Kevin E Kip

University of South Florida, Tampa, Florida, United States

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Publications (193)1259.94 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Sexual risk taking and potential sequelae such as sexually transmitted diseases, including HIV, may be related to music videos that display suggestive imagery and lyrics. The purpose of this pilot study was to explore characteristics of music lyrics and imagery that might have implications on sexual arousal in Black college students. For four consecutive weeks, the top 20 Hip Hop/R&B music tracks from the official Billboard Charts website were selected. A convenience sample of 27 self-identified Black college students aged 18 to 24 were asked to rate the sexually explicit content in each video. There was a modest association between visual sexual explicitness scores for each video and scores on the Sexual Arousal and Desire Inventory (SADI) for females, and a strong association between visual sexual explicitness for each video and scores on the SADI for males.
    Journal of Black Studies 06/2015; DOI:10.1177/0021934715588002 · 0.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Body image is a complex issue with the potential to impact many aspects of cancer survivorship, particularly for the younger breast cancer survivor. The purpose of this review is to synthesize the current state of the science for body image in younger women with breast cancer. Combinations of the terms "body image," "sexuality intervention," "women," "younger women," and "breast cancer" were searched in the PubMed, PsycINFO, CINAHL, Web of Knowledge, and Science Direct databases through January 2014. Inclusion criteria for this review were (1) original research, (2) published in English from the year 2000 forward, (3) measuring body image as an outcome variable, and (4) results included reporting of age-related outcomes. Thirty-six articles met the inclusion criteria. The majority of studies were cross-sectional, with extensive variation in body image assessment tools. Age and treatment type had a significant impact on body image, and poorer body image was related to physical and psychological distress, sex and intimacy, and the partnered relationship among younger women. Only 1 intervention study found a significant improvement in body image after intervention. Findings suggest body image is a complex posttreatment concern for breast cancer survivors, particularly younger women. The findings of this review are limited by the high level of variation in the methods for assessing body image. Further research of interventions to address body image concerns following treatment for breast cancer is warranted. Improvement of body image may improve the quality of life of younger breast cancer survivors.
    Cancer nursing 04/2015; DOI:10.1097/NCC.0000000000000251 · 1.93 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Breast cancer (BC) survivors often report cognitive impairment, which may be influenced by single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). The purpose of this study was to test whether particular SNPs were associated with changes in cognitive function in BC survivors and whether these polymorphisms moderated cognitive improvement resulting from the Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction for Breast Cancer (MBSR[BC]) program. BC survivors recruited from Moffitt Cancer Center and the University of South Florida's Breast Health Program, who had completed adjuvant radiation and/or chemotherapy treatment, were randomized to either the 6-week MBSR(BC) program (n = 37) or usual care (UC; n = 35) group. Measures of cognitive function and demographic and clinical history data were attained at baseline and at 6 and 12 weeks. A total of 10 SNPs from eight genes known to be related to cognitive function were analyzed using blood samples. Results showed that SNPs in four genes (ankyrin repeat and kinase domain containing 1 [ANKK1], apolipoprotein E [APOE], methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase [MTHFR], and solute carrier family 6 member 4 [SLC6A4]) were associated with cognitive impairment. Further, rs1800497 in ANKK1 was significantly associated with improvements in cognitive impairment in response to MBSR(BC). These results may help to identify individuals who would be better served by MBSR(BC) or other interventions. © The Author(s) 2015.
    Biological Research for Nursing 04/2015; DOI:10.1177/1099800415577633 · 1.34 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Sleep disturbances are recognized as a side effect of cancer treatment, affecting physiological and psychological functioning. Sleep disturbances can persist through treatment and survivorship, and are increasingly prevalent among breast cancer survivors (BCSs). The purpose of this review is to summarize current research on subjective and objective measures of sleep disturbances, the association between subjective and objective measures, and interventions used to manage sleep disturbances among BCSs after the completion of treatment. Articles published from 2003-2013 were retrieved using PubMed, Web of Science, and ScienceDirect. Key search terms included breast cancer, sleep actigraphy, and sleep disturbances. Articles assessing sleep subjectively and objectively in the post-treatment period were included. Twelve studies met the inclusion criteria.
