[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) is closely involved in the degradation of extracellular matrix and confers invasive and metastatic potential to malignant tumors. MMP-2 is a type-IV collagenase secreted as a proenzyme that is activated on the surface of the tumor cell by membrane-type 1-MMP (MT1-MMP). MT1-MMP plays a critical role during tumor progression and metastasis. We investigated the expression levels of E1AF and MT1-MMP in malignant melanoma cell lines and specimens from patients in order to clarify the mechanisms responsible for the invasion and metastasis of malignant melanoma. High levels of E1AF and MT1-MMP mRNA expression were observed in melanoma cells by Northern blotting and real-time PCR. The expression level was highly correlated with an invasive potential determined by an in vitro invasion assay. The down-regulation of MT1-MMP was identified when E1AF was knocked down by RNA interference. These results suggest that E1AF plays a crucial role in the invasion and metastasis of malignant melanoma through up-regulating the MT1-MMP expression.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: E1AF is a member of the ETS oncogene family and is thought to be a human homologue of mouse PEA3. We have isolated a genomic clone of E1AF and analyzed the promoter activity of its 5'-flanking region. We identified a variation in exon 1, which depends on the cell type. There was no typical TATA box in the 5'-flanking region, but putative binding sites of a number of transcription factors including PEA3 as well as CAAT boxes were seen. A luciferase reporter assay indicated that the 5'-flanking region possesses promoter activity. Northern blot studies demonstrated significant expression of the E1AF gene in restricted tissues such as the pituitary gland, placenta, and fetal kidney. Moreover, the E1AF promoter was activated by E1AF itself and estrogen receptor. These findings suggest that E1AF is a housekeeping gene, whose expression is controlled in specific tissues.
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 02/2006; 339(1):325-30. DOI:10.1016/j.bbrc.2005.11.024 · 2.30 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: E1AF/PEA3, an Ets family transcription factor, is frequently overexpressed in non-small-cell lung cancers (NSCLCs). Overexpression of E1AF increases motility and invasion of VMRC-LCD and NCI-H226 NSCLC cells, which lack endogenous E1AF expression, and the effect is synergistically increased by hepatocyte growth factor (HGF). The small GTPase Rho/Rho-associated kinase (ROCK) pathway is also involved in motility and invasion. To determine the role of the Rho/ROCK pathway in malignant phenotypes induced by E1AF, we analyzed VMRC-LCD cells transfected with an E1AF expression vector (LCD-E1AF cells) or with empty vector (LCD-vector cells). LCD-E1AF cells had more GTP-bound (active) Rho than LCD-vector cells and Rho activation was synergistically increased by HGF. The Rho activation by E1AF and HGF was also shown in NCI-H226 cells. Phosphorylation of myosin light chain (MLC), a downstream effector of ROCK signaling, was higher in LCD-E1AF cells than in LCD-vector cells, especially under HGF treatment. A specific ROCK inhibitor, Y27632, strongly suppressed MLC phosphorylation, cell motility, and invasion. In nude mice implanted s.c. and intrapulmonarily, LCD-E1AF cells made more local tumors than LCD-vector cells (six of six versus one of seven mice and four of seven versus one of seven mice, respectively). Three of the four mice with lung tumors from LCD-E1AF cells had lymph node metastases whereas the mouse with LCD-vector tumors did not. LCD-E1AF tumors showed higher MLC phosphorylation than LCD-vector tumors. These results suggest that E1AF activates the Rho/ROCK pathway in an HGF-enhanced manner and its activation is important in E1AF-induced motility and invasion as well as tumorigenesis and metastasis in NSCLC cells.
