3,410 with type 2. Trends in incidence and patient care from 2007 to 2011 were estimated. Results Age- and sex-adjusted incidence rates were higher in the overseas territories than in continental France for ESRD unrelated to diabetes and related to type 2 diabetes, but quite similar for type 1 diabetes-related ESRD. ESRD incidence decreased significantly over time for patients with type 1 diabetes (−10% annually) and not significantly for non-diabetic patients (0.2%), but increased significantly for patients with type 2 diabetes (+7% annually until 2009 and seemingly stabilised thereafter). In type 2 diabetes, the net change in the absolute number was +21%, of which +3% can be attributed to population ageing, +2% to population growth and +16% to the residual effect of the disease. Patients with type 2 diabetes more often started dialysis as an emergency (32%) than those with type 1 (20%) or no diabetes. Conclusions/interpretation The major impact of diabetes on ESRD incidence is due to type 2 diabetes mellitus. Our data demonstrate the need to reinforce strategies for optimal management of patients with diabetes to improve prevention, or delay the onset, of diabetic nephropathy, ESRD and cardiovascular comorbidities, and to reduce the rate of emergency dialysis.
    Diabetologia 04/2014; 57(4). · 6.49 Impact Factor
  • Néphrologie & Thérapeutique. 01/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: While much has been learned about the epidemiology and treatment of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in the last 30 years, chronic kidney disease (CKD) before the end-stage has been less investigated. Not enough is known about factors associated with CKD progression and complications, as well as its transition to ESRD. We designed the CKD-renal epidemiology and information network (REIN) cohort to provide a research platform to address these key questions and to assess clinical practices and costs in patients with moderate or advanced CKD. A total of 46 clinic sites and 4 renal care networks participate in the cohort. A stratified selection of clinic sites yields a sample that represents a diversity of settings, e.g. geographic region, and public versus for-profit and non-for-profit private clinics. In each site, 60-90 patients with CKD are enrolled at a routine clinic visit during a 12-month enrolment phase: 3600 total, including 1800 with Stage 3 and 1800 with Stage 4 CKD. Follow-up will continue for 5 years, including after initiation of renal replacement therapy. Data will be collected from medical records at inclusion and at yearly intervals, as well as from self-administered patient questionnaires and provider-level questionnaires. Patients will also be interviewed at baseline, and at 1, 3 and 5 years. Healthcare costs will also be determined. Blood and urine samples will be collected and stored for future studies on all patients at enrolment and at study end, and at 1 and 3 years in a subsample of 1200. The CKD-REIN cohort will serve to improve our understanding of the biological, clinical and healthcare system determinants associated with CKD progression and adverse outcomes as well as of international variations in collaboration with the CKD Outcome and Practice Pattern Study (CKDopps). It will foster CKD epidemiology and outcomes research and provide evidence to improve the health and quality of life of patients with CKD and the performances of the healthcare system in this field.
    Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation 09/2013; · 3.37 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to describe the management of anaemia with a continuous erythropoietin receptor activator (C.E.R.A., methoxy polyethylene glycol epoetin-β), in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) not on dialysis, naïve or non-naïve to treatment with erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs) at inclusion. National, multicentre, longitudinal, observational prospective study. 133 nephrologists practicing in France selected patients during their routine follow-up visits. The study was non-interventional. They were adult CKD patients not on dialysis or kidney transplant patients, naïve or not to ESA treatment: 524 patients not on dialysis (48% ESA-naïve) and 92 kidney transplant patients (24% ESA-naïve) were included and followed up every 3 months during 1 year. The two main endpoints were the percentage of patients who achieved target haemoglobin (Hb) levels as per European Medicines Agency guidelines (10-12 g/dl) around 6 months of treatment and modalities of treatment. Approximately one in two patients had an Hb level within 10-12 g/dl at baseline, and around 6 and 12 months of treatment. Ninety per cent of ESA-naïve patients achieved at least +1 g/dl increase over baseline Hb levels or had Hb within 10-12 g/dl around 6 and 12 months. The Hb level remained at approximately 11.5 g/dl during the 12 months of follow-up. Around 6 months: almost all patients were receiving a once-monthly subcutaneous dose of C.E.R.A. (patients not on dialysis: 95±54 µg; kidney transplant patients: 121±70 µg); approximately half the patients did not require a change in C.E.R.A. dose. Adverse effects related to C.E.R.A. were observed in less than 5% of patients and led to modification or discontinuation of treatment in 2%. The efficacy and safety of C.E.R.A. in CKD patients not on dialysis, with or without kidney transplantation, were confirmed in routine clinical practice.
