Alastair C. Edge

Durham University, Durham, England, United Kingdom

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Publications (37)167.28 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: We measure the angular clustering of 33 415 extremely red objects (EROs) in the Elais-N1 field covering 5.33 deg2, which cover the redshift range z = 0.8 to 2. This sample was made by merging the UKIDSS Deep eXtragalactic Survey (DXS) with the optical Subaru and Pan-STARRS PS1 data sets. We confirm the existence of a clear break in the angular correlation function at ̃0.02° corresponding to 1 h-1 Mpc at z ̃ 1. We find that redder or brighter EROs are more clustered than bluer or fainter ones. Halo occupation distribution (HOD) model fits imply that the average mass of dark matter haloes which host EROs is over 1013 h-1 M☉ and that EROs have a bias ranging from 2.7 to 3.5. Compared to EROs at z ̃ 1.1, at z ̃ 1.5 EROs have a higher bias and fewer are expected to be satellite galaxies. Furthermore, EROs reside in similar dark matter haloes to those that host 1011.0 M☉ < M* < 1011.5 M☉ galaxies. We compare our new measurement and HOD fits with the predictions of the GALFORM semi-analytical galaxy formation model. Overall, the clustering predicted by GALFORM gives an encouraging match to our results. However, compared to our deductions from the measurements, GALFORM puts EROs into lower mass haloes and predicts that a larger fraction of EROs are satellite galaxies. This suggests that the treatment of gas cooling may need to be revised in the model. Our analysis illustrates the potential of clustering analyses to provide observational constraints on theoretical models of galaxy formation.
    01/2014; 438(1).
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    ABSTRACT: Ram-pressure stripping by the gaseous intra-cluster medium has been proposed as the dominant physical mechanism driving the rapid evolution of galaxies in dense environments. Detailed studies of this process have, however, largely been limited to relatively modest examples affecting only the outermost gas layers of galaxies in nearby and/or low-mass galaxy clusters. We here present results from our search for extreme cases of gas-galaxy interactions in much more massive, X-ray selected clusters at $z>0.3$. Using Hubble Space Telescope (HST) snapshots in the F606W and F814W passbands, we have discovered dramatic evidence of ram-pressure stripping in which copious amounts of gas are first shock compressed and then removed from galaxies falling into the cluster. Vigorous starbursts triggered by this process across the galaxy-gas interface and in the debris trail cause these galaxies to temporarily become some of the brightest cluster members in the F606W passband, capable of outshining even the Brightest Cluster Galaxy. Based on the spatial distribution and orientation of systems viewed nearly edge-on in our survey, we speculate that infall at large impact parameter gives rise to particularly long-lasting stripping events. Our sample of six spectacular examples identified in clusters from the Massive Cluster Survey (MACS), all featuring $M_{\rm F606W}<-$21 mag, doubles the number of such systems presently known at $z>0.2$ and facilitates detailed quantitative studies of the most violent galaxy evolution in clusters.
    12/2013; 781(2).
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    ABSTRACT: We measure the angular clustering of 33 415 extremely red objects (EROs) in the Elais-N1 field covering 5.33 deg$^{2}$, which cover the redshift range $z=0.8$ to $2$. This sample was made by merging the UKIDSS Deep eXtragalactic Survey (DXS) with the optical Subaru and Pan-STARRS PS1 datasets. We confirm the existence of a clear break in the angular correlation function at $\sim 0.02^{\circ}$ corresponding to $1 h^{-1}$ Mpc at $z\sim1$. We find that redder or brighter EROs are more clustered than bluer or fainter ones. Halo Occupation Distribution (HOD) model fits imply that the average mass of dark matter haloes which host EROs is over $10^{13} h^{-1} M_{\odot}$ and that EROs have a bias ranging from 2.7 to 3.5. Compared to EROs at $z\sim1.1$, at $z\sim1.5$ EROs have a higher bias and fewer are expected to be satellite galaxies. Furthermore, EROs reside in similar dark matter haloes to those that host $10^{11.0} M_{\odot}<M_{*}<10^{11.5} M_{\odot}$ galaxies. We compare our new measurement and HOD fits with the predictions of the GALFORM semi-analytical galaxy formation model. Overall, the clustering predicted by GALFORM gives an encouraging match to our results. However, compared to our deductions from the measurements, GALFORM puts EROs into lower mass haloes and predicts that a larger fraction of EROs are satellite galaxies. This suggests that the treatment of gas cooling may need to be revised in the model. Our analysis illustrates the potential of clustering analyses to provide observational constraints on theoretical models of galaxy formation.