Cancer Research 01/2006; 65(23):10776-82. DOI:10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-05-0060 · 9.33 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ewing's sarcoma, one of the most malignant tumors of children and young adults, expresses specific chimeric genes, e.g. EWS-FLI-1, EWS-ERG, EWS-ETV1 and EWS-FEV. In this paper, we extensively characterized a new fusion gene, EWS-E1AF by means of whole cDNA sequencing, RNA blot analysis, DNA blot analysis and chromosomal analysis, and showed it to be available for the diagnosis of Ewing's sarcoma and to participate in the oncogenesis of Ewing's sarcoma. Furthermore, we conducted a genetic analysis of Ewing family tumors in conjuction with immunohistochemical analysis and ultrastructural analysis. Our results demonstrate some limitations of both genetic analysis and histopathological analysis, and establish the relationship between neurogenic phenotypes and chimera genes.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: E1AF is an ets-oncogene family transcription factor that has been shown to up-regulate multiple MMPs whereas MMP-2, a potent extracellular matrix degrading enzyme, is not up-regulated. We investigated the activation mechanism of MMP-2 in oral squamous cell carcinoma. Chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) assay was utilized to investigate whether E1AF is able to up-regulate membrane type-1 matrix metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP), which is known to activate MMP-2. Expression of the CAT reporter gene under the control of the MT1-MMP promoter was increased approximately 40-fold by co-transfection with the E1AF expression vector. Real-time RT-PCR study was carried out in 25 patients with tongue squamous cell carcinoma, and the mRNA expression level of E1AF and MT1-MMP was synergistically increased. These results indicate that E1AF positively regulates transcription from MT1-MMP genes, which plays an important role in invasion and metastasis of squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue by converting pro-MMP-2 into active-MMP-2.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: E1AF is a member of the ETS family of transcription factors. In mammary tumors, overexpression of E1AF is associated with tumorigenesis, but E1AF protein has hardly been detected and its degradation mechanism is not yet clear. Here we show that E1AF protein is stabilized by treatment with the 26S protease inhibitor MG132. We found that E1AF was modified by ubiquitin through the C-terminal region and ubiquitinated E1AF aggregated in nuclear dots, and that the inhibition of proteasome-activated transcription from E1AF target promoters. These results suggest that E1AF is degraded via the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway, which has some effect on E1AF function.
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 03/2005; 327(2):575-80. DOI:10.1016/j.bbrc.2004.12.045 · 2.30 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: E1AF/PEA3, a member of the Ets family of transcription factors, is associated with the malignant characteristics of cancer cells. The initial aim of our study was to test whether the invasiveness of SiHa cervical cancer cells could be diminished by transfection with antisense E1AF. Using an in vitro invasion assay in which cells penetrate a layer of Matrigel, we found that this was not the case; indeed, the invasiveness of the transfectants was enhanced. To better understand the mechanism of this enhancement, we used the cDNA microarray technique to search for genes whose expression was altered in the antisense E1AF-transfected SiHa cells. Among several genes affected, we found that expression of squamous cell carcinoma antigen (SCCA), a member of the ovalbumin serine proteinase inhibitor family, was significantly reduced. Forced expression of E1AF enabled activation of SCCA expression, and Luciferase reporter assays revealed that E1AF activates the SCCA promoter. Introduction of antisense SCCA into SiHa cells inhibited production of SCCA protein and markedly increased the invasiveness of the cells. Taken together, these results suggest that E1AF suppresses the invasiveness of SiHa cervical cancer cells through transcriptional activation of the SCCA serine proteinase inhibitor gene.
Experimental Cell Research 11/2004; 299(2):525-32. DOI:10.1016/j.yexcr.2004.06.020 · 3.25 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: EWS/ETS is a chimeric protein identified in most Ewing's sarcomas. Although EWS/ETS has been shown to activate transcription as a transcription factor, the detailed targets of EWS/ETS in transformed cells have not been clarified. Herein, we demonstrate that telomerase is a new target of EWS/ETS fusions. Both telomerase activity and the expression level of telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) mRNA were up-regulated in NIH3T3 cells transformed by EWS/E1AF and EWS/FLI1 as well as in two Ewing's sarcoma cell lines. Luciferase assay using the TERT promoter revealed that EWS/E1AF and EWS/FLI1 function as positive regulators of TERT transcription in an ETS binding site-independent manner. EWS/ETS appeared to be included in the initiation complex of TERT transcription and to cooperate with CREB-binding protein (CBP)/p300. When EWS/FLI1 was knocked down in Ewing's sarcomas cells by RNA interference, the expression level of TERT mRNA and the telomerase activity were significantly decreased. These findings indicate that EWS/ETS fusion proteins activate human telomerase activity in Ewing's tumors through up-regulation of TERT gene expression, probably as a transcriptional coactivator.