    Clinical Journal of Oncology Nursing 04/2015; 19(2):185-91. DOI:10.1188/15.CJON.185-191
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    ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of a web-based educational intervention for reducing postconcussion symptoms. 158 participants with self-reported symptomatic mild traumatic brain injury were randomized to intervention versus control. There was no effect of intervention on symptom severity or attributions. Subgroup analyses suggested benefit of the web-based intervention in those receiving concurrent mental health treatment and in those participants with the greatest time since injury (>1 year after mild traumatic brain injury). Web-based educational intervention was not effective overall in this sample. However, there is some suggestion of promise in those receiving concurrent mental health treatment and with more chronic symptoms. Findings also suggest potential benefit of interventions targeting self-efficacy. Reprint & Copyright © 2015 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.
    Military medicine 02/2015; 180(2):192-200. DOI:10.7205/MILMED-D-14-00388 · 0.77 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Our aim was to compare the biopsychosocial characteristics of young women with those of older women who were enrolled in cardiac rehabilitation (CR). The baseline characteristics of women who prematurely terminated CR participation were also explored. Baseline physiological and psychosocial indices of women ≤ 55 years compared with older women eligible for CR were evaluated 1 week before enrolling in either a traditional CR or a gender-specific, motivationally enhanced CR. A greater proportion of young women (n = 65) compared with their older counterparts (n = 187) were diagnosed with acute myocardial infarction during their index hospitalization. They demonstrated lower high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, higher total cholesterol/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratios, and greater body weight compared with older women and were more likely to be active smokers. Young women compared with older women reported significantly worse health perceptions, quality of life, optimism, hope, social support, and stress and significantly more symptoms of depression and anxiety. Women who prematurely terminated CR participation were younger, more obese, with worse quality of life, and greater symptoms of depression and anxiety compared with women completing CR. Notable differences in physiological and psychosocial profiles of young women compared with older women enrolled in CR were evident, placing them at high risk for nonadherence to secondary prevention interventions as well as increased risk for disease progression and subsequent cardiac adverse events. Continued existence of these health differentials represents an important public health problem and warrants further research to address these age-related and sex-specific health disparities among women with coronary heart disease.
    Journal of cardiopulmonary rehabilitation and prevention 11/2014; 35(2). DOI:10.1097/HCR.0000000000000095 · 1.68 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background Identification of racial differences in the burden and correlates of carotid intima media thickness (CIMT) and coronary artery calcium (CAC) may provide the basis for the development of race-specific cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk prediction algorithms. Methods In the Heart Strategies Concentrating on Risk Evaluation (Heart SCORE) study, CIMT was measured by carotid ultrasonography in 792 individuals (35 % Black). CIMT >1 mm was considered significant. CAC was quantified by electron beam computed tomography in 776 individuals (46 % Black). CAC was considered significant if the Agatston score was >100. Cross-sectional associations between race, CIMT and CAC were assessed using logistic regression models. Results Blacks had greater CIMT (mean difference 0.033 mm, 95 % CI 0.005-0.06 mm; p=0.02) and 1.5-fold (95 % CI 1.0-2.3) higher odds of having significant CIMT than Whites. Blacks had less CAC than Whites (mean Agatston score difference 66, [11-122]; p=0.02) and 50 % lower odds of a significant CAC score compared with Whites (0.5 [0.3-0.7]). These associations were virtually unchanged after adjustment for CVD risk factors. Of the novel CVD risk markers assessed, small-dense low-density lipoprotein was independently associated with increased odds of significant CIMT, with the association being similar among Blacks and Whites (odds ratio [95 % CI]: 1.7 [1.2-2.5] and 1.4 [1.0-1.8] per 1-SD higher level, respectively). Interleukin-6 was significantly associated with CAC among Blacks (1.4 [1.0-2.0]). Conclusion Black race is independently associated with greater CIMT but less CAC than White race. CVD risk stratification strategies that incorporate these measures of subclinical atherosclerosis should consider race-specific algorithms.
