K Shirai

University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, Ohio, United States

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Publications (22)73.18 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The self-quenching dye, 6-carboxyfluorescein, has been encapsulated into sonicated vesicles of egg phosphatidylcholine. Porcine pancreatic phospholipase A2 and bovine milk lipoprotein lipase catalyze the hydrolysis of the phosphatidylcholine resulting in the release of the encapsulated dye and a large increase in 6-carboxyfluorescein fluorescence. The fluorescence increase occurs in parallel with the formation of lysophosphatidylcholine and is strongly dependent on Ca2+ for phospholipase A2 catalysis and on apolipoprotein C-II for hydrolysis by lipoprotein lipase. Other apolipoproteins, including apolipoproteins C-III, C-I, and A-I, do not enhance lipoprotein lipase activity towards this substrate. We conclude that the enhancement of lipoprotein lipase activity by apolipoprotein C-II is a specific property of the activator protein due to its interaction with lipoprotein lipase or an enzyme/lipid interface and not a characteristic of lipid-binding proteins in general.
    Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 10/1984; 795(2):191-5. · 4.66 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The fluorescent phospholipid 1-acyl-2-[6-[(7-nitro-2,1,3benzoxadiazol-4 -yl) amino]-caproyl] phosphatidylcholine (C6-NBD-PC) was used as a substrate for porcine pancreatic phospholipase A2 (PA2) and bovine milk lipoprotein lipase (LpL). Hydrolysis of C6-NBD-PC by either enzyme resulted in a greater than 50-fold fluorescence enhancement with no shift in the emission maximum at 540 nm; Ca++ was required for PA2 catalysis. Identification of the products of hydrolysis showed cleavage at the sn-1 and sn-2 positions for LpL and PA2, respectively. For PA2, but not for LpL, there was a marked enhancement of enzyme catalysis at lipid concentrations above the critical micellar concentration of the lipid. Furthermore, apolipoprotein C-II, the activator protein of LpL for long-chain fatty acyl substrates, did not enhance the rate of catalysis of the water-soluble fluorescent phospholipid for either enzyme.
    Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 03/1984; 118(3):894-901. · 2.28 Impact Factor
  • Nihon Naika Gakkai Zasshi 07/1983; 72(6):796-802.
  • K Shirai, N Matsuoka, Y Saito
    Horumon to rinsho. Clinical endocrinology 06/1983; 31(5):437-41.
  • Progress in Lipid Research 02/1983; 22(1):35-78. · 12.96 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The lipoprotein lipase-catalyzed hydrolysis of triacylglycerol was determined in a lipid monolayer containing egg phosphatidylcholine and tri[14C]oleoylglycerol. In the presence of purified bovine milk lipoprotein lipase and fatty acid-free albumin, the rate of hydrolysis of tri[14C]oleoylglycerol, as determined by the decrease in surface activity, was dependent upon enzyme concentration and was enhanced by the addition of apolipoprotein C-II, the activator protein for the enzyme. Increasing the triacylglycerol content of the phospholipid monolayer from 1 to 6 mol% (relative to phospholipid) enhanced the rate of catalysis in the presence and absence of apolipoprotein C-II. However, at low substrate concentrations (less than 4 mol% tri[14C]oleoylglycerol), the activation factor for apolipoprotein C-II was greater than at high (4-6 mol%) triacylglycerol concentrations. The addition of sphingomyelin to the phosphatidylcholine monolayer decreased lipoprotein lipase activity. Based on these monolayer studies, we conclude that lipoprotein lipase catalyzes the hydrolysis of triacylglycerol at a phospholipid interface and that the rate of catalysis is dependent on the lipid composition of the monolayer.
    Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 01/1983; 713(3):629-37. · 4.66 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Bovine milk lipoprotein lipase (LpL) catalyzes the hydrolysis of the water-soluble esters p-nitrophenyl acetate (PNPA) and p-nitrophenyl butyrate (PNPB). The same protein and same active site are involved in hydrolysis of water-soluble p-nitrophenyl esters and emulsified trioleoylglycerol since (a) trioleoylglycerol hydrolysis and PNPB hydrolysis activities coelute from the heparin-Sepharose affinity column used to purify LpL and (b) LpL-catalyzed hydrolyses of trioleoylglycerol and PNPB are inhibited to equal extents by phenylmethanesulfonyl fluoride. The effect of apolipoprotein C-II (apoC-II) on the LpL-catalyzed hydrolysis of PNPA and PNPB has been determined. ApoC-II inhibits hydrolysis of both esters, with a maximum extent of inhibition of 70-90%. Inhibition of the LpL-catalyzed hydrolysis of PNPB is specific for apoC-II, since apolipoproteins A-I, C-I, and C-III-2 have little effect on this reaction, and is partial noncompetitive in form. KI values for apoC-II inhibition of the LpL-catalyzed hydrolysis of PNPA and PNPB are in the range 0.26-0.83 microM. The effect of apoC-II on the temperature dependences of LpL-catalyzed hydrolysis of both esters and on NaCl inhibition of LpL-catalyzed PNPB hydrolysis is consistent with a change in rate-determining step with LpL and apoC-II interact. These results indicate not only that there is an interaction between apoC-II and LpL in aqueous solution in the absence of a lipid interface but also that this interaction conformationally modulates the active site of the enzyme.
    Biochemistry 01/1983; 21(26):6872-9. · 3.19 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The effect of apolipoproteins on the hepatic lipase-catalyzed hydrolysis of high density lipoprotein (HDL) triacylglycerols was studied in an in vitro system consisting of purified human post-heparin hepatic lipase, HDL2 and albumin. The apparent values of the Michaelis constant (Km) and maximal velocity (Vmax) for the hepatic lipase-catalyzed hydrolysis of HDL2-triacylglycerols were 0.18 mM and 86 nmol free fatty acids released/mg hepatic lipase per min, respectively. The addition of purified human plasma apolipoprotein A-I, A-II, E, C-I or C-III2 (containing 2 mol of sialic acid) to HDL2 caused inhibition of hepatic lipase activity. At a 1:1 weight ratio of added apolipoprotein to HDL2-protein, inhibition was 50% for apolipoprotein E and over 75% for the other apolipoproteins tested. Inhibition of enzyme activity occurred with both the unfractionated HDL2 and the HDL which were reisolated by ultracentrifugation. The major alteration in the composition of the reisolated HDL was an increase in the protein to phospholipid ratio. Based on these results, we speculate on the possible role of the apolipoproteins in the metabolism of HDL2 by hepatic lipase.
    Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 12/1982; 713(2):292-9. · 4.66 Impact Factor
  • Source
    K Shirai, R L Jackson, D M Quinn
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    ABSTRACT: Interaction of purified bovine milk lipoprotein lipase (LpL) with sonicated vesicles of dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine in the gel phase is associated with an increase in the rate of the LpL-catalyzed hydrolysis of p-nitrophenyl butyrate. There is a 6-fold increase in Vmax. Apolipoprotein C-II, the activator protein for LpL, inhibits the LpL-catalyzed hydrolysis of p-nitrophenyl butyrate. With 0.5 mol % tri[14C]oleoylglycerol present in the dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine vesicles and in the presence of 20 mM Ca2+, the rate of p-nitrophenyl butyrate hydrolysis is decreased reciprocally compared to trioleoylglycerol hydrolysis and is dependent on apolipoprotein C-II. These results suggest that apolipoprotein C-II enhances the activity of LpL by increasing the affinity of the active site of LpL for triacylglycerol.