K Uchida

The University of Tokyo, Edo, Tōkyō, Japan

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Publications (95)173.87 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Granular cell tumors (GCTs) are histologically characterized by polygonal neoplastic cells with abundant eosinophilic cytoplasmic granules. In humans, these cells are considered to be derived from Schwann cells, and the cytoplasmic granules are assumed to be autophagosomes or autophagolysosomes. However, the origin and nature of the cytoplasmic granules in canine GCTs have not been well characterized. The present study examined 9 canine lingual GCTs using immunohistochemistry, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and cell culture and xenotransplantation experiments. In some cases, the tumor cells expressed S100, CD133, and desmin. The cytoplasmic granules were positive for LC3, p62, NBR1, and ubiquitin. TEM revealed autophagosome-like structures in the cytoplasm of the granule-containing cells. The cultured GCT cells were round to spindle shaped and expressed S100, nestin, Melan-A, CD133, LC3, p62, NBR1, and ubiquitin, suggesting that they were of neural crest origin, redifferentiated into melanocytes, and exhibited upregulated autophagy. The xenotransplanted tumors consisted of spindle to polygonal cells. Only a few cells contained cytoplasmic granules, and some had melanin pigments in their cytoplasm. The xenotransplanted cells expressed S100, nestin, Melan-A, and CD133. P62 and ubiquitin were detected, regardless of the presence or absence of cytoplasmic granules, while LC3 and NBR1 were detected only in the neoplastic cells containing cytoplasmic granules. These findings suggest that some xenotransplanted cells redifferentiated into melanocytes and that autophagy was upregulated in the cytoplasmic granule-containing cells. In conclusion, canine lingual GCTs originate from the neural crest and develop cytoplasmic granules via autophagy. In addition, the microenvironment of GCT cells affects their morphology.
    Veterinary pathology. 08/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Canine degenerative myelopathy (DM) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease that is frequently found in Pembroke Welsh Corgi (PWC) dogs. Canine DM is potentially a spontaneous animal model for human amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) because of similar lesions and the involvement of superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) mutation. However, the ventral horn lesion in DM has not been characterized in detail. Glutamate excitotoxicity due to deficiency of the glutamine-glutamate cycle has been implicated in neuron death in ALS. Thus, we examined 5 PWC dogs with an SOD1 mutation that were affected by DM, 5 non-DM PWC dogs, and 5 Beagle dogs without neurologic signs to assess the neuronal changes and the expression levels of 2 glial excitatory amino acid transporters (glutamate transporter 1 [GLT-1] and glutamate/aspartate transporter [GLAST]). The number of neurons in the spinal ventral horns of the DM dogs was significantly decreased, whereas no change was found in the cell size. Chromatolysis, lipofuscin-laden neurons, and marked synapse loss were also observed. GLT-1 expression was strikingly decreased in DM dogs, whereas GLAST expression showed no significant change. The results indicate that excitotoxicity related to the reduced expression of GLT-1, but not GLAST, may be involved in neuron loss in DM, as in human ALS, whereas intraneuronal events may differ between the 2 diseases.
    Veterinary Pathology 07/2013; · 1.93 Impact Factor
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    E S Park, K Uchida, H Nakayama
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    ABSTRACT: In dogs, there are several idiopathic meningoencephalitides, such as necrotizing meningoencephalitis (NME), necrotizing leukoencephalitis (NLE), and granulomatous meningoencephalomyelitis (GME). Although they are often assumed to be immune mediated, the etiology of these diseases remains elusive. In this study, the histopathology of the lesions caused by these conditions and the inflammatory cell populations produced in response to them were examined among dogs affected with GME, NME, or NLE to understand their pathogeneses. The brain tissues of dogs with NME (n = 25), NLE (n = 5), or GME (n = 9) were used. The inflammatory cells were identified by immunohistochemistry using antibodies against CD3, IgG, CD20, CD79acy, and CD163. In NME and NLE, malacic changes were located in the cerebral cortex, as well as the cerebral white matter and thalamus, respectively. The distribution of the brain lesions in NME and NLE was breed specific. In GME, granulomatous lesions that were mostly composed of epithelioid macrophages were observed in the cerebral white matter, cerebellum, and brainstem. Although the proportions of IgG-, CD20-, and CD79acy-positive cells (B cells) were not significantly different among the GME, NME, and NLE lesions, that of CD3-positive cells (T cells) was increased in GME. In NME and NLE, CD163-positive cells (macrophages) had diffusely infiltrated the cerebral cortex and white matter, respectively. However, in GME, CD163-positive cells accumulated around the blood vessels in the cerebral and cerebellar white matter. The distributions of these lesions were quite different among GME, NME, and NLE, whereas there were no marked differences in the proportions of inflammatory cells.