    BMJ Open 01/2013; 3(3). · 1.58 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The AVENIR study is a pharmaco-epidemiological study, lead in Lorraine region (France) between 1st January, 2005 and 31st December, 2006, which aim at: evaluating the quality of therapeutic practices, delivered by nephrologists, for chronic kidney disease patients during the year preceding dialysis onset, assessing the association between quality of predialysis therapeutic practices and survival and hospitalization during the first year of dialysis, and health-related quality of life at dialysis onset. Several data were collected for the AVENIR study: demographic, clinical, biological and therapeutic data before dialysis, morbidity and mortality during dialysis treatment. These data were used for secondary analyses investigating the decline in glomerular filtration rate over the year preceding dialysis, the management of hypertension and proteinuria before dialysis, and characteristics and outcomes of patients with delayed dialysis initiation. Results from the AVENIR study have been published in various international journals. The aim of this manuscript is to present a summary of these results and the lessons we can learn for the nephrological practice.
    Néphrologie & Thérapeutique 11/2012; · 0.50 Impact Factor
  • Pascal Houillier, Luc Frimat
    Néphrologie & Thérapeutique 10/2012; · 0.50 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: In survival analysis, patients on peritoneal dialysis are confronted with three different outcomes: transfer to hemodialysis, renal transplantation, or death. The Kaplan-Meier method takes into account one event only, so whether it adequately considers these different risks is questionable. The more recent competing risks method has been shown to be more appropriate in analyzing such situations METHODS: We compared the estimations obtained by the Kaplan-Meier method and the competing risks method (namely the Kalbfleisch and Prentice approach), in 383 consecutive incident peritoneal dialysis patients. By means of simulations, we then compared the Kaplan-Meier estimations obtained in two virtual centers where patients had exactly the same probability of death. The only difference between these two virtual centers was whether renal transplantation was available or not. RESULTS: At five years, 107 (27.9%) patients had died, 109 (28.4%) had been transferred to hemodialysis, 91 (23.8%) had been transplanted, and 37 (9.7%) were still alive on peritoneal dialysis; before five years, 39 (10.2%) patients were censored alive on peritoneal dialysis. The five-year probabilities estimated by the Kaplan-Meier and the competing risks methods were respectively: death: 50% versus 30%; transfer to hemodialysis: 59% versus 32%; renal transplantation: 39% versus 26%; event-free survival: 12% versus 12%. The sum of the Kaplan-Meier estimations exceeded 100%, implying that patients could experience more than one event, death and transplantation for example, which is impossible. In the simulations, the probability of death estimated by the Kaplan-Meier method increased as the probability of renal transplantation increased, although the probability of death actually remained constant. CONCLUSION: The competing risks method appears more appropriate than the Kaplan-Meier method for estimating the probability of events in peritoneal dialysis in the context of univariable survival analysis.
    BMC Nephrology 05/2012; 13(1):31. · 1.64 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Studies evaluating patient outcomes in dialysis as a function of quality of predialysis therapeutic care are lacking. To evaluate the association of quality of predialysis therapeutic practices with survival and hospitalization during the first year of dialysis. The AVantagE de la Néphroprotection dans l'Insuffisance Rénale study was an observational cohort study. Cox models explored the association between quality of therapeutic practices and survival over the first year whereas logistic regression measured the association with total duration of hospitalization (0 to 6 d, ≥7 d) among surviving patients at 1 year. All adult patients with chronic kidney disease starting dialysis in Lorraine (France) between 2005 and 2006. The appropriateness of therapeutic practices was evaluated with reference to current guidelines covering 5 aspects of chronic kidney disease: hypertension/proteinuria, anemia, bone disease, metabolic acidosis, and dyslipidemia. Each patient was then assigned a quality of therapeutic practices rating (high, moderate, or poor) depending on the number of aspects appropriately managed. Quality of predialysis therapeutic practices was high in 18.2% of the 566 included patients, moderate in 62.5%, and poor in 19.3%. In multivariate analysis, the higher the quality of practices, the better the survival rate during the first year of dialysis [High: hazard ratio (HR) 1; moderate: HR 1.56, P=0.09; poor: HR 1.95, P=0.02]. Conversely, quality of therapeutic practices was not associated with duration of hospitalization among the 390 surviving patients at 1 year. This study suggests that quality of predialysis therapeutic practices is positively associated with survival during the first year of dialysis.
