[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Piwi-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) are 26-31 nt small noncoding RNAs that are processed from their longer precursor transcripts by Piwi proteins. Localization of Piwi and piRNA has been reported mostly in nucleus and cytoplasm of higher eukaryotes germ-line cells, where it is believed that known piRNA sequences are located in repeat regions of nuclear genome in germ-line cells. However, localization of PIWI and piRNA in mammalian somatic cell mitochondria yet remains largely unknown. We identified 29 piRNA sequence alignments from various regions of the human mitochondrial genome. Twelve out 29 piRNA sequences matched stem-loop fragment sequences of 7 distinct tRNAs. We observed their actual expression in mitochondria subcellular fractions by inspecting mitochondrial-specific small RNA-Seq datasets. Of interest, the majority of the 29 piRNAs overlapped with multiple longer transcripts (expressed sequence tags) that are unique to the human mitochondrial genome. The presence of mature piRNAs in mitochondria was detected by qRT-PCR of mitochondrial subcellular RNAs. Further validation showed detection of Piwi by colocalization using anti-Piwil1 and mitochondria organelle-specific protein antibodies.
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 01/2014; · 2.41 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Aging-dependent physiological conditions are attributed to parenchymal structural changes to cellular functions in aged organisms. To understand these aging-dependent processes, we compared the glucose formation capacity of primary hepatocytes from young (4-month-old) and old (24-month-old) Fisher 344 rats. The primary hepatocytes from old rats showed a higher glucose output and a higher expression of the key gluconeogenesis-regulating enzyme, phosphoenol pyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK), compared with those from the young animals. The in situ hybridization study showed increased PEPCK mRNA expression in the aged liver tissues. The livers from old rats showed loosened hexagonal hepatic lobular structures, increased collagen accumulation, and high expression of the hypoxia marker hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF1α). Hypoxia increased the PEPCK mRNA and protein expression levels in accordance with the HIF1α expression. PEPCK promoter luciferase reporter assay showed that hypoxia increased PEPCK through transcriptional activation. Furthermore, the Hepatocyte nuclear factor α (HNF4α) protein, but not the HNF4α mRNA level, increased in parallel with the PEPCK mRNA expression under hypoxic conditions. The glucose production increased in hypoxic condition, but this increment diminished by HNF4α siRNA in young hepatocytes. Moreover, increased glucose production from old rat hepatocytes was reversed by the down-regulation of HNF4α through a specific siRNA. This study suggests that the mild hypoxic conditions in response to aging-dependent hepatic structural changes may contribute to the induction of the gluconeogenic enzyme PEPCK through HNF4α protein stabilization.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Currently, sensor networks are widely used in various fields. Here secure operations are required for critical applications since the damages are significant if the network is compromised or disrupted. For the security of wireless sensor network, the earlier schemes typically employ asymmetric cryptography. These schemes are, however, often unsuitable for wireless sensor network due to the limited computational power and energy of the sensor nodes. To address this issue, various approaches have been developed, and the random key predistribution approach has been recognized as an effective approach. One shortcoming, however, is that a common key is not guaranteed to be found between any two nodes wanting to communicate. This paper proposes a new robust key predistribution scheme solving this problem, with which the security is not compromised even though the data exchanged between the nodes are tapped by an adversary. This is achieved by using the keys assigned based on the notion of eigenvalue and eigenvector of a square matrix of a pool of keys. Mathematical analysis and computer simulation reveal that the proposed scheme significantly reduces the overhead required for secure connectivity and energy consumption of sensor nodes compared to the existing approaches.