    Netherlands heart journal: monthly journal of the Netherlands Society of Cardiology and the Netherlands Heart Foundation 10/2014; 23(1). DOI:10.1007/s12471-014-0610-4 · 2.26 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Sleep apnea and obesity are strongly associated, and both increase the risk for coronary artery disease. Several cross-sectional studies have reported discrepant results regarding the role obesity plays in the relation between sleep apnea and coronary artery calcium (CAC), a marker of subclinical coronary disease. The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between sleep apnea and the presence of CAC in a community cohort of middle-aged men and women without preexisting cardiovascular disease, stratified by body mass index (<30 vs ≥30 kg/m(2)). Participants underwent electron-beam computed tomography to measure CAC and underwent home sleep testing for sleep apnea. The presence of CAC was defined as an Agatston score >0. Sleep apnea was analyzed categorically using the apnea-hypopnea index. The sample was composed of primarily men (61%) and Caucasians (56%), with a mean age of 61 years. The prevalence of CAC was 76%. In participants with body mass indexes <30 kg/m(2) (n = 139), apnea-hypopnea index ≥15 (vs <5) was associated with 2.7-fold odds of having CAC, but the effect only approached significance. Conversely, in participants with body mass indexes ≥30 kg/m(2), sleep apnea was not independently associated with CAC. In conclusion, sleep apnea is independently associated with early atherosclerotic plaque burden in nonobese patients.
    The American Journal of Cardiology 09/2014; 114(11). DOI:10.1016/j.amjcard.2014.08.040 · 3.43 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background. Limited research has been conducted on the moderating effect of race/ethnicity on objective sleep disturbances in breast cancer survivors (BCSs). Objective. To explore racial/ethnic differences in objective sleep disturbances among BCSs and their relationship with self-reported symptoms. Intervention/Methods. Sleep disturbance and symptoms were measured using actigraphy for 72 hours and self-reported questionnaires, respectively, among 79 BCSs. Analysis of covariance, Pearson's correlation, and multivariate regression were used to analyze data. Results. Sixty (75.9%) participants listed their ethnicity as white, non-Hispanic and 19 (24.1%) as minority. Total sleep time was 395.9 minutes for white BCSs compared to 330.4 minutes for minority BCSs. Significant correlations were seen between sleep onset latency (SOL) and depression, SOL and fatigue, and sleep efficiency (SE) and fatigue among minority BCSs. Among white BCSs, significant correlations were seen between SE and pain and wake after sleep onset (WASO) and pain. The association between depression and SOL and fatigue and SOL appeared to be stronger in minority BCSs than white BCSs. Conclusions. Results indicate that white BCSs slept longer than minority BCSs, and race/ethnicity modified the effect of depression and fatigue on SOL, respectively. Implications for Practice. As part of survivorship care, race/ethnicity should be included as an essential component of comprehensive symptom assessments.
