[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Novel anti-HIV lectin family which shows a strict binding specificity for high mannose glycans has been found in lower organisms. The bacterial orthologue has been identified in the genome of Pseudomonas fluorescens Pf0-1 and the gene coding a putative lectin was cloned, expressed in Escherichia coli and purified by one step gel filtration. Glycan array screening of the recombinant lectin, termed PFL, has revealed that PFL preferentially recognizes high mannose glycans with α1-3 Man that was highly exposed at the D2 position. In contrast, masking of this α1-3 Man with α1-2 Man dramatically impaired lectin-carbohydrate interactions. Reducing terminal disaccharide, GlcNAc-GlcNAc of high mannose glycans was also essential for PFL-binding. PFL showed a potent anti-influenza virus activity by inhibiting the virus entry into cells at doses of low nanomolar concentration. At micromolar concentration or higher, PFL showed a cytotoxicity accompanying loss of the cell adhesion against human gastric cancer MKN28 cells. The cell surface molecule to which PFL bound was co-precipitated with biotin-labeled PFL and identified as integrin α2 by peptide mass fingerprinting using MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. Intriguingly, upon treatment with exogenous PFL, integrin α2 on the cell surface underwent rapid internalization to the cytoplasm and accumulated to perinuclear region, together with the bound PFL. The resulting loss of cell adherence would trigger a signaling pathway that induced anoikis-like cell death. These events were effectively inhibited by pretreatment of PFL with mannnan, indicating the involvement of high mannose glycans on PFL-induced cell death that was triggered by PFL-integrin α2 interactions.
PLoS ONE 01/2012; 7(9):e45922. · 3.73 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The transcription mode of rabies virus high egg passage-Flury (HEP) strain was examined and compared with that of Evelyn Rokitniki Abelseth (ERA) strain by northern blot analysis using rabies virus gene-specific probes. The ERA strain was shown to exclusively produce monocistronic mRNAs in transcription. All combinations of multicistronic transcripts, including five monocistronic mRNAs, were detected in the viral RNA transcripts of HEP strain. It was concluded that the unique transcription mode is not due to the nucleotide structure of the genome RNA template, but rather to the viral RNA polymerase of HEP strain. The viral polymerase of HEP strain read through the gene junction at a high frequency. The HEP strain has been passaged many times in chick embryo and cultured cells, and has adapted to propagate well in the baby hamster kidney-21 (BHK-21) cells. Through these passages in various hosts, the HEP strain has acquired a unique transcription mode that might have an advantage in amplification of the virus.
Microbiology and Immunology 06/2011; 55(8):558-64. · 1.55 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The complete amino acid sequence of a lectin from the green alga Boodlea coacta (BCA), which was determined by a combination of Edman degradation of its peptide fragments and cDNA cloning, revealed the following: 1) B. coacta used a noncanonical genetic code (where TAA and TAG codons encode glutamine rather than a translation termination), and 2) BCA consisted of three internal tandem-repeated domains, each of which contains the sequence motif similar to the carbohydrate-binding site of Galanthus nivalis agglutinin-related lectins. Carbohydrate binding specificity of BCA was examined by a centrifugal ultrafiltration-HPLC assay using 42 pyridylaminated oligosaccharides. BCA bound to high mannose-type N-glycans but not to the complex-type, hybrid-type core structure of N-glycans or oligosaccharides from glycolipids. This lectin had exclusive specificity for α1-2-linked mannose at the nonreducing terminus. The binding activity was enhanced as the number of terminal α1-2-linked mannose substitutions increased. Mannobiose, mannotriose, and mannopentaose were incapable of binding to BCA. Thus, BCA preferentially recognized the nonreducing terminal α1-2-mannose cluster as a primary target. As predicted from carbohydrate-binding propensity, this lectin inhibited the HIV-1 entry into the host cells at a half-maximal effective concentration of 8.2 nm. A high association constant (3.71 × 10(8) M(-1)) of BCA with the HIV envelope glycoprotein gp120 was demonstrated by surface plasmon resonance analysis. Moreover, BCA showed the potent anti-influenza activity by directly binding to viral envelope hemagglutinin against various strains, including a clinical isolate of pandemic H1N1-2009 virus, revealing its potential as an antiviral reagent.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 04/2011; 286(22):19446-58. · 4.65 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The carbohydrate binding profile of the red algal lectin KAA-2 from Kappaphycus alvarezii was evaluated by a centrifugal ultrafiltration-HPLC method using pyridylaminated oligosaccharides. KAA-2 bound exclusively to high mannose type N-glycans, but not to other glycans such as complex type, hybrid type, or the pentasaccharide core of N-glycans. This lectin exhibited a preference for an exposed α1-3 Man on a D2 arm in a similar manner to Eucheuma serra agglutinin (ESA-2), which shows various biological activities, such as anti-HIV and anti-carcinogenic activity. We tested the anti-influenza virus activity of KAA-2 against various strains including the recent pandemic H1N1-2009 influenza virus. KAA-2 inhibited infection of various influenza strains with EC50s of low nanomolar levels. Immunofluorescence microscopy using an anti-influenza antibody demonstrated that the antiviral activity of KAA-2 was exerted by interference with virus entry into host cells. This mechanism was further confirmed by the evidence of direct binding of KAA-2 to a viral envelope protein, hemagglutinin (HA), using an ELISA assay. These results indicate that this lectin would be useful as a novel antiviral reagent for the prevention of infection.
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 02/2011; 405(2):291-6. · 2.41 Impact Factor