International Journal of Distributed Sensor Networks 06/2013; 2013. · 0.73 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: To assess the relationship between mycoplasma infection and human infertility, we determined the concordance of Ureaplasma urealyticum (UU) and Mycoplasma hominis (MH) detection in infertile and fertile couples, and assessed semen parameters in both groups. METHODS: Fifty infertile couples without a female factor attending a fertility clinic and 48 fertile couples were randomly screened for UU and MH. The concordance between partners was compared between the fertile and infertile groups. Semen and endocervical specimens were evaluated using the commercially available Mycofast Evolution2 test. RESULTS: UU was detected in 24 semen specimens (48%) from the infertile men, in 12 specimens from fertile men (25%), in 20 endocervical specimens from infertile women (40%), and 11 from fertile women (22.9%). UU was detected higher in infertile men than in fertile men (P = .022). The concordance of UU was higher in infertile couples (32%) than in fertile couples (12.5%, P = .022). The concordance of MH between male and female partners in the 2 groups did not differ significantly. The mean values of total motility, progressive motility, normal morphology, vitality, and total motile sperm count were significantly lower in sperm from infertile men than from fertile men. Progressive motility and vitality were significantly lower in UU-positive men than in men without UU, and low total motility and total motile sperm count were significantly related to the presence of MH. CONCLUSION: Clinicians should consider the roles of UU and MH in infertility and routinely screen infertile couples for the presence of these mycoplasma species.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although graphene itself is a zero-bandgap semimetal, graphene
nanoribbon (GNR) with a width smaller than 10 nm exhibits semiconducting
behavior that renders them suitable for active materials of electronic
devices. Several methods have been reported to produce GNRs, such as
lithography, unzipping of CNTs, mechanical exfoliation and CVD. However,
the uncontrollable character of these methods or in some case the harsh
conditions restrict severely the quality of the resulting graphenes and
consequently limit their applications. In this study, we synthesized
GNRs with various widths from the corresponding polymer precursors and
investigated their TFT properties. For synthesis of GNRs, we first
synthesized polymers with phenylene, naphthalene and anthracene units by
the Suzuki coupling reaction between dibromine monomer and diboronic
ester monomer. The polymers were then converted into the corresponding
GNRs through intramolecular cyclodehydrogenation reaction. The
cyclodehydrogenation were identified quantitatively by NMR analysis. All
GNR-based TFTs showed ambipolar transport behavior. The anthracene-based
GNR exhibits the best TFT performance among three GNRs due to longer
conjugated length, larger width and stronger π-stacking as compared
to phenylene- and naphthalene-based GNRs.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A high-yielding dispersion of graphene at high concentration in solvent is critical for practical applications. Herein, we demonstrate the formation of a stable dispersion of pristine graphene in ethanol by exfoliating graphite flakes into individual graphene layers using a non-ionic polymer surfactant under bath-type sonication. Oligothiophene-terminated poly(ethylene glycol) was synthesized and used as a non-ionic and amphiphilic surfactant for exfoliating graphite into graphene. A high-quality graphene film was fabricated from the exfoliated graphene solution by the vacuum filtration method. TEM and SEM reveal that the size of exfoliated graphene flakes is larger than 1 μm. When the graphene film was treated with nitric acid and thionyl chloride after washing with solvent, the film showed high performance with a sheet resistance of 0.3 kΩ sq−1 and a transparency of 74% at 550 nm.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Graphene oxide (GO) prepared in bulk quantities by oxidation of graphite with strong oxidants contains many hydrophilic groups, such as hydroxyl, epoxy, and carboxyl acid. We present a method to efficiently convert these hydrophilic groups into alkyl and alkyl ether groups by a one step reaction of bimolecular nucleophilic substitution with alkyl bromide. The functionalized graphene oxide (fGO) can be homogeneously dispersed as exfoliated monolayers in various organic solvents without degradation of size and shape of graphene oxide sheet. The degree of substitution reaction of each hydrophilic group in GO with alkyl bromide is quantitatively determined by comparing the deconvoluted O 1s X-ray photoelectron spectrum of GO with that of fGO. Addition of a small amount of fGO in poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) improves remarkably tensile and gas barrier properties of PET/fGO composite due to homogeneous dispersion of fGO sheets in PET matrix.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ti alloy matrix composites reinforced with nanosized TiB whiskers (TiBw/Ti–6Al–4V) were synthesized through an in situ reaction between TiB2 and Ti–6Al–4V powders during a spark plasma sintering process. The TiBw/Ti–6Al–4V composites reinforced by whiskers with an aspect ratio of 58 exhibited threefold greater strengthening efficiency compared to those reinforced by whiskers with low aspect ratios. It was determined that the strengthening originates from the high load-bearing capability of TiB whiskers with a diameter of 100 nm formed in situ in a Ti alloy matrix.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We report a patient who developed subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) just after coronary angiography (CAG) with non-ionic contrast media (CM) and minimal dose of heparin. The 55-year-old man had a history of acute ST elevation myocardial infarction that had been treated with primary percutaneous coronary intervention and was admitted for a follow-up CAG. The CAG was performed by the transradial approach, using 1000 U of unfractionated heparin for the luminal coating and 70 mL of iodixanol. At the end of CAG, he complained of nausea and rapidly became stuporous. Brain CT showed a diffusely increased Hounsfield unit (HU) in the cisternal space, similar to leakage of CM. The maximal HU was 65 in the cisternal space. No vascular malformations were detected on cerebral angiography. The patient partially recovered his mental status and motor weakness after 2 days. Two weeks later, subacute SAH was evident on magnetic resonance imaging. The patient was discharged after 28 days.