    Veterinary Pathology 01/2012; 49(4):682-92. · 1.93 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Clinical and pathologic features of neuronal ceroid-lipofuscinosis in a 4-month-old ferret are reported. Clinical signs including neurological symptoms appeared at 3 months of age and progressed rapidly. By magnetic resonance imaging, severe cerebral atrophy was recognized. Histopathologically, there was severe neuronal loss and diffuse astrogliosis with macrophage accumulations; lesions were found predominantly in the cerebral cortex. Intracytoplasmic pigments were observed in surviving neurons and macrophages throughout the brain. The pigments were intensely positive for periodic acid-Schiff, Luxol fast blue, and Sudan black B and exhibited a green autofluorescence. Electron microscopic examination revealed the accumulation of electron-dense granular material within lysosomes of neurons and macrophages. Immunohistochemically, a large number of saposin-positive granules accumulated in the neuronal cells, astrocytes, and macrophages of the lesions, but significant immunoreactivity for subunit c of mitochondrial adenosine triphosphate synthase was not observed. Based on these findings, the animal was diagnosed as affected by neuronal ceroid-lipofuscinosis.
    Veterinary Pathology 03/2011; 48(6):1185-9. · 1.93 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Tumor cell invasion into the surrounding nervous tissue is one of the histologic hallmarks of anaplastic meningiomas. To identify other possible markers for aggression in canine meningiomas, the relationship between histologic features and the expression of molecules involved in cell adhesion, cell proliferation, and invasion was examined. Immunohistochemistry for epithelial cadherin (E-cadherin), neural cadherin (N-cadherin), β-catenin, doublecortin (DCX), and Ki-67 was performed for 55 cases of canine meningioma. DCX was preferentially expressed in tumor cells invading the brain parenchyma (12 of 14 cases), suggesting its involvement in the invasion process. Regardless of the histologic type, E-cadherin and N-cadherin expression was observed in 31 of 55 and 44 of 55 cases, respectively. There was a significant positive correlation between DCX and N-cadherin expression and a significant negative correlation between E-cadherin and N-cadherin expression, suggesting that decreased E-cadherin and increased N-cadherin expression induce DCX expression. Typical membranous β-catenin expression was observed in 10 of 55 cases, whereas nuclear translocation was observed in 33 cases. Nuclear β-catenin expression was frequently found in anaplastic meningiomas (12 of 14 cases). The Ki-67 labeling indices were significantly higher in anaplastic meningiomas than in other types. These findings indicate that the expression of N-cadherin and DCX and the nuclear translocation of β-catenin are closely associated with the presence of invasion and anaplasia in canine meningiomas. Notably, granular cell meningiomas were negative for almost all the molecules examined, suggesting that they have a different tumor biology than other meningiomas.
    Veterinary Pathology 01/2011; 48(1):292-301. · 1.93 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: GM2 gangliosidosis variant 0 (human Sandhoff disease) is a lysosomal storage disorder caused by deficiencies of acid β-hexosaminidase (Hex) A and Hex B because of an abnormality of the β-subunit, a common component in these enzyme molecules, which is coded by the HEXB gene. To describe the clinical, pathological, biochemical, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of Sandhoff-like disease identified in a family of Toy Poodles. Three red-haired Toy Poodles demonstrated clinical signs including motor disorders and tremor starting between 9 and 12 months of age. The animals finally died of neurological deterioration between 18 and 23 months of age. There were some lymphocytes with abnormal cytoplasmic vacuoles detected. Observational case study. Results: The common MRI finding was diffuse T2-hyperintensity of the subcortical white matter in the cerebrum. Bilateral T2-hyperintensity and T1-hypointensity in the nucleus caudatus, and atrophic findings of the cerebrum and cerebellum, were observed in a dog in the late stage. Histopathologically, swollen neurons with pale to eosinophilic granular materials in the cytoplasm were observed throughout the central nervous system. Biochemically, GM2 ganglioside had accumulated in the brain, and Hex A and Hex B were deficient in the brain and liver. Pedigree analysis demonstrated that the 3 affected dogs were from the same family line. The Sandhoff-like disease observed in this family of Toy Poodles is the 2nd occurrence of the canine form of this disease and the 1st report of its identification in a family of dogs.
    Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine 08/2010; 24(5):1013-9. · 2.06 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The expression of cell differentiation and proliferation markers of canine neuroepithelial tumors was examined immunohistochemically to identify the histogenesis of these tumors. Astrocytomas (n = 4) consisted of cells positive for glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and nestin and a few cells positive for doublecortin (DCX). Immunoreactive cells for receptor tyrosine kinases (epidermal growth factor receptor and c-erbB2) and their downstream molecules (phospho-extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 and phospho-Akt) were often detected in astrocytomas, especially in medium- and high-grade tumors. Gliomatosis cerebri (n = 3) consisted of cells positive for ionized calcium-binding adaptor molecule 1 and GFAP, including a minor population of cells positive for nestin, DCX, and beta III tubulin, suggesting their glial differentiation. In choroid plexus tumors (n = 4), most tumor cells were positive for cytokeratins AE1/AE3 and 18, and few were positive for GFAP. The majority of cells of oligodendrogliomas (n = 5) were DCX positive, but the tumors also contained minor populations of cells positive for GFAP, nestin, or beta III tubulin. Primitive neuroectodermal tumors (PNETs; n = 2) consisted of heterogeneous cell populations, and the tumor cells were positive for nestin, beta III tubulin, and DCX, suggesting glial and neuronal differentiation. The major population of neuroblastoma cells (n = 3) were positive for beta III tubulin and DCX, suggesting single neuronal differentiation. As for antiapoptotic cell death molecules, most tumor cells in the choroid plexus tumors, PNETs, and neuroblastomas were intensely positive for Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL, whereas those in gliomatosis cerebri were almost negative. In astrocytomas, Bcl-xL-positive cells predominated over Bcl-2-positive cells, but the opposite was observed in oligodendrogliomas. The immunohistochemical results were analyzed by hierarchical clustering, and the constructed dendrogram clearly indicated a novel position of oligodendrogliomas: the primitive glial and neuronal differentiation.
    Veterinary Pathology 04/2010; 47(4):741-50. · 1.93 Impact Factor
  • K Nibe, H Nakayama, K Uchida
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    ABSTRACT: The immunohistochemical features of dystrophic axons in brain tissues of Papillon dogs with neuroaxonal dystrophy (NAD) were examined in comparison with 1 dog with cerebellar cortical abiotrophy (CCA) and a dog without neurologic signs. Histologically, many dystrophic axons were observed throughout the central nervous system of all dogs with NAD. These axonal changes were absent in the dog with CCA and in the control dog. Severe Purkinje cell loss was found in the dog with CCA, whereas the lesions were milder in all dogs with NAD. Immunohistochemically, the many dystrophic axons were positive for neurofilaments, tau, alpha/beta-synuclein, HSP70, ubiquitin, synaptophysin, syntaxin-1, and synaptosomal-associated protein-25 (SNAP-25). A few dystrophic axons were positive for alpha-synuclein. In addition, these dystrophic axons, especially in the nucleus gracilis, cuneatus, olivaris, and spinal tract of the trigeminal nerve, were intensely immunopositive for the 3 calcium-binding proteins calretinin, calbindin, and parvalbumin. The accumulation of synapse-associated proteins in the dystrophic axons may indicate dysfunction of the synapse at the presynaptic portion. The accumulation of alpha-synuclein in the dystrophic axon and region-specific appearance of calcium-binding protein-positive spheroids are considered as unique features in NAD of Papillon dogs, providing the key to elucidate the pathogenesis.