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 10/1982; 257(17):10200-3. · 4.60 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Rabbit antiserum was prepared against purified bovine mild lipoprotein lipase. Immunoelectrophoresis of lipoprotein lipase gave a single precipitin line against the antibody which was coincident with enzyme activity. The gamma-globulin fraction inhibited heparin-releasable lipoprotein lipase activity of bovine arterial intima, heart muscle and adipose tissue. The antibody also inhibited the lipoprotein lipase activity from adipose tissue of human and pig, but not that of rat and dog. Fab fragments were prepared by papain digestion of the gamma-globulin fraction. Fab fragments inhibited the lipoprotein lipase-catalyzed hydrolysis of dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine vesicles and trioleoylglycerol emulsions to the same extent. The Fab fragments also inhibited the lipolysis of human plasma very low density lipoproteins. The change of the kinetic parameters for the lipoprotein lipase-catalyzed hydrolysis of trioleoylglycerol by the Fab fragments was accompanied with a 3-fold increase in Km and a 10-fold decrease in Vmax. Preincubation of lipoprotein lipase with apolipoprotein C-II, the activator protein for lipoprotein lipase, did not prevent inhibition of enzyme activity by the Fab fragments. However, preincubation with dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine-emulsified trioleoylglycerol or Triton X-100-emulsified trioleoylglycerol had a protective effect (remaining activity 7.0 or 25.8%, respectively, compared to 1.0 or 0.4% with no preincubation). The addition of both apolipoprotein C-II and substrate prior to the incubation with the Fab fragments was associated with an increased protective effect against inhibition of enzyme activity; remaining activity with dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine-emulsified trioleoylglycerol was 40.6% and with Triton X-100-emulsified trioleoylglycerol, 45.4%. Human plasma very low density lipoproteins also protected against the inhibition of enzyme activity by the Fab fragments. These immunological studies suggest that the interaction of lipoprotein lipase with apolipoprotein C-II in the presence of lipids is associated with a conformational change in the structure of the enzyme such that the Fab fragments are less inhibitory. The consequence of a conformational change in lipoprotein lipase may be to facilitate the formation of an enzyme-triacylglycerol complex so as to enhance the rate of the lipoprotein lipase-catalyzed turnover of substrate to products.
    Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 08/1982; 712(1):10-20. · 4.66 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The effect of dextran sulfate on the interaction between very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) and purified bovine milk lipoprotein was studied. Dextran sulfate increased VLDL-triacylglycerol hydrolysis by lipoprotein lipase about 2-fold, but did not alter the Km value for triacylglycerol in VLDL. Strong association of dextran sulfate with the VLDL-lipoprotein lipase complex was demonstrated by gel filtration on BioGel A-5m, although dextran sulfate did not bind to VLDL and only very slightly to lipoprotein lipase. These findings suggest that dextran sulfate increases triacylglycerol hydrolysis in VLDL by binding to the VLDL-lipoprotein lipase complex.
    Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 08/1982; 712(1):221-4. · 4.66 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Lipoprotein lipase (LPL) which is associated with very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) separated from the VLDL-LPL complex during hydrolysis of triglyceride in the presence of HDL in vitro. When further VLDL was added to the mixture, the separated LPL became associated with the freshly added VLDL and hydrolyzed its triglyceride. These results suggest that LPL separated from the substrate during catabolism of VLDL may act on other VLDL particles in vivo.
    Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 07/1982; 106(4):1298-303. · 2.28 Impact Factor
  • Source
    K Shirai, R L Jackson
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 03/1982; 257(3):1253-8. · 4.60 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Lipoprotein lipase is bound to heparin-like molecules at the surface of capillary endothelial cells. For maximal activity, the enzyme requires apolipoprotein C-II, a protein constituent of triacylglycerol-rich lipoproteins. In this report, the interactions of apolipoprotein C-II, heparin and sonicated vesicles of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine with purified bovine milk lipoprotein lipase were studied by gel filtration on Bio-Gel A5m. In the presence of vesicles of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (1 mg), lipoprotein lipase (25 micrograms) associated with phospholipids even in the absence of apolipoprotein C-II. With limited phospholipid (40 micrograms), the amount of enzyme which associated with lipid decreased in the presence of apolipoprotein C-II (20 micrograms). Human plasma apolipoprotein C-III, another protein constituent of triacylglycerol-rich lipoproteins, also caused a decrease in the amount of enzyme associated with phospholipid. These results suggest that apolipoprotein C-II does not increase the activity of the enzyme by facilitating its interaction with a lipid interface. In the absence of lipid, lipoprotein lipase and apolipoprotein C-II (molar ratio, 1 : 1) eluted from Bio-Gel A5m as two separate components. The interaction of heparin with lipoprotein lipase was studied using a specific [3H]heparin, which was isolated by affinity chromatography on immobilized lipoprotein lipase; the [3H]heparin eluted with 0.6 M NaCl. Specific [3H]heparin coeluted with lipoprotein lipase when the enzyme was associated with phospholipid; the [3H]heparin was released from the enzyme by 0.75 M NaCl.
    Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 10/1981; 665(3):504-10. · 4.66 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Lipoprotein lipase requires apolipoprotein C-II (apoC-II) from plasma very low density lipoproteins (VLDL) and high density lipoproteins (HDL) for maximal activity. To understand the mechanism by which apoC-II enhances the activity of the enzyme, the kinetic parameters for the hydrolysis of VLDL-triglycerides and phospholipids by purified bovine milk lipoprotein lipase have been determined in two patients with apoC-II deficiency. The absence of apoC-II in these patients was demonstrated by a specific radioimmunoassay for apoC-II (<0.05 mg apoC-II/dl plasma; normals ⋍5.0 mg/dl) and by isoelectric focusing of the isolated apoVLDL. The plasma levels of apoC-III, another apoprotein of VLDL, in the two subjects were 18.8 and 22.0 mg/dl (normals 11.1 ± 0.9 mg/dl). The kinetics of lipolysis of VLDL in either the presence or absence of apoC-II were monitored by using the patients' VLDL which were labeled in vitro with tri[1-14C]oleoyl glycerol and dansyl phosphatidylethanolamine (DPE). The release of [14C]oleic acid and the rate and extent of the DPE fluorescence increase were dependent on lipoprotein lipase and apoC-II concentration. Maximal hydrolysis of VLDL-triglycerides by lipoprotein lipase occurred at 2.5 μg apoC-II/mg triglyceride. The value of the Michaelis-Menten constant (Km) of lipoprotein lipase for apoC-II deficient VLDL-triglycerides decreased from 7.8 mM in the absence of apoC-II to 1.0 mM at 2.5 μg of apoC-II; there was only a slight change in Vmax. When normal HDL were used as the source of apoC-II, the rate of lipolysis of apoC-II deficient VLDL also increased and the value of Km decreased to 1.0 mM. These results suggest that the effects of apoC-II on the rate of lipolysis of VLDL result from an apoC-II induced decrease in the apparent Km of the enzyme for the substrate. One possible explanation for this decrease in Km is that apoC-II enhances the interaction between lipoprotein lipase and triglyceride within the surface monolayer of the lipoprotein particle.
    Metabolism 09/1981; 30(8):818-24. · 3.61 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To determine the physiological role of hepatic lipase in lipoprotein metabolism, human plasma very low (VLDL), low (LDL) or high (HDL2 and HDL3) density lipoproteins were labeled with [14C] triolein or [14C] dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine and the rates of lipid hydrolysis were determined using human heparin-releasable hepatic lipase. Compared to LDL and HDL3, HDL2 phospholipids were the preferred substrate for hepatic lipase; 17% of HDL2 phospholipids were hydrolyzed. [14C] Triolein-labeled HDL2 were also hydrolyzed by hepatic lipase. However, purified bovine milk lipoprotein lipase had negligible activity on HDL2-triglycerides. After incubation of HDL2 with hepatic lipase, there was a decrease in the size of the particle as demonstrated by gel filtration and an increase in the density as shown by zonal ultracentrifugation. These results suggest that hepatic lipase may play a role in the interconversion of HDL subfractions.
    Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 06/1981; 100(2):591-9. · 2.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The catabolism of human plasma very low density lipoproteins (VLDL) by purified bovine milk lipoprotein lipase has been measured in vitro using a fluorescent phospholipid as a method to monitor lipolysis. Dansyl phosphatidylethanolamine (DPE) was incorporated into VLDL to form DPE-VLDL, and the rate of catabolism was followed by measuring the increase in fluorescence at 490 nm after the addition of the enzyme. The studies were performed with VLDL isolated from 20 normal individuals. In addition, the VLDL from 8 mildly obese subjects with primary hypertriglyceridemia (Type IV phenotype) was studied. With this in vitro system and with a constant amount of lipoprotein lipase, the rate of lipolysis did not differ in normal and in these hypertriglyceridemic subjects. Furthermore, there was no correlation between the rates of hydrolysis and the plasma levels of triglyceride or high density lipoprotein cholesterol.
    The Journal of Lipid Research 03/1981; 22(2):382-6. · 4.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Purified bovine milk lipoprotein lipase has been covalently attached to CH-Sepharose with water-soluble carbodiimide. The immobilized enzyme retained enzymic activity and was stimulated 7-fold by the addition of human apolipoprotein C-II. Both [3H]heparin and 125I-labeled apolipoprotein C-II bound to the immobilized enzyme; unlabeled heparin and apolipoprotein C-II competed for binding of their respective labeled compounds. Apolipoprotein C-II did not compete for binding of [3H]heparin and vice versa. Human apolipoprotein C-III did not bind to the immobilized enzyme nor did it compete for apolipoprotein C-II binding. We conclude from these studies that both apolipoprotein C-II and heparin interact with immobilized lipoprotein lipase and that they have different binding sites.
    Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 12/1980; 620(2):308-16. · 4.66 Impact Factor
  • D A Wisner, K Shirai, R L Jackson
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    ABSTRACT: Lipoprotein lipase of bovine aortic intima has been purified to homogeneity by affinity chromatography on heparin-Sepharose. As determine by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in sodium dodecyl sulfate, the purified enzyme had a molecular weight of approximately 60,000, required apolipoprotein C-II for activity and was inhibited by 1.0 M NaCl. Optimum lipolytic activity was in the pH range of 8.0-8.5. Bovine skimmed milk lipoprotein lipase was also purified and its properties compared to those of the aortic enzyme. Based on these comparative studies, we conclude that bovine aortic and milk lipoprotein lipase have similar properties.
    Artery 02/1980; 6(6):419-36.
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    ABSTRACT: Urinary kallikrein in a patient with Bartter's syndrome was remarkably higher than normal. Indomethacin treatments increased serum potassium concentration and urinary Na/K ratio, and improved the response of blood pressure to angiotensin II infusion, while it decreased plasma renin activity, plasma aldosterone and urinary kallikrein. The purified urinary kallikrein had one component of the iso-electric point 4.3 by isoelectric focusing using Ampholine system, and its molecular weight was 4.2 x 10(4), which was greater than those of three components of normal human urinary kallikreins (normal HUK). Also Km values with TAME and BAME of urinary kallikrein in our patient with Bartter's syndrome did not correspond to those of normal HUK. Thus it can be said that urinary kallikrein in our patient with Bartter's syndrome was qualitatively different from normal HUK. The present observation might be a reflection of renal tubular dysfunction in this patient with Bartter's syndrome.
    Endocrinologia japonica 01/1979; 25(6):583-9.

Publication Stats

340 Citations
73.18 Total Impact Points

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  • 1980–1983
    • University of Cincinnati
      • Department of Pharmacology and Cell Biophysics
      Cincinnati, Ohio, United States
  • 1982
    • Chiba University
      • Graduate School of Medicine
      Tiba, Chiba, Japan