    07/2014; 2014:858403. DOI:10.1155/2014/858403
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    ABSTRACT: Objective The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of mindfulness-based stress reduction for breast cancer survivors (MBSR(BC)) on multiple measures of objective and subjective sleep parameters among breast cancer survivors (BCS).Methods Data were collected using a two-armed randomized controlled design among BCS enrolled in either a 6-week MBSR(BC) program or a usual care (UC) group with a 12-week follow-up. The present analysis is a subset of the larger parent trial ( Identifier: NCT01177124). Seventy-nine BCS participants (mean age 57 years), stages 0-III, were randomly assigned to either the formal (in-class) 6-week MBSR(BC) program or UC. Subjective sleep parameters (SSP) (i.e., sleep diaries and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI)) and objective sleep parameters (OSP) (i.e., actigraphy) were measured at baseline, 6 weeks, and 12 weeks after completing the MBSR(BC) or UC program.ResultsResults showed indications of a positive effect of MBSR(BC) on OSP at 12 weeks on sleep efficiency (78.2% MBSR(BC) group versus 74.6% UC group, p = 0.04), percent of sleep time (81.0% MBSR(BC) group versus 77.4% UC group, p = 0.02), and less number waking bouts (93.5 in MBSR(BC) group versus 118.6 in the UC group, p < 0.01). Small nonsignificant improvements were found in SSP in the MBSR(BC) group from baseline to 6 weeks (PSQI total score, p = 0.09). No significant relationship was observed between minutes of MBSR(BC) practice and SSP or OSP.Conclusions These data suggest that MBSR(BC) may be an efficacious treatment to improve objective and subjective sleep parameters in BCS.Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Psycho-Oncology 06/2014; 24(4). DOI:10.1002/pon.3603 · 4.04 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: As many as 70% of veterans with chronic pain treated within the US Veterans Administration (VA) system may have posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and conversely, up to 80% of those with PTSD may have pain. We describe pain experienced by US service members and veterans with symptoms of PTSD, and report on the effect of Accelerated Resolution Therapy (ART), a new, brief exposure-based therapy, on acute pain reduction secondary to treatment of symptoms of PTSD.
    European Journal of Psychotraumatology 05/2014; 5. DOI:10.3402/ejpt.v5.24066 · 2.40 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: TIMI frame count (TFC) predicts outcomes in patients with obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD); it remains unclear whether TFC predicts outcomes in patients without obstructive CAD. TFC was determined in a sample of women with no obstructive CAD enrolled in the Women's Ischemia Syndrome Evaluation (WISE) study. Because TFC is known to be higher in the left anterior descending artery (LAD), TFC determined in the LAD was divided by 1.7 to provide a corrected TFC (cTFC). A total of 298 women, with angiograms suitable for TFC analysis and long-term (6-10 year) follow up data, were included in this sub-study. Their age was 55±11 years, most were white (86%), half had a history of smoking, and half had a history of hypertension. Higher resting cTFC was associated with a higher rate of hospitalization for angina (34% in women with a cTFC >35, 15% in women with a cTFC ≤35, P<0.001). cTFC provided independent prediction of hospitalization for angina after adjusting for many baseline characteristics. In this cohort, resting cTFC was not predictive of major events (myocardial infarction, heart failure, stroke, or all-cause death), cardiovascular events, all-cause mortality, or cardiovascular mortality. In women with signs and symptoms of ischemia but no obstructive CAD, resting cTFC provides independent prediction of hospitalization for angina. Larger studies are required to determine if resting TFC is predictive of major events in patients without obstructive coronary artery disease.
    PLoS ONE 05/2014; 9(5):e96630. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0096630 · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    Clinical gastroenterology and hepatology: the official clinical practice journal of the American Gastroenterological Association 03/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.cgh.2014.03.002 · 6.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Insomnia and sleep apnea frequently co-occur and are independently associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease, but little is known about cardiovascular disease risk among individuals with comorbid insomnia and sleep apnea. The current study examined traditional risk factors and a physiologic biomarker of cardiovascular risk in comorbid insomnia and sleep apnea. Community-based participatory research study. The sample comprised 795 participants without preexisting cardiovascular disease from the Heart Strategies Concentrating On Risk Evaluation (Heart SCORE) study. Participants were assessed for symptoms of insomnia and sleep apnea risk, as well as for presence of obesity, smoking, a sedentary lifestyle, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and diabetes. Baseline resting brachial artery diameter was measured by B-mode ultrasonography. A total of 138 participants (17.4%) met criteria for insomnia syndrome alone, 179 (22.5%) were at high risk for sleep apnea alone, 95 (11.9%) reported both insomnia syndrome and high sleep apnea risk, and 383 (48.2%) reported having neither insomnia nor sleep apnea symptoms Both high sleep apnea risk alone and comorbid insomnia and high sleep apnea risk groups had greater frequencies of obesity, sedentary lifestyle, hypertension, and three or more traditional cardiovascular risk factors and significantly larger brachial artery diameters than the insomnia alone group and those without insomnia or sleep apnea symptoms. No differences in traditional cardiovascular risk factors or brachial artery diameter were found between the high sleep apnea risk and comorbid groups. These findings suggest that sleep apnea is a major contributor to cardiovascular risk and co-occurring insomnia does not appear to add to this risk. Luyster FS; Kip KE; Buysse DJ; Aiyer AN; Reis SE; Strollo PJ. Traditional and nontraditional cardiovascular risk factors in comorbid insomnia and sleep apnea. SLEEP 2014;37(3):593-600.