    11/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: [Abridged] We present new optical integral field spectroscopy (Gemini South) and submillimeter spectroscopy (Submillimeter Array) of the central galaxy in the Phoenix cluster (SPT-CLJ2344-4243). This cluster was previously reported to have a massive starburst (~800 Msun/yr) in the central, brightest cluster galaxy, most likely fueled by the rapidly-cooling intracluster medium. These new data reveal a complex emission-line nebula, extending for >30 kpc from the central galaxy. The total Halpha luminosity, assuming Halpha/Hbeta = 2.85, is L_Ha = 7.6 +/- 0.4 x10^43 erg/s, making this the most luminous emission line nebula detected in the center of a cool core cluster. Overall, the relative fluxes of the low-ionization lines (e.g., [O II], Hbeta) to the UV continuum are consistent with photoionization by young stars. In both the center of the galaxy and in a newly-discovered highly-ionized plume to the north of the galaxy, the ionization ratios are consistent with both shocks and AGN photoionization. We speculate that this extended plume may be a galactic wind, driven and partially photoionized by both the starburst and central AGN. We find evidence for shocks throughout the ISM of the central galaxy, most likely driven by a combination of stellar winds from massive young stars, core-collapse supernovae, and the central AGN. In addition to the warm, ionized gas, we detect a substantial amount of cold, molecular gas via the CO(3-2) transition, coincident in position with the galaxy center. We infer a molecular gas mass of M_H2 = 2.2 +/- 0.6 x10^10 Msun, which implies that the starburst will consume its fuel in ~30 Myr if it is not replenished. The combination of the high level of turbulence in the warm phase and the high L_IR/M_H2 ratio suggests that this violent starburst may be in the process of quenching itself.
    11/2013; 784(1).
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    ABSTRACT: We present Herschel observations of the core of the Perseus cluster of galaxies. The brightest cluster galaxy, NGC 1275, is surrounded by a network of filaments previously imaged extensively in H{\alpha} and CO. In this work, we report detections of FIR lines with Herschel. All but one of the lines are spatially extended, with the [CII] line emission extending up to 25 kpc from the core. There is spatial and kinematical correlation among [CII], H{\alpha} and CO, which gives us confidence to model the different components of the gas with a common heating model. With the help of FIR continuum Herschel measurements, together with a suite of coeval radio, submm and infrared data, we performed a SED fitting of NGC 1275 using a model that contains contributions from dust emission as well as synchrotron AGN emission. The data indicate a low dust emissivity index, beta ~ 1, a total dust mass close to 10^7 solar mass, a cold dust component with temperature 38 \pm 2 K and a warm dust component with temperature of 116 \pm 9 K. The FIR-derived star formation rate (SFR) is 24 \pm 1 solar mass per yr, in close agreement with the FUV-derived SFR. We investigated in detail the source of the Herschel FIR and H{\alpha} emissions emerging from a core region 4 kpc in radius. Based on simulations conducted using the radiative transfer code, CLOUDY, a heating model comprising old and young stellar populations is sufficient to explain these observations. We have also detected [CII] in three well-studied regions of the filaments. We find a [OI]/[CII] ratio about 1 dex smaller than predicted by the otherwise functional Ferland (2009) model. The line ratio suggests that the lines are optically thick, as is typical of galactic PDRs, and implies that there is a large reservoir of cold atomic gas. [abridged]
    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 08/2012; 426(4). · 5.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The XMM Cluster Survey (XCS) is a serendipitous search for galaxy clusters using all publicly available data in the XMM-Newton Science Archive. Its main aims are to measure cosmological parameters and trace the evolution of X-ray scaling relations. In this paper we present the first data release from the XMM Cluster Survey (XCS-DR1). This consists of 503 optically confirmed, serendipitously detected, X-ray clusters. Of these clusters, 256 are new to the literature and 357 are new X-ray discoveries. We present 463 clusters with a redshift estimate (0.06 < z < 1.46), including 261 clusters with spectroscopic redshifts. The remainder have photometric redshifts. In addition, we have measured X-ray temperatures (TX) for 401 clusters (0.4 < TX < 14.7 keV). We highlight seven interesting subsamples of XCS-DR1 clusters: (i) 10 clusters at high redshift (z > 1.0, including a new spectroscopically confirmed cluster at z= 1.01); (ii) 66 clusters with high TX (>5 keV) (iii) 130 clusters/groups with low TX (<2 keV) (iv) 27 clusters with measured TX values in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) ‘Stripe 82’ co-add region; (v) 77 clusters with measured TX values in the Dark Energy Survey region; (vi) 40 clusters detected with sufficient counts to permit mass measurements (under the assumption of hydrostatic equilibrium); (vii) 104 clusters that can be used for applications such as the derivation of cosmological parameters and the measurement of cluster scaling relations. The X-ray analysis methodology used to construct and analyse the XCS-DR1 cluster sample has been presented in a companion paper, Lloyd-Davies et al.