Cancer Research 01/2004; 63(23):8338-44. · 9.33 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ewing sarcoma (ES) and peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumors (PNETs) are associated with a chromosomal translocation resulting in a fusion of the amino-terminus of EWS with the DNA-binding domain of an ETS transcription factor (most commonly FLI1 or ERG). Although previous reports suggested that these chimera proteins would act as aberrant transcription factors, their downstream targets have not been fully elucidated. To identify downstream targets of these EWS-ETS fusion proteins, we introduced EWS-ETS fusion constructs into a human fibrosarcoma cell line, HT-1080, by retroviral transduction. Here we report that Tenascin-C (TNC) is induced to a significantly higher level in cells expressing EWS-ETSs than in cells expressing normal ETSs. Furthermore, through use of an antisense cDNA expression vector we show that expression of endogenous TNC mRNA and protein were reduced coordinately with attenuation of EWS-FLI1 fusion protein expression. A chromatin immunoprecipitation assay showed direct interaction between the TNC promoter and the EWS-FLI1 fusion protein in vivo. In addition, a luciferase reporter assay revealed that EWS-ETSs upregulated the TNC gene through four ETS binding sites in the TNC promoter. High levels of TNC expression were observed in a subset of ES cell lines (3 of 6) and primary tumors (4 of 6). Together with previous studies showing that TNC expression is involved in the invasive and malignant phenotype of several tumor types, our data suggest that the oncogenic effect of EWS-ETS may be mediated in part by upregulating of TNC expression.
Genes Chromosomes and Cancer 03/2003; 36(3):224-32. DOI:10.1002/gcc.10153 · 4.04 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We report here that the Id2 (inhibitor of DNA binding 2) gene is a novel target of transcriptional activation by EWS-FLI1 and EWS-ERG, two fusion proteins that characterize Ewing family tumors (EFTs). To identify downstream targets of these EWS-ETS fusion proteins, we introduced EWS-ETS fusion constructs into a human fibrosarcoma cell line by retroviral transduction. cDNA microarray analysis revealed that Id2 expression was up-regulated by introducing the EWS-ETS fusion gene but not by the normal full-length ETS gene. An Id2 promoter-luciferase reporter assay showed that transactivation by EWS-ETS involves the minimal Id2 promoter and may function in cooperation with c-Myc within the full-length regulatory region. A chromatin immunoprecipitation assay revealed direct interaction between the Id2 promoter and EWS-FLI1 fusion protein in vivo. Significantly higher expression of Id2 and c-Myc was observed in all of the six EFT cell lines examined compared to six other sarcoma cell lines. Moreover, high levels of Id2 expression were also observed in five of the six primary tumors examined. Id2 is generally thought to affect the balance between cell differentiation and proliferation in development and is highly expressed in several cancer types. Considering these previous studies, our data suggest that the oncogenic effect of EWS-ETS may be mediated in part by up-regulating Id2 expression. doi:10.1038/sj.onc.1206025
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ewing sarcoma is a malignant bone and soft tissue tumor of children and young adults, which is known to be highly aggressive and invasive. It expresses specific chimeric genes (EWS-FLI-1, EWS-ERG, EWS-ETV1, and EWS-E1AF), the 3' portions of which are all members of the ETS family. ETS-related proteins, such as FLI-1, ERG, and E1AF, transactivate the promoters of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) genes, which play important roles in the processes of invasion and metastasis. Therefore, we hypothesize that the Ewing sarcoma-specific chimeric genes also transactivate the MMP genes, contributing to the tumor's invasiveness and propensity for metastasis. To verify this hypothesis, we investigated the expression of MMPs in eight Ewing sarcoma cell lines. Surprisingly, MMP-1 and MMP-3 were not expressed at all in any of the cell lines. MMP-9 was expressed in four out of the eight cell lines, and MMP-2 and MT1-MMP in all of the cell lines. Ewing sarcoma-specific chimeric genes have been shown to transactivate the promoter of the MMP-1 gene by the reporter assay, and bind to the putative recognition sites in the MMP regulatory elements by the gel shift assay. However, an in vivo formaldehyde cross-linking study revealed that the chimeric protein did not bind to the predicted ETS recognition sites in the regulatory elements of the MMPs. These results indicate that the absence of the MMP expression in the tumor cells is at least in part due to the loss of accessibility of the ETS recognition sites in the regulatory elements of the MMP genes. Therefore, we should be careful before theorizing simply that a putative binding site is essential for the transcription of critical genes, since the binding of this fusion protein was found to be modulated in tumor cells in this study.