    Sleep 03/2014; 37(3):593-600. DOI:10.5665/sleep.3506 · 5.06 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) reduces symptoms of depression, anxiety, and fear of recurrence among breast cancer (BC) survivors. However, the effects of MBSR (BC) on telomere length (TL) and telomerase activity (TA), known markers of cellular aging, psychological stress, and disease risk, are not known. This randomized, wait-listed, controlled study, nested within a larger trial, investigated the effects of MBSR (BC) on TL and TA. BC patients (142) with Stages 0-III cancer who had completed adjuvant treatment with radiation and/or chemotherapy at least 2 weeks prior to enrollment and within 2 years of completion of treatment with lumpectomy and/or mastectomy were randomly assigned to either a 6-week MBSR for BC program or a usual care. Assessments of TA and TL were obtained along with psychological measurements at baseline, 6 weeks, and 12 weeks after completing the MBSR(BC) program. The mean age of 142 participants was 55.3 years; 72% were non-Hispanic White; 78% had Stage I or II cancer; and 36% received both chemotherapy and radiation. In analyses adjusted for baseline TA and psychological status, TA increased steadily over 12 weeks in the MBSR(BC) group (approximately 17%) compared to essentially no increase in the control group (approximately 3%, p < .01). In contrast, no between-group difference was observed for TL (p = .92). These results provide preliminary evidence that MBSR(BC) increases TA in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from BC patients and have implications for understanding how MBSR(BC) may extend cell longevity at the cellular level.
    Biological Research for Nursing 01/2014; 16(4). DOI:10.1177/1099800413519495 · 1.34 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Researchers focused on patient-centered medicine are increasingly trying to identify baseline factors that predict treatment success. Because the quantity and function of lymphocyte subsets change during stress, we hypothesized that these subsets would serve as stress markers and therefore predict which breast cancer patients would benefit most from mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR)-facilitated stress relief. The purpose of this study was to assess whether baseline biomarker levels predicted symptom improvement following an MBSR intervention for breast cancer survivors (MBSR[BC]). This randomized controlled trial involved 41 patients assigned to either an MBSR(BC) intervention group or a no-treatment control group. Biomarkers were assessed at baseline, and symptom change was assessed 6 weeks later. Biomarkers included common lymphocyte subsets in the peripheral blood as well as the ability of T cells to become activated and secrete cytokines in response to stimulation with mitogens. Spearman correlations were used to identify univariate relationships between baseline biomarkers and 6-week improvement of symptoms. Next, backward elimination regression models were used to identify the strongest predictors from the univariate analyses. Multiple baseline biomarkers were significantly positively related to 6-week symptom improvement. The regression models identified B-lymphocytes and interferon-γ as the strongest predictors of gastrointestinal improvement (p < .01), +CD4+CD8 as the strongest predictor of cognitive/psychological (CP) improvement (p = .02), and lymphocytes and interleukin (IL)-4 as the strongest predictors of fatigue improvement (p < .01). These results provide preliminary evidence of the potential to use baseline biomarkers as predictors to identify the patients likely to benefit from this intervention.