Korean Circulation Journal 03/2012; 42(3):197-200.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Thermal ablation using radiofrequency is a new, minimally invasive modality employed as an alternative to surgery in patients with benign thyroid nodules and recurrent thyroid cancers. The Task Force Committee of the Korean Society of Thyroid Radiology has developed recommendations for the optimal use of radiofrequency ablation for thyroid nodules. These recommendations are based on a comprehensive analysis of the current literature, the results of multicenter studies, and expert consensus.
Korean journal of radiology: official journal of the Korean Radiological Society 03/2012; 13(2):117-25. · 1.32 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In this study, bismuth telluride (Bi2Te3)-based nanopowders with particle size ranging from 100 to 300 nm are prepared by high-energy ball milling. Then, the prepared nanopowders are homogeneously mixed with organic binders to form a paste; this paste is used as the raw material to prepare thick-film thermoelectric modules. The thick film prepared by screen printing followed by hot pressing of p-type pastes show reproducible thermoelectric properties, exhibiting an electrical resistivity of 2.0 m Omega cm and a Seebeck coefficient of 298 muVK-1. The prepared p-type Bi2Te3 thick film has a high power factor because its Seebeck coefficient is significantly higher than that of Bi2Te3 based-bulk materials. These results indicate that a thick film prepared from bismuth telluride nanopowders has potential for use as high-performance thermoelectric modules in practical applications such as power generation and cooling system in electronic devices.
Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology 02/2012; 12(2):1577-80. · 1.15 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) greatly contributes to the progression of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). It is reported that a selective cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitor inhibits cellular proliferation and may attenuate VEGF expression in HCC. We propose that different cascades in the VEGF pathway respond to COX-2 inhibition, depending on the cell types.
The six human HCC cell lines--Hep3B, SNU387, SNU182, SNU423, SNU449, and PLC/PRF5--were cultured under normoxic and hypoxic conditions. Cells were treated with a selective COX-2 inhibitor (NS-398) and discoidin domain receptor 2 (DDR2) siRNA, and microarray analysis was performed.
NS-398 inhibited HCC proliferation and decreased the expression level of VEGF in HCC cells only under normoxia conditions. In hypoxia conditions, VEGF expression level in Hep3B cell was suppressed, while that in SNU387 cell was increased by NS-398 (P < 0.001). The NS-398-induced increase in VEGF expression in SNU387 cell was associated with the up-regulation of the DDR2 gene. NS-398-treated SNU series cells and PLC/PRF5 cells displayed a robust increase in DDR2 mRNA expression. Also, transfection with DDR2 siRNA decreased the VEGF expression level of SNU387, 423, 449 cells under hypoxia conditions (P < 0.05). In vivo chromatin immunoprecipitation assay demonstrated that NS-398 induces the enhancement of HIF-1α binding on VEGF promoter, leading to the increase in VEGF gene expression in hypoxic conditions. There is strong evidence that it is related to the DDR2 gene expression in SNU387 cells.
These findings disclose a novel cell-dependent regulatory mechanism of VEGF involving DDR2 gene in HCC cells.
Journal of Cancer Research and Clinical Oncology 01/2012; 138(1):73-84. · 2.91 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Energy efficiency is a critical issue for sensor network since the network lifetime depends on efficient management of the energy resource of sensor nodes. Particularly, designing energy efficient MAC protocol has a significant influence on the performance of wireless sensor network with regards to the energy. The existing MAC protocols developed for sensor network try to avoid energy waste during idle listening time by controlling the duty cycle of the transmission period. Since the traffic conditions are diverse, they may not always display improvements in energy consumption. In this paper we propose a new energy efficient MAC protocol called dynamic threshold MAC (DT-MAC), which employs a dynamic threshold for the buffer of each sensor node to maximize the energy efficiency regardless of specific network traffic condition. Here the packets are stored in the buffer, and then transmitted when the number of packets in the buffer exceeds the threshold dynamically decided according to the number of hops of the node from the source in the path of packet forwarding. The simulation results using OMNnet++ show that DT-MAC enables significant improvement in energy consumption compared to the existing MAC protocols. The proposed DT-MAC protocol also reduces the number of transmissions of control packets.
International Journal of Distributed Sensor Networks 01/2012; 2012. · 0.73 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To evaluate clinical aspects and imaging features of complications encountered in the treatment of benign thyroid nodules with radiofrequency (RF) ablation.