    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 05/2012; 423:1024-1052. · 5.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Using a sample of 123 X-ray clusters and groups drawn from the XMM-Cluster Survey first data release, we investigate the interplay between the brightest cluster galaxy (BCG), its black hole, and the intra-cluster/group medium (ICM). It appears that for groups and clusters with a BCG likely to host significant AGN feedback, gas cooling dominates in those with Tx > 2 keV while AGN feedback dominates below. This may be understood through the sub-unity exponent found in the scaling relation we derive between the BCG mass and cluster mass over the halo mass range 10^13 < M500 < 10^15Msol and the lack of correlation between radio luminosity and cluster mass, such that BCG AGN in groups can have relatively more energetic influence on the ICM. The Lx - Tx relation for systems with the most massive BCGs, or those with BCGs co-located with the peak of the ICM emission, is steeper than that for those with the least massive and most offset, which instead follows self-similarity. This is evidence that a combination of central gas cooling and powerful, well fuelled AGN causes the departure of the ICM from pure gravitational heating, with the steepened relation crossing self-similarity at Tx = 2 keV. Importantly, regardless of their black hole mass, BCGs are more likely to host radio-loud AGN if they are in a massive cluster (Tx > 2 keV) and again co-located with an effective fuel supply of dense, cooling gas. This demonstrates that the most massive black holes appear to know more about their host cluster than they do about their host galaxy. The results lead us to propose a physically motivated, empirical definition of 'cluster' and 'group', delineated at 2 keV.
    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 02/2012; 422(3). · 5.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present IRAM Plateau de Bure interferometric detections of CO (J = 1 → 0) emission from a 24 μm-selected sample of star-forming galaxies at z = 0.4. The galaxies have polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon 7.7 μm-derived star formation rates of SFR ~30-60 M ☉ yr–1 and stellar masses M ~ 1011 M ☉. The CO (J = 1 → 0) luminosities of the galaxies imply that the disks still contain a large reservoir of molecular gas, contributing ~20% of the baryonic mass, but have star formation "efficiencies" similar to local quiescent disks and gas-dominated disks at z ~ 1.5-2. We reveal evidence that the average molecular gas fraction has undergone strong evolution since z ~ 2, with f gas (1 + z)~2±0.5. The evolution of f gas encodes fundamental information about the relative depletion/replenishment of molecular fuel in galaxies and is expected to be a strong function of halo mass. We show that the latest predictions for the evolution of the molecular gas fraction in semi-analytic models of galaxy formation within a ΛCDM universe are supported by these new observations.