    Medical care 01/2012; 50(1):35-42. · 3.24 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: New very high permeability dialysis membranes have been developed to enable the clearance of free light chains in myeloma cast nephropathy. These new dialysis techniques, in combination with chemotherapy, should allow improved prognosis in patients with myeloma cast nephropathy. We report a prospective observational study comparing patients who underwent hemodialysis in our center in 2009 for cast nephropathy revealing multiple myeloma vs. patients treated for the same condition during the same period in other centers in our region. The main difference in the management protocols was the use of high cutoff (HCO) membranes in our center. We described the clinical features, the management protocols, and the outcomes as of June 1, 2010. In 2009, five patients were treated for myeloma cast nephropathy with HCO hemodialysis in our center. At 386 ± 100 days follow-up, one patient died, while three of the five patients recovered their renal function, allowing cessation of hemodialysis. During the same period, five patients were treated for myeloma cast nephropathy in other centers in our region. At 398 ± 131 days follow-up, four patients died, and none of the patients recovered renal function, allowing cessation of hemodialysis. In our study, light chain clearance allowed recovery of renal function and cessation of hemodialysis in three of five patients with acute kidney injury secondary to myeloma cast nephropathy. A randomized trial comparing this technique with conventional hemodialysis techniques should be conducted to raise the level of proof for this therapeutic option. The overall prognosis, including quality of life and cost-effectiveness, of HCO hemodialysis should also be examined.
    Hemodialysis International 10/2011; 15(4):538-45. · 1.44 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Although end-stage renal disease related to AA amyloidosis nephropathy is well characterized, there are limited data concerning patient and graft outcome after renal transplantation. We performed a multicentric retrospective survey to assess the graft and patient survival in 59 renal recipients with AA amyloidosis. The recurrence rate of AA amyloidosis nephropathy was estimated at 14%. The overall, 5- and 10-year patient survival was significantly lower for the AA amyloidosis patients than for a control group of 177 renal transplant recipients (p = 0.0001, 0.028 and 0.013, respectively). In contrast, we did not observe any statistical differences in the 5- and 10- year graft survival censored for death between two groups. AA amyloidosis-transplanted patients exhibited a high proportion of infectious complications after transplantation (73.2%). Causes of death included both acute cardiovascular events and fatal septic complications. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that the recurrence of AA amyloidosis on the graft (adjusted OR = 14.4, p = 0.01) and older recipient age (adjusted OR for a 1-year increase = 1.06, p = 0.03) were significantly associated with risk of death. Finally, patients with AA amyloidosis nephropathy are eligible for renal transplantation but require careful management of both cardiovascular and infectious complications to reduce the high risk of mortality.
    American Journal of Transplantation 06/2011; 11(11):2423-31. · 6.19 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Increased arterial stiffness (AS) is a major determinant of cardiovascular complications in end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients. Little is known about AS evolution after kidney transplantation. The aim of the study was to characterize the evolution of AS after kidney transplantation in a population of ESRD patients, in comparison to those remaining in dialysis. Eighty-eight patients (age between 35 and 65) were recruited from the waiting list for kidney transplantation of the University Hospital of Nancy. Two vascular evaluations were performed at a 1-year interval. During this interval, 39 patients were transplanted and 49 remained in dialysis. At inclusion, median pulse-wave velocity (PWV) was similar in transplanted patients and transplantation-pending patients, respectively, 9.2 (7.9-11.9) and 9.8 (7.7-12.1) m/s. No difference between the two groups was found at the 1-year interval. Median of time after transplantation was 6.3 (3.8-10.1) months. Median of blood pressure (MBP) decreased only in the transplanted patients [99 (93-112) versus 96 (90-101) mmHg, P < 0.01] Multivariate analysis showed that PWV changes depend on changes in MBP and baseline PWV. Although no difference in the 1-year PWV evolution was found, the low MBP value in transplanted patients allow to expect a better long-term evolution of AS and a better cardiovascular prognosis after kidney transplantation than in transplantation-pending patients.
    Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation 03/2011; 26(10):3386-91. · 3.37 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Castleman disease (CD), or angiofollicular lymph-node hyperplasia, is an atypical lymphoproliferative disorder with heterogeneous clinical manifestations. Renal involvement in CD has been described in only single-case reports, which have included various types of renal diseases. Nineteen patients with histologically documented CD and renal biopsies available were included. Clinical features and renal histological findings were reviewed, and the available samples were immunolabelled with anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) antibody. Nineteen CD cases were identified: 89% were multicentric, and 84% were of the plasma-cell or mixed type. Four cases (21%) were associated with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Among HIV-negative patients, two main patterns of renal involvement were found: (i) a small-vessel lesions group (SVL) (60%) with endotheliosis and glomerular double contours in all patients and with superimposed glomerular/arteriolar thrombi or mesangiolysis in most; and (ii) AA amyloidosis (20%). Renal histology was more heterogeneous among HIV-positive patients. Decreases in glomerular VEGF were observed only in some patients with SVL, whereas VEGF staining was normal in all other histological groups. Interestingly, glomerular VEGF loss associated with SVL was correlated with plasma C-reactive protein levels, a marker of CD activity. Small-vessel lesions are the most frequent renal involvement in CD, whereas loss of glomerular VEGF is correlated with CD activity and could have a role in SVL pathophysiology.
    Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation 02/2011; 26(2):599-609. · 3.37 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Often, one gathers together under the denomination "peritoneal dialysis" patients with various clinical profiles. To quantify this "heterogeneity" we analysed the clinical characteristics of 32,975 patients treated by dialysis at 31 December 2008 in 22 French regions, participating to the REIN registry. This cross-sectional study confirms our initial hypothesis of a great heterogeneity of patients' profiles in peritoneal dialysis. As in hemodialysis, there is a gradation between modalities: from assisted continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis which concerns the frailty patients to autonomous automated peritoneal dialysis for more healthy patients, through assisted automated peritoneal dialysis and autonomous continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis.
    Néphrologie & Thérapeutique 02/2011; 7(4):225-8. · 0.50 Impact Factor
  • B. Faller, L. Frimat
    Nephrologie & Therapeutique - NEPHROL THER. 01/2011; 7(5):284-285.
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    ABSTRACT: Often, one gathers together under the denomination “peritoneal dialysis” patients with various clinical profiles. To quantify this “heterogeneity” we analysed the clinical characteristics of 32,975 patients treated by dialysis at 31 December 2008 in 22 French regions, participating to the REIN registry. This cross-sectional study confirms our initial hypothesis of a great heterogeneity of patients’ profiles in peritoneal dialysis. As in hemodialysis, there is a gradation between modalities: from assisted continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis which concerns the frailty patients to autonomous automated peritoneal dialysis for more healthy patients, through assisted automated peritoneal dialysis and autonomous continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis.
    Nephrologie & Therapeutique - NEPHROL THER. 01/2011; 7(4):225-228.
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    ABSTRACT: Some patients who reach end-stage renal disease refuse to start dialysis at the time suggested by their nephrologist and delay it. Whether this delay may affect health-related quality of life (HRQoL), clinical and biological parameters at dialysis onset, and then survival and hospitalization during dialysis is unknown. We considered all adult patients who began dialysis in Lorraine (France) in 2005-2006 having previously been followed by a nephrologist. Clinical and biological characteristics at dialysis onset were collected from medical records, and nephrologists were interviewed about compliance with the recommended starting date. HRQoL was measured using the French version of the 'Kidney Disease Quality of Life' V36 questionnaire. Mortality and total duration of hospitalization during the first year of dialysis were recorded as part of the end-stage renal disease French registry. The effects of delaying dialysis on survival and on duration of hospitalization were determined using log-rank test and polychotomous logistic regression, respectively. Of 541 patients, 88 (16.3%) declined to initiate dialysis at the time recommended by the nephrologist and delayed it. Compared with patients who were compliant with the advice, noncompliers had more comorbidities, poorer clinical and biological profiles at dialysis start, and a higher risk of beginning dialysis in emergency circumstances with greater decline in the 'burden of kidney disease' dimension of HRQoL. However, there were no differences in survival or duration of hospitalization during dialysis. Despite a negative effect on clinical and biological parameters at initiation, delaying dialysis did not impact on survival during treatment.
    American Journal of Nephrology 01/2011; 33(1):76-83. · 2.62 Impact Factor
  • European Urology Supplements - EUR UROL SUPPL. 01/2011; 10(2):136-136.
  • Nephrologie & Therapeutique - NEPHROL THER. 01/2011; 7(5):402-402.
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    ABSTRACT: To determine the impact of the quality of pre-dialysis nephrological care on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) at dialysis onset, which has not been well evaluated. All adults who began a dialysis treatment in the administrative region of Lorraine (France) in 2005 or 2006, were enrolled in this prospective observational study. HRQoL was measured using the Kidney Disease Quality of Life V36 questionnaire, which enables calculation of two generic (physical and mental) and three specific dimensions (Symptoms/problems, Effects and Burden of kidney disease). The specific dimensions were scored from 0 to 100 (worst to best possible functioning). Pre-dialysis nephrological care was measured using three indicators: quality of therapeutic practices (evaluated across five main aspects: hypertension/proteinuria, anemia, bone disease, metabolic acidosis and dyslipidemia), time since referral to a nephrologist and number of nephrology consultations in the year preceding dialysis treatment. Two thousand and eighty-three (67.4%) patients were referred to a nephrologist more than 1 month before dialysis initiation and completed the HRQoL questionnaire. Quality of therapeutic practices was significantly associated with the Mental component. Time since referral to a nephrologist was associated with Symptoms/problems and the Effects of kidney disease dimensions, but no relationship was found between the number of nephrology consultations and HRQoL. HRQoL at dialysis onset is significantly influenced by the quality of pre-dialysis nephrological care. Therefore, disease management should be emphasized.
    Health and Quality of Life Outcomes 01/2011; 9:7. · 2.27 Impact Factor