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 05/2002; 293(1):61-71. DOI:10.1016/S0006-291X(02)00129-8 · 2.30 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of our study was to evaluate the anti-invasive effect of MMI-166, a new matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) inhibitor in cervical carcinoma cell lines.
We analyzed the invasive activities of cervical carcinoma cell lines (CAC-1, CaSki, and SiHa) and the gene expression of various matrix proteinases (matrix metalloproteinase-1 [MMP-1], MMP-2, MMP-9, membrane-type MMP type 1 [MT1-MMP], MT2-MMP, and MT3-MMP) and their inhibitors (tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase type 1 [TIMP-1] and TIMP-2). The effect of MMI-166 was analyzed by in vitro invasion assay. The cytotoxicity of MMI-166 was determined by MTT assay. The gelatinase activity was analyzed by gelatin zymography.
Cervical carcinoma cell lines, which produced both MMP-2 and MT1-MMP, showed invasive capacity in the in vitro invasion assay. The invasion of cervical carcinoma cells was suppressed by MMI-166. No remarkable suppression of the proliferation by MMI-166 was observed in the MTT assay. Gelatin zymography revealed complete suppression of MMP-2 activity by MMI-166.
MMI-166 inhibited the MMP-2 activity in cervical carcinoma cells and it is useful for the regulation of cervical carcinoma cell invasion.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cell invasion and metastasis characterize the malignant potential of non-small-cell lung cancers (NSCLCs). We have previously reported that E1AF, a member of the Ets-related transcription factor family, confers invasive phenotype on breast cancer and oral squamous-cell carcinoma cell lines. In our study, we analyzed the E1AF expression in cell lines and resected tumors of NSCLCs by Northern blot and in situ hybridization analyses and found that 15 of 17 cell lines and 12 of 19 tumors expressed E1AF mRNA while normal lung tissue and concomitant normal cells within tumors did not. To examine the biologic importance of E1AF in NSCLCs, we introduced the E1AF gene into VMRC-LCD and NCI-H226, NSCLC cell lines lacking E1AF expression, and examined cell motility and invasion activities. E1AF-transfected VMRC-LCD cells showed increased cell motility that was 2-fold that of parental and vector-transfected control cells (p < 0.01), and both cell motility and invasion were increased 1.6-fold in NCI-H226 (p < 0.01). Furthermore, hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), which is one of the most effective cell-scattering factors, stimulated the motile and invasive activities in E1AF-transfected VMRC-LCD and NCI-H226 cells but not in their parental or vector-transfected control cells. Ets-1 mRNA expression was found in E1AF-transfected VMRC-LCD cells but not in parental or vector-transfected cells. HGF further induced expression of the Ets-1 and urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) genes specifically in E1AF-transfected cells. These findings suggest that E1AF plays a substantial role in the cell motility and invasion of NSCLCs.
International Journal of Cancer 09/2001; 93(6):786-91. DOI:10.1002/ijc.1410 · 5.09 Impact Factor