    The Astrophysical Journal Letters 03/2011; 730(2):L19. · 6.35 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Quillen et al. and O'Dea et al. carried out a Spitzer study of a sample of 62 brightest cluster galaxies (BCGs) from the ROSAT brightest cluster sample, which were chosen based on their elevated Hα flux. We present Hubble Space Telescope Advanced Camera for Surveys far-ultraviolet (FUV) images of the Lyα and continuum emission of the luminous emission-line nebulae in seven BCGs found to have an infrared (IR) excess. We confirm that the BCGs are actively forming stars which suggests that the IR excess seen in these BCGs is indeed associated with star formation. Our observations are consistent with a scenario in which gas that cools from the intracluster medium fuels the star formation. The FUV continuum emission extends over a region ~7-28 kpc (largest linear size) and even larger in Lyα. The young stellar population required by the FUV observations would produce a significant fraction of the ionizing photons required to power the emission-line nebulae. Star formation rates estimated from the FUV continuum range from ~3 to ~14 times lower than those estimated from the IR, however, both the Balmer decrements in the central few arcseconds and detection of CO in most of these galaxies imply that there are regions of high extinction that could have absorbed much of the FUV continuum. Analysis of archival Very Large Array observations reveals compact radio sources in all seven BCGs and kpc scale jets in A-1835 and RXJ 2129+00. The four galaxies with archival deep Chandra observations exhibit asymmetric X-ray emission, the peaks of which are offset from the center of the BCG by ~10 kpc on average. A low feedback state for the active galactic nucleus could allow increased condensation of the hot gas into the center of the galaxy and the feeding of star formation.
    The Astrophysical Journal 08/2010; 719(2):1619. · 6.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Quillen et al. and O'Dea et al. carried out a Spitzer study of a sample of 62 brightest cluster galaxies (BCGs) from the ROSAT Brightest Cluster Sample chosen based on their elevated H-alpha flux. We present Hubble Space Telescope Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) far ultraviolet (FUV) images of the Ly-alpha and continuum emission of the luminous emission-line nebulae in 7 BCGs found to have an infrared excess. We confirm that the BCGs are actively forming stars suggesting that the IR excess seen in these BCGs is indeed associated with star formation. The FUV continuum emission extends over a region of ~7-28 kpc (largest linear size) and even larger in Ly-alpha. The young stellar population required by the FUV observations would produce a significant fraction of the ionizing photons required to power the emission line nebulae. Star formation rates estimated from the FUV continuum range from ~3 to ~14 times lower than those estimated from the IR, however both the Balmer decrement in the central few arcseconds and detection of CO in most of these galaxies imply that there are regions of high extinction that could have absorbed much of the FUV continuum. Analysis of archival VLA observations reveals compact radio sources in all 7 BCGs and kpc scale jets in Abell 1835 and RXJ 2129+00. The four galaxies with archival deep Chandra observations exhibit asymmetric X-ray emission, the peaks of which are offset from the center of the BCGs by ~10 kpc on average. A low feedback state for the AGN could allow increased condensation of the hot gas into the center of the galaxy and the feeding of star formation. Comment: Accepted for publication in The Astrophysical Journal
    06/2010;
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    ABSTRACT: We present a catalogue of 3405 X-ray sources from the ROSAT All Sky Survey (RASS) Bright Source Catalogue which fall within the area covered by the 6dF Galaxy Survey (6dFGS). The catalogue is count-rate limited at 0.05ctss-1 in the X-ray and covers the area of sky with delta 10°. The RASS-6dFGS sample was one of the additional target catalogues of the 6dFGS and as a result we obtained optical spectra for 2224 (65 per cent) RASS sources. Of these, 1715 (77 per cent) have reliable redshifts with a median redshift of z = 0.16 (excluding the Galactic sources). For the optically bright sources (bJ
    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 01/2010; 401:1151-1165. · 5.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present photometric, spectroscopic and weak lensing analysis of the large-scale structure and dynamics of the most X-ray luminous galaxy cluster known, RX J1347-1145, at z=0.451. We spectroscopically confirmed 47 new members with LDSS3 on the Magellan telescope. Together with previously known members, we measure a new velocity dispersion of 1163(+/-97) km/s. The mass inferred from our velocity dispersion is M200 = 1.16^{+0.32}_{-0.27}x10^{15} solar mass, with r200=1.85Mpc, under the assumption of a singular isothermal sphere. We also present a weak lensing analysis using deep CFHT data on this cluster, and find a deprojected mass of 1.47^{+0.46}_{-0.43}x10^{15} solar mass within r200, in excellent agreement with our dynamical estimate. Thus, our new dynamical mass estimate is consistent with that from weak lensing and X-ray studies in the literature, resolving a previously claimed discrepancy. We photometrically detect and spectroscopically confirm another massive cluster with sigma=780(+/-100) km/s and M200=3.4^{+1.4}_{-1.1}x10^{14} solar mass ~7Mpc south-west of RX J1347-1145, which we refer to as RXJ1347-SW. Our spectroscopic survey reveals a possible excess of galaxies in velocity space in the region between RX J1347-1145 and RXJ1347-SW; comparing with simulations, this excess appears consistent with that expected from a large filamentary structure traced by galaxies connecting these two clusters. Comment: version submitted to MNRAS, after incorporating referee comments