Institutional review board approval was obtained for this retrospective study, and informed consent was waived. From June 2002 to September 2009, 1459 patients underwent RF ablation of 1543 thyroid nodules with an RF system with internally cooled electrodes at 13 thyroid centers, which were members of Korean Society of Thyroid Radiology. Numbers and types of major and minor complications were assessed.
The authors observed 48 complications (3.3%), 20 major and 28 minor. The major complications were voice changes (n = 15), brachial plexus injury (n = 1), tumor rupture (n = 3), and permanent hypothyroidism (n = 1). The minor complications were hematoma (n = 15), skin burn (n = 4), and vomiting (n = 9). All patients recovered spontaneously except for one with permanent hypothyroidism and one who underwent surgery.
Although the complication rate of RF ablation is low, various complications may occur; comprehension of complications and suggested technical tips may prevent complications or properly manage those that occur.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A novel solution-stamping process for the preparation of a highly conductive aluminum thin film on both rigid and flexible substrates is proposed. The superior electrical properties of Al thin films fabricated by the solution-stamping process compared to silver and gold films fabricated from colloidal nanoparticles are experimentally demonstrated, and their applications in electronic circuits on rigid and flexible substrates and to organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) are investigated.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Today, mobile IPTV provides various multimedia services. Therefore, extensive researches on providing service continuity in the mobile IPTV environment are being conducted. Here reducing the user waiting time under the restriction of limited bandwidth is an important design issue in the video on-demand multicast service. In this paper we propose a scheme reducing the waiting time of a user wanting to start to view the video not from the beginning but from any point. The proposed scheme allows significantly reduced waiting time compared to the existing scheme for varying request rates and number of channels, as verified by computer simulation.
IEEE International Symposium on Parallel and Distributed Processing with Applications, ISPA 2011, Busan, Korea, 26-28 May, 2011; 01/2011
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Extraction of TeO2 from the byproduct solution generated during the copper smelting process and application of the extracted TeO2 to the preparation of Bi–Te alloy thermoelectric materials were performed via a wet chemical processes. In the wet chemical process, powder purifying steps were optimized by adjusting the pH of NaOH solvent to dissolve the initially extracted Te compounds and by washing the finally extracted powders. TeO2 powders used in preparing the Bi–Te alloy thermoelectric materials could be successfully extracted from the byproduct solution by the optimized wet chemical process. Powders synthesized by applying the commercial and the extracted TeO2 powders to the wet chemical process showed identical crystal structures of Bi2Te3 and a mean particle size of ∼3μm. Thus, it is believed that the recycled TeO2 powders will be very useful in the preparation of Bi–Te alloy thermoelectric materials.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Bismuth–antimony–tellurium-based nanopowders were fabricated by a chemical process in which dissolved Bi, Te and Sb salts were directly reduced in each element via surfactant-assistant polyol reducing agents. XRD patterns of the synthesized nanopowders showed that the formed phases correspond mainly to (Bi0.5Sb0.5)2Te3 and Bi0.5Sb1.5Te3, respectively. The phases revealed that the three different elements were stably alloyed as ternary composition in one powder via the simple chemical route. The nanopowders were consolidated into bismuth telluride-based bulk materials that exhibited electrical resistivity above 5.6×10−5Ωm, 150μV/K of the Seebeck coefficient and 0.7W/mK of thermal conductivity at room temperature. These results showed that p-type thermoelectric nanopowders obtained from a simplified chemical process could be used in making thermoelectric materials towards high performances.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Carbon nanotube embedded cobalt oxide (CNT/Co-oxide) nanocomposite powders were synthesized by molecular-level mixing followed by calcination. The surface morphology of the fabricated nanocomposite powders shows Co-oxide coated CNTs homogeneously dispersed in the Co-oxide nanopowders. XRD patterns reveal that CoO–Co3O4 nanopowders were obtained as a complex phase. The nanocomposite powders exhibit ferromagnetism with a saturation magnetization of 75emug−1, while CoO–Co3O4 nanopowders without CNTs are paramagnetic. These results indicate that incorporating CNTs into Co-oxide nanopowders triggers a change of the magnetic properties towards ferromagnetism.
Journal of Alloys and Compounds 01/2011; 509. · 2.39 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The microstructure of carbon nanotube reinforced copper matrix (CNT/Cu) nanocomposites, processed by molecular-level mixing, exhibits CNTs homogeneously dispersed in the Cu matrix. Measured thermal conductivity of the fabricated CNT/Cu nanocomposites decreased as the CNT volume fraction increased from 5% to 10%. A low coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) was obtained from the 10 vol.% CNT/Cu nanocomposite. These results indicate that embedded CNTs provide CNT/metal interfaces as thermal barriers but also stiffen the metal matrix composites.