    Veterinary Pathology 02/2009; 46(3):474-83. · 1.93 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Forelimb-girdle muscular anomaly is an autosomal recessive disorder of Japanese black cattle characterized by tremor, astasia and abnormal shape of the shoulders. Pathological examination of affected animals reveals hypoplasia of forelimb-girdle muscles with reduced diameter of muscle fibres. To identify the gene responsible for this disorder, we performed linkage mapping of the disorder locus using an inbred pedigree including a great-grand sire, a grand sire, a sire and 26 affected calves obtained from a herd of Japanese black cattle. Two hundred and fifty-eight microsatellite markers distributed across the genome were genotyped across the pedigree. Four markers on the middle region of bovine chromosome 26 showed significant linkage with the disorder locus. Haplotype analysis using additional markers in this region refined the critical region of the disorder locus to a 3.5-Mb interval on BTA26 between BM4505 and MOK2602. Comparative mapping data revealed several potential candidate genes for the disorder, including NRAP, PDZD8 and HSPA12A, which are associated with muscular function.
    Animal Genetics 03/2008; 39(1):46-50. · 2.58 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Isolates 007Lm, S124C and Ac96I and a Vero cell-adapted Onderstepoort strain of canine distemper viruses (CDV) were examined for stability after passages in Vero cells expressing the canine signaling lymphocyte activation molecule (dogSLAM, the intrinsic receptor to CDV). These viruses passage once in Vero cells expressing dogSLAM (Vero-DST) cells (original) and after 20 passages (20p) were compared by using sequence analyses and growth characteristics. All four strains of 20p grew well and were slightly better than their originals. The 20p viruses developed a cytopathic effect slightly lower than the original strains. A few changes in amino acids in the H gene were between the 20p and the original viruses, but the sites of changes were not specific. Fragments of P, M and L genes of all strains showed no nucleotide changes after the passages. These results showed that: (1) passages of CDVs in Vero-DST cells induced amino acid changes only in the H gene, not in the P, M and L genes, unlike in a previous study with Vero cells; (2) passages did not markedly affect the growth characteristics of every viral strain. These results indicate that Vero cells expressing canine SLAM allow the isolation and passaging of CDV without major changes in viral genes.
    Veterinary Microbiology 01/2007; 118(3-4):177-88. · 3.13 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To clarify the morphologic features of the ocular disease recently occurring among Japanese Black cattle in southern Kyushu, 6 globes from 3 Japanese Black cattle, between 11 and 20 months old (cow Nos. 1 to 3), were pathologically examined. Cow Nos. 1 and 2 were sired by the same Japanese Black bull, and cow No. 3 was sired by the ancestor (sire) of the former bull. The ocular lesions were pathologically similar to each other, except for the left eye of cow No. 1. The ocular lesions of 5 globes were characterized by microphthalmia, hypoplasia, and/or dysplasia of the lenses; persistence of the primary vitreous; and retinal dysplasia with total nonattachment. The left globe from cow No. 1 had no lens and severe hypoplasia and nonattachment of the retina. Because dysplastic retinal lesions that formed crescentic folds and a central column were the most characteristic features of the eyes, the falciform retinal fold with congenital nonattachment was the most likely disease entity. Although the cause of the ocular disease could not be clarified with the present study, an inherited ocular defect of the bull and its ancestor was suspected.
    Veterinary Pathology 12/2006; 43(6):1017-21. · 1.93 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Sequence and phylogenetic analyses of three isolates of canine distemper virus (CDV) isolated from three dogs with a vaccination history were compared with the same analyses of vaccine virus isolated from a vaccine used for dogs. The three dogs showed clinical signs of a recent major type of CD in Japan, including oculonasal discharge and diarrhea, and pathological findings including non-suppurative encephalitis, pneumonia, mild gastroenteritis and lymphoid depletion. Inclusion bodies were in the stomach without inflammation and encephalitis was without clinical signs. One of the highest titers of CDV in different organs of the three dogs was commonly systemic lymphatic organs, including the spleen, lymph nodes and tonsils. New isolates of CDV joined to the clades of the Asia 1 group that is far from the vaccine group. These results surely indicate that wild strains of CDV from dogs with a vaccination history were not reversed vaccine virus, and that the dogs showed characteristics of recent CD in Japan.