    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 12/2009; · 5.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present Advanced Camera for Surveys observations of MACS J1149.5+2223, an X-ray luminous galaxy cluster at z = 0.544 discovered by the Massive Cluster Survey. The data reveal at least seven multiply imaged galaxies, three of which we have confirmed spectroscopically. One of these is a spectacular face-on spiral galaxy at z = 1.491, the four images of which are gravitationally magnified by 8 μ 23. We identify this as an L (MB –20.7), disk-dominated (B/T 0.5) galaxy, forming stars at ~6 M ☉ yr–1. We use a robust sample of multiply imaged galaxies to constrain a parameterized model of the cluster mass distribution. In addition to the main cluster dark matter halo and the bright cluster galaxies, our best model includes three galaxy-group-sized halos. The relative probability of this model is P(N halo = 4)/P(N halo < 4) ≥ 1012 where N halo is the number of cluster/group-scale halos. In terms of sheer number of merging cluster/group-scale components, this is the most complex strong-lensing cluster core studied to date. The total cluster mass and fraction of that mass associated with substructures within R ≤ 500 kpc, are measured to be M tot = (6.7 ± 0.4) × 1014 M ☉ and f sub = 0.25 ± 0.12, respectively. Our model also rules out recent claims of a flat density profile at 7σ confidence, thus highlighting the critical importance of spectroscopic redshifts of multiply imaged galaxies when modeling strong-lensing clusters. Overall our results attest to the efficiency of X-ray selection in finding the most powerful cluster lenses, including complicated merging systems.
    The Astrophysical Journal 12/2009; 707(2):L163. · 6.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present Advanced Camera for Surveys observations of MACSJ1149.5+2223, an X-ray luminous galaxy cluster at z=0.544 discovered by the Massive Cluster Survey. The data reveal at least seven multiply-imaged galaxies, three of which we have confirmed spectroscopically. One of these is a spectacular face-on spiral galaxy at z=1.491, the four images of which are gravitationally magnified by ~8<mu<~23. We identify this as an L* (M_B=-20.7), disk-dominated (B/T<~0.5) galaxy, forming stars at ~6Msol/yr. We use a robust sample of multiply-imaged galaxies to constrain a parameterized model of the cluster mass distribution. In addition to the main cluster dark matter halo and the bright cluster galaxies, our best model includes three galaxy-group-sized halos. The relative probability of this model is P(N_halo=4)/P(N_halo<4)>=10^12 where N_halo is the number of cluster/group-scale halos. In terms of sheer number of merging cluster/group-scale components, this is the most complex strong-lensing cluster core studied to date. The total cluster mass and fraction of that mass associated with substructures within R<=500kpc, are measured to be M_tot=(6.7+/-0.4)x10^14Msol and f_sub=0.25+/-0.12 respectively. Our model also rules out recent claims of a flat density profile at >~7sigma confidence, thus highlighting the critical importance of spectroscopic redshifts of multiply-imaged galaxies when modeling strong lensing clusters. Overall our results attest to the efficiency of X-ray selection in finding the most powerful cluster lenses, including complicated merging systems. Comment: Accepted by ApJL; 6 pages, 4 figures; a version with figure 1 at full resolution is available at http://www.sr.bham.ac.uk/~gps/macs1149/macs1149v2a.pdf
    11/2009;
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    ABSTRACT: We present a catalogue of 3405 X-ray sources from the ROSAT All Sky Survey (RASS) Bright Source Catalogue which fall within the area covered by the 6dF Galaxy Survey (6dFGS). The catalogue is count-rate limited at 0.05 cts\s in the X-ray and covers the area of sky with delta < 0 deg and |b|>10 deg. The RASS--6dFGS sample was one of the additional target catalogues of the 6dFGS and as a result we obtained optical spectra for 2224 (65%) RASS sources. Of these, 1715 (77%) have reliable redshifts with a median redshift of z=0.16 (excluding the Galactic sources). For the optically bright sources (b_J < 17.5) in the observed sample, over 90% have reliable redshifts. The catalogue mainly comprises QSOs and active galaxies but also includes 238 Galactic sources. Of the sources with reliable redshifts the majority are Type 1 AGN (69%), while 12% are Type 2 AGN, 6% absorption-line galaxies and 13% are stars. We also identify a small number of optically-faint, very low redshift, compact objects which fall outside the general trend in the b_J-z plane. We detect 918 sources (27%) of the RASS--6dFGS sample in the radio using either the 1.4 GHz NRAO VLA Sky Survey (NVSS) or the 843 MHz Sydney University Molonglo Sky Survey (SUMSS) catalogues and find that the detection rate changes with redshift. At redshifts larger than 1 virtually all of these sources have radio counterparts and with a median flux density of 1.15 Jy, they are much stronger than the median flux density of 28.6 mJy for the full sample. We attribute this to the fact that the X-ray flux of these objects is being boosted by a jet component, possibly Doppler boosted, that is only present in radio-loud AGN. (abridged version) Comment: 17 pages, 15 figures, accepted for publication in MNRAS
