[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: There is a compelling need to image pancreas cancer at an early stage. Human pancreas cancer cells display elevated levels of KRAS protein due to high copy numbers of KRAS mRNA, and elevated levels of insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF1R) due to overexpression of IGF1R mRNA. Therefore we hypothesized that pancreas cancer could be detected in vivo with a single probe that targets both KRAS mRNA and IGF1R. Because positron emission tomography (PET) is a sensitive imaging technique, we designed a probe incorporating the positron-emitting nuclide (64)Cu. The KRAS-specific hybridization probe consisted of 1,4,7-tris(carboxymethylaza)cyclododecane-10-aza-acetyl (DO3A) on the N-terminus of a peptide nucleic acid (PNA) hybridization sequence (GCCATCAGCTCC) linked to a cyclized IGF1 peptide analog (d-Cys-Ser-Lys-Cys) on the C-terminus, for IGF1R-mediated endocytosis. A series of such KRAS radiohybridization probes with 0, 1, 2 or 3 mismatches to KRAS G12D mRNA, including exact matches to wild type KRAS mRNA and KRAS G12V mRNA, along with a double d(Ala) replacement IGF1 peptide control, were assembled by continuous solid phase synthesis. To test the hypothesis that KRAS-IGF1 dual probes could specifically image KRAS mRNA expression noninvasively in human IGF1R-overexpressing AsPC1 pancreas cancer xenografts in immunocompromised mice, [(64)Cu]PNA radiohybridization probes and controls were administered by tail vein. The [(64)Cu]KRAS-IGF1 radiohybridization probe yielded strong tumor contrast in PET images, 8.6 +/- 1.4-fold more intense in the center of human pancreas cancer xenografts than in the contralateral muscle at 4 h post-injection. Control experiments with single base KRASmismatches, an IGF1 peptide mismatch, and a breast cancer xenograft lacking KRAS activation yielded weak tumor contrast images. These experiments are consistent with our hypothesis for noninvasive PET imaging of KRAS oncogene expression in pancreas cancer xenografts. Imaging oncogene mRNAs with radiolabel-PNA-peptide nanoparticles might provide specific genetic characterization of preinvasive and invasive pancreas cancers for staging and choice of therapy.
Cancer biology & therapy 07/2007; 6(6):948-56. · 3.29 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Early external detection of cancer gene activity might enable early treatment of cancer and might reduce cancer mortality. We hypothesized that oncogene mRNA overexpressed at thousands of copies per malignant cell in a zone of transformed cells could be imaged externally by scintigraphic imaging, PET (positron emission tomography) or MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) with PNA (peptide nucleic acid) hybridization probes that include chelators for metal cations and a cyclized peptide analogue of IGF-1 (insulin-like growth factor 1), D(Cys-Ser-Lys-Cys), to mediate internalization by IGF1R (IGF-1 receptor) overexpressed on cancer cells. We observed that human MCF7 breast cancer cells that overexpress IGF1R efficiently internalized fluorescein-chelator-PNA-D(Cys-Ser-Lys-Cys) to the cytoplasm, but not with D(Cys-Ala-Ala-Cys). Scintigraphic imaging of MCF7 xenografts in immunocompromised mice revealed that CCND1 and MYC [(99m)Tc]chelator-PNA-D(Cys-Ser-Lys-Cys) probes yielded xenograft. PET imaging with [(64)Cu]chelator-PNA-D(Cys-Ser-Lys-Cys) yielded stronger signals. Scintigraphic imaging of human AsPC1 pancreas cancer xenografts with [(99m)Tc]chelator-KRAS PNA-D(Cys-Ser-Lys-Cys) yielded strong xenograft signals. Stronger xenograft image intensities were obtained by PET imaging of [(64)Cu]chelator-KRAS PNA-D(Cys-Ser-Lys-Cys). MRI required extension of chelator-polydiamidopropanoate dendrimers from the N-termini of the PNA probes to increase the number of contrast paramagnetic gadolinium (III) cations per probe. These results provide a basis for detection of oncogene activity in tissues from outside the body by hybridization with metal-chelator-PNA-peptides that are selectively internalized by cancer cells.
Biochemical Society Transactions 03/2007; 35(Pt 1):72-6. · 2.59 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Stem cells (SC), found in both adult and fetal tissues, are self-renewing elements that can generate the various cell types in the body. There are 3 classes of SC: totipotent, multipotent, and pluripotent. The SC with a significant developmental potential are the embryonic stem (ES) cells, which are derived from the early stages of mammalian embryo. SC possess regenerative properties and this offers unprecedented opportunities for developing medical therapies for debilitating diseases. Hematopoietic SC have been used successfully in bone marrow transplants for over 40 years. Pluripotent SC offer renewable source of replacement of cells and tissues to treat a myriad of diseases. However there are limiting factors. Adult SC are rare and cannot multiply as the ES. Pluripotent SC have great therapeutic potential, but face technical challenges. A serious concern is the ethical issue since they are derived from human embryos or fetal tissue. Quite often SC have been targets of mutations and risk carcinogenesis. Various markers have been identified based on the uniqueness of SC receptors and in vivo tracking studies using nanocolloids and radioactive tracers have been performed. Though 111In-oxine has been used to image SC transplants, PET with a high spatial resolution would be ideal. Currently 2 agents are being studied, 18F-FDG and 64Cu-Pyruvaldehyde bi(N4-methylthiosemicarbazone). The following few pages bring forth the various limitations and summarize progress made in SC utilization so as to create awareness of SC research in ISORBE community and to foster strategy that ISORBE community can disseminate information and exchange knowledge on radio labeled SC.
The quarterly journal of nuclear medicine and molecular imaging: official publication of the Italian Association of Nuclear Medicine (AIMN) [and] the International Association of Radiopharmacology (IAR), [and] Section of the Society of... 10/2006; 50(3):205-16. · 1.92 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Localization of infection is critical for both diagnosis and treatment. Several radioactive compounds such as (67)Gallium citrate, (111I)ndium and (99m)Technetium-labeled leukocytes, peptides and antibodies have been used to localize sites of bacterial infection and phlegmons when anatomical imaging techniques failed. With labeled leukocytes the major concern besides the cost, was the in vitro procedure requiring more than 2 h and trained personnel to handle blood samples. Such limitations paved the way for the emergence of new agents like human immunoglobulin, interleukin-1, peptides and monoclonal antibodies. Following the intensive study of 10 monoclonal antibodies the anti SSEA-1 antibody specific for CD15 antigen was found to have a high Kd value of 1.6x10(-11) M for human neutrophils. Labeling of anti CD15 antibody (NeutroSpec) with (99m)Tc and its FDA approval was a boon to diagnostic imaging as it promised to eliminate many of the well known drawbacks of the in vitro WBC labeling. This antibody has a large number of antigenic binding sites: 5.1x10(5) per circulating human neutrophil. It has been established that very little CD15 antigen is expressed on the other blood cell lines. Upon intravenous administration to patients there was no adverse reaction except in those with underlying cardiovascular compromise or chronic pulmonary obstructive disease. Another advantage is that, this particular monoclonal antibody has not produced significant human antimouse antibody in research volunteers and patients. Twenty-four hour imaging, SPECT or planar was not required. The following pages describe the various stages of the research activity carried out towards NeutroSpec.
The quarterly journal of nuclear medicine and molecular imaging: official publication of the Italian Association of Nuclear Medicine (AIMN) [and] the International Association of Radiopharmacology (IAR), [and] Section of the Society of... 07/2006; 50(2):104-12. · 1.92 Impact Factor