    Veterinary Microbiology 07/2006; 115(1-3):32-42. · 3.13 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The pathogenesis of a new isolate of canine distemper virus (CDV), strain 007Lm, was investigated from lymph node tissue by using Vero cells that express canine signalling lymphocyte activation molecules with a tag (Vero-DST) in dogs. Two CDV sero-negative Beagle dogs were inoculated intranasally and intraconjunctively with a virus suspension. Both infected dogs showed clinical signs of severe bloody diarrhea, conjunctivitis, ocular discharge, nasal discharge and coughing, lymphopenia, fever and weight loss. Titers of CDV-IgM and CDV-IgG in the blood were measured. CDV was detected by using reverse transcriptase-PCR and was recovered in swabs from one dog from 9 days and from the other dogs from 10 days after inoculation. Molecular and phylogenetic analyses of H and P genes showed that nucleotide and amino acid sequences of these genes of strain 007Lm after isolation in Vero-DST cells are identical to those of the original virus from fresh tissue and that strain 007Lm joins to the Asia 2 group cluster of CDV strains that is distinct from other clusters. These results indicate that (1) CDV strain 007Lm isolated in Vero-DST cells is virulent, (2) nucleotide and amino acid sequences of H and P genes of strain 007Lm do not change after isolation in Vero-DST cells compared with the original virus from fresh tissue and (3) strain 007Lm isolated from a vaccinated dog belongs to a cluster far from the vaccine strains in the phylogenetic trees of H and P genes.
    Veterinary Microbiology 11/2005; 110(3-4):197-207. · 3.13 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Fresh samples of lymph node, lung and cerebrum taken post mortem from dogs no. 1, 2 and 3 yielded canine distemper virus (CDV) strains 007 Lm, 009 L and 011 C, respectively. These were titrated on Vero cells stably expressing canine signalling lymphocyte activation molecule (SLAM; Vero-DST cells). Growth curves of the three strains were produced by titration of the released virus and cell-associated virus at various timepoints. All three isolates, especially 007 Lm, grew well on Vero-DST cells. The titres of cell-associated virus of two strains (009 L and 011 C) were clearly lower than those of virus released into the culture supernate. The results indicate that Vero-DST cells are not only useful for primary isolation but also efficient for titrating virus from fresh tissues and for the study of growth profiles of recent CDV isolates.
    Journal of Comparative Pathology 08/2005; 133(1):77-81. · 1.38 Impact Factor
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    K Nibe, K Uchida, T Itoh, S Tateyama
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    ABSTRACT: A cutaneous mass at the base of the retroauricular region of a 4-year-old, female Golden Retriever was examined pathologically. Histologically, the mass formed multiple nodules consisting of a proliferation of large clear cells with abundant cytoplasm. Mitotic figures among the neoplastic cells were very sparse. The large clear cells were intensely positive for cytokeratins (AE1/AE4, cytokeratin 8 and 18) and moderately positive for lysozyme and contained periodic acid-Schiff-positive granules in the cytoplasm. In addition, small flat cells lined the islands of neoplastic large clear cells, and these were strongly positive for alpha-smooth muscle actin and vimentin, and some were positive for cytokeratin (AE1/AE4), suggesting they were myoepithelial cells. No local recurrence or metastasis has been recognized during the 18 months since surgical excision. On the basis of these findings, the present tumor was diagnosed as apocrine sweat gland adenoma, clear cell variant. There have been few previous reports of canine apocrine adenomas showing a clear cell morphology.