    09/2009;
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    ABSTRACT: We study the distribution of projected offsets between the cluster X-ray centroid and the brightest cluster galaxy (BCG) for 65 X-ray selected clusters from the Local Cluster Substructure Survey (LoCuSS), with a median redshift of z=0.23. We find a clear correlation between X-ray/BCG projected offset and the logarithmic slope of the cluster gas density profile at 0.04r500 (alpha), implying that more dynamically disturbed clusters have weaker cool cores. Furthermore, there is a close correspondence between the activity of the BCG, in terms of detected H_alpha and radio emission, and the X-ray/BCG offset, with the line emitting galaxies all residing in clusters with X-ray/BCG offsets of <~15 kpc. Of the BCGs with alpha < -0.85 and an offset < 0.02r500, 96 per cent (23/24) have optical emission and 88 per cent (21/24) are radio active, while none has optical emission outside these criteria. We also study the cluster gas fraction (fgas) within r500 and find a significant correlation with X-ray/BCG projected offset. The mean fgas of the `small offset' clusters (< 0.02r500) is 0.106+/-0.005 (sigma=0.03) compared to 0.145+/-0.009 (sigma=0.04) for those with an offset > 0.02r500, indicating that the total mass may be systematically underestimated in clusters with larger X-ray/BCG offsets. Our results imply a link between cool core strength and cluster dynamical state consistent with the view that cluster mergers can significantly perturb cool cores, and set new constraints on models of the evolution of the intracluster medium. Comment: Added references; 8 pages, 7 figures; accepted for publication in MNRAS
    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 06/2009; · 5.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present IRAM Plateau de Bure Interferometer 3mm observations of CO(1-0) emission in two 24um-selected starburst galaxies in the outskirts (2-3xR_virial) of the rich cluster Cl0024+16 (z=0.395). The galaxies' inferred far-infrared luminosities place them in the luminous infrared galaxy class (LIRGs, L_FIR>10^11 L_Sun), with star formation rates of ~60 M_Sun/yr. Strong CO(1-0) emission is detected in both galaxies, and we use the CO line luminosity to estimate the mass of cold molecular gas, M(H_2). Assuming M(H_2)/L'_CO = 0.8 M_Sun/(K km^-1 pc^2), we estimate M(H_2) = (5.4-9.1)x10^9 M_Sun for the two galaxies. We estimate the galaxies' dynamical masses from their CO line-widths, M_dyn~1-3x10^10 M_Sun, implying large cold gas fractions in the galaxies' central regions. At their current rates they will complete the assembly of M_Stars~10^10 M_Sun and double their stellar mass within as little as ~150Myr. If these galaxies are destined to evolve into S0s, then the short time-scale for stellar mass assembly implies that their major episode of bulge growth occurs while they are still in the cluster outskirts, long before they reach the core regions. Subsequent fading of the disc component relative to the stellar bulge after the gas reservoirs have been exhausted could complete the transformation of spiral-to-S0. Comment: 5 pages, 3 figures. Accepted for publication in MNRAS Letters
    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 02/2009; · 5.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present results from the first phase of the Seoul National University Bright Quasar Survey in Optical (SNUQSO) as well as its basic observational setup. Previous and current large-area surveys have been successful in identifying many quasars, but they could have missed bright quasars due to their survey design. In order to help complete the census of bright quasars, we have performed spectroscopic observations of new bright quasar candidates selected from various methods based on optical colors, near-infrared colors, radio, and X-ray data. In 2005/2006, we observed 55 bright quasar candidates using the Bohyunsan Optical Echelle Spectrograph (BOES) on the 1.8 m telescope at the Bohyunsan Optical Astronomy Observatory in Korea. We identify 14 quasars/Seyferts from our observation, including an optically bright quasar with i = 14.98 mag at z = 0.092 (SDSS J003236.59–091026.2). Non-quasar/Seyfert objects are found to be mostly stars, among which there are five M-type stars and one cataclysmic variable. Our result shows that there still exist bright quasars to be discovered. However, at the same time, we conclude that finding new bright quasars in high Galactic latitude regions is very challenging and that the existing compilation of optically bright quasars is nearly complete in the northern hemisphere.
    The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series 12/2008; 175(1):116. · 16.24 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present a snapshot Hubble Space Telescope (HST) image of the galaxy cluster A1201 (z = 0.169), revealing a tangential arc 2'' from the brightest cluster galaxy (BCG). Keck Echelle Spectrograph and Imager (ESI) spectroscopy confirms that the arc is gravitational in nature and that the source galaxy lies at z = 0.451. We construct a model of the gravitational potential of the cluster that faithfully reproduces the observed arc morphology. Despite the relaxed appearance of the cluster in the HST frame, the best-fit ellipticity of the total matter distribution is total ≥ 0.5, in contrast to the light distribution of the BCG (BCG = 0.23 ± 0.03) on 2'' scales. Further deep optical observations and pointed X-ray spectro-imaging observations with Chandra are required to determine whether this elongation is due to a single elongated dark matter halo or a more complex distribution of matter in the cluster core. We compare the arc with a sample drawn from the published literature and confirm that it is unique among tangential systems in the small physical scales that it probes (~6 kpc). In anticipation of a more thorough investigation of this cluster across a broad range of physical scales, we use our fiducial lens model to estimate the projected mass and mass-to-light ratio of the cluster within a radius of 6 kpc, obtaining M = (5.9) × 1011 M☉, M/LV = 9.4 (M/L)☉. Overall our results confirm the importance of HST snapshot surveys for identifying rare lensing constraints on cluster mass distributions. In combination with follow-up optical and X-ray observations, the arc in A1201 should help to increase our understanding of the physics of cluster cores.
    The Astrophysical Journal 12/2008; 599(2):L69. · 6.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present an analysis of the small-to-intermediate scale clustering of samples of luminous red galaxies (LRGs) from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) and the 2dF-SDSS LRG and QSO Survey (2SLAQ) survey carefully matched to have the same rest-frame colours and luminosity. We study the spatial two-point autocorrelation function in both redshift space [ξ(s)] and real space [ξ(r)] of a combined sample of over 10 000 LRGs, which represent the most massive galaxies in the universe with stellar masses >1011 h−1 M⊙ and space densities ≃10−4 h3 Mpc−3 . We find no significant evolution in the amplitude (r0) of the correlation function with redshift, but do see a slight decrease in the slope (γ) with increasing redshift over 0.19 < z < 0.55 and scales of 0.32 < r < 32 h−1 Mpc . We compare our measurements with the predicted evolution of dark matter clustering and use the halo model to interpret our results. We find that our clustering measurements are inconsistent (>99.9 per cent significance) with a passive model whereby the LRGs do not merge with one another; a model with a merger rate of 7.5 ± 2.3 per cent from z= 0.55 to 0.19 (i.e. an average rate of 2.4 per cent Gyr−1) provides a better fit to our observations. Our clustering and number density measurements are consistent with the hypothesis that the merged LRGs were originally central galaxies in different haloes which, following the merger of these haloes, merged to create a single brightest cluster galaxy. In addition, we show that the small-scale clustering signal constrains the scatter in halo merger histories. When combined with measurements of the luminosity function, our results suggest that this scatter is sub-Poisson. While this is a generic prediction of hierarchical models, it has not been tested before.
    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 01/2008; · 5.52 Impact Factor