    Veterinary Pathology 04/2005; 42(2):215-8. · 1.93 Impact Factor
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    The Veterinary record 02/2005; 156(1):23-4. · 1.80 Impact Factor
  • K Chijiwa, K Uchida, S Tateyama
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    ABSTRACT: Seventeen cases of canine peripheral nerve sheath tumors (PNSTs), 11 malignant PNSTs (MPNSTs), and six benign PNSTs (BPNSTs) were examined. The prognosis in five of six dogs with BPNSTs was excellent, whereas all dogs with MPNSTs died within 2 years after the last surgical resection. One BPNST formed a recurrent mass with features of a MPNST. Histopathologically, the predominant tumor cell of MPNSTs was either spindle or round in shape with epithelioid characteristics. Other atypical cells had abundant granular cytoplasm or were multinucleated giant cells with periodic acid-Schiff-positive cytoplasmic globules. Furthermore, two MPNSTs contained cartilaginous and osseous metaplasia. On the contrary, most BPNSTs exhibited typical features of schwannoma or neurofibroma, whereas two BPNSTs had atypical morphology. One BPNST consisted of epithelioid cell proliferation with some tumor cells revealing nuclear atypia. Immunohistochemically, the expression of vimentin (100%), S-100 (73%), nerve growth factor receptor (NGFR, 64%), and myoglobin (64%) was commonly found in MPNSTs. The two BPNSTs with atypical histologic appearances were positive for vimentin, S-100, NGFR, and neuron-specific enolase, and one of these had moderate immunoreactivity for cytokeratin. Most BPNSTs were positive for glial fibrillary acidic protein, as well as S-100 and NGFR. Although most rhabdomyosarcomas (RMSs) and canine hemangiopericytomas (CHPs) also showed focal immunoreactivity for S-100, most RMSs were intensely positive for myoglobin and negative for NGFR. Most CHPs (80%) exhibited focal alpha-smooth muscle actin (alpha-SMA) expression, whereas all PNSTs were negative. These results indicate that immunohistochemistry for NGFR and alpha-SMA might be useful for differentiating canine PNSTs from RMSs or CHPs, respectively.
    Veterinary Pathology 08/2004; 41(4):307-18. · 1.93 Impact Factor
  • T Akiyoshi, K Uchida, S Tateyama
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    ABSTRACT: To study the ectopic chondrogenesis in canine mammary mixed tumors, the expression of bone morphogenetic protein-6 (BMP-6) and specific BMP receptors (BMPRs), BMPR-IA, BMPR-IB, and BMPR-II, was examined using immunohistochemical and immunoblot analysis in 39 canine mammary gland tumors. Immunohistochemically, BMP-6 and all three types of BMPRs were coexpressed in the myoepithelial cells and chondrocytes in six of eight benign mixed tumors. In complex adenomas, myoepithelial cells showed an expression pattern of BMP-6, BMPR-IA, and BMPR-II similar to those in benign mixed tumors, whereas immunoreactivity for BMPR-IB was very mild. The myoepithelial cells proliferating within the basement membrane showed more intense immunoreactivity for BMP-6 and all BMPRs as compared with those proliferating in the interstitial areas. Western blotting analysis revealed immunopositive bands at 40-45 kDa for BMP-6 in the samples from simple and complex adenomas and benign mixed tumors. The BMPR-IB-specific bands at 45 kDa were most detected in benign mixed tumors. Because among BMPRs, BMPR-IB is thought to be the major receptor for BMP-6 for primary chondrogenesis, these findings suggest that the expression of BMP and its receptors on the myoepithelial cells might play a role in the ectopic cartilage formation in canine mammary gland tumors, especially in benign mixed tumors.
    Veterinary Pathology 04/2004; 41(2):154-63. · 1.93 Impact Factor
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    K Uchida, R Yamaguchi, S Tateyama
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    ABSTRACT: A solitary mass approximately 1.5 x 2 cm located on the outer side of the third digit of the left forepaw of a 7-year-old male cross-breed cat was examined pathologically. The excised tumor mass was hard and white and located within the deep dermis and subcutis. Histopathologically, the mass consisted of a mixed population of small round epithelioid cells arranged in ribbon- or cordlike structures and spindle-shaped cells forming loose irregular bundles in a mucinous stroma. The epithelioid cells were often arranged around small blood vessels. Neoplastic cells were intensely positive for vimentin and alpha smooth muscle actin and negative for keratin, desmin, S-100 protein, and neuron-specific enolase. Based on these pathologic features, the tumor was diagnosed as a glomus tumor, a neoplasm not previously reported in cats and extremely rare in animals.
    Veterinary Pathology 10/2002; 39(5):590-2. · 1.93 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

685 Citations
173.87 Total Impact Points


  • 1990–2013
    • The University of Tokyo
      • • Faculty and Graduate School of Agriculture and Life Sceince
      • • Institute of Medical Science
      Edo, Tōkyō, Japan
  • 1990–2011
    • Miyazaki University
      • Faculty of Agriculture
      Miyazaki-shi, Miyazaki-ken, Japan
  • 1999
    • Miyazaki Medical Association Hospital
      Миядзаки, Miyazaki, Japan