    Biological Research for Nursing 01/2014; 16(4). DOI:10.1177/1099800413519494 · 1.34 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A previous randomized, placebo-controlled study showed that infliximab maintenance therapy prevented recurrence of Crohn's disease 1 year after an ileo-colonic resection. We evaluated recurrence of Crohn's disease, based on endoscopic examination and/or the need for additional surgical resection, beyond the first postoperative year. In a prospective, open-label, long-term follow-up study, 24 patients, previously randomly assigned to receive infliximab for 1 year after an ileocolonic resection, were given the option to continue, stop, or start infliximab therapy. The primary endpoint was the time to recurrence of Crohn's disease, based on endoscopic evidence (endoscopic recurrence), from the initial assignment to postoperative infliximab or placebo. Secondary endpoints were rate of endoscopic recurrence, time to reoperation, and rate of surgical recurrence in relation to the total time on infliximab. All patients were followed for at least 5 years after surgery. Patients assigned to the infliximab group in the first year after surgery had a longer mean time to first endoscopic recurrence (1231±747 days) than patients originally assigned to the placebo group (460±121 days, P=.003). Colonoscopies identified Crohn's disease recurrence in 22.2% in patients who received long-term infliximab and 93.9% in those not on infliximab (P <.0001). Compared to no infliximab, the adjusted rate ratio for being in endoscopic remission while on infliximab was 13.47 (95% confidence interval, 3.52-61.53, P=.0001). Patients originally assigned to the infliximab group had a mean longer time to surgery (1798±359 days) than patients originally assigned to the placebo group (1058±529 days, P=0.04). The rate of surgical recurrence (required additional surgical resection,) was significantly lower among patients who received infliximab for most of the follow-up period than patients who received it for shorter periods (20.0% vs 64.3%, P=.047). Postoperative infliximab maintenance, beyond 1 year, prevents recurrence of Crohn's disease.
    Clinical gastroenterology and hepatology: the official clinical practice journal of the American Gastroenterological Association 01/2014; 12(9). DOI:10.1016/j.cgh.2013.12.035 · 6.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background: The ACC/AHA released new guidelines in December of 2013 for treatment of high blood cholesterol to simplify identification and treatment of patients most likely to benefit from statins. These guidelines may result in more patients receiving statin therapy, and at younger ages. In 2012, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) mandated warnings for all statin drugs for possible adverse effects on cognitive performance. Statins can be classified as having greater lipophilic or hydrophilic solubility properties with lipophilic statins more readily crossing the blood brain barrier, and possibly differentially inducing detrimental cognitive effects. Objective: We sought to analyze generalizability of the FDA statin class warning. Methods: De-identified publicly-available data were analyzed from the FDA Adverse Event Reporting System (AERS) in relation to reports of cognitive dysfunction (primary outcome), and by type of statin (lipophilic, hydrophilic) versus " control " drugs used in the general population. Results: Significantly higher proportional reporting ratios (PRRs) were observed for lipophilic statins, which more readily cross the blood-brain barrier, (range: 1.47-3.51) compared to hydrophilic statins (range: 0.69-1.64). However, fluvastatin, lovastatin, and pitavastatin (lipophilic) had relatively few adverse reports. The signal of higher risk of cognitive dysfunction was observed for the lipophilic statin atorvastatin (PRR = 2.59, 95% confidence interval: 2.44-2.75) followed by simvastatin (PRR = 2.22, 95% confidence interval: 2.04-2.31). Hydrophilic statins (rosuvastatin, pravastatin) showed essentially no evidence suggestive of heightened risk of cognitive dysfunction. Fluvastatin, lovastatin, and pitavastatin had relatively few adverse reports, and no evidence of a higher proportion of cognitive dysfunction reports compared to the control drugs in aggregate (PRR range: 0.22 to 1.48). Conclusions: Inconsistent with the FDA class warning, highly lipophilic statins with specific pharmacokinetic properties (atorvastatin, simvastatin) appear to confer a significantly greater risk of adverse cognitive effects compared to other lipophilic statins and those with hydrophilic solubility properties.

Publication Stats

5k Citations
1,259.94 Total Impact Points


  • 2001–2015
    • University of South Florida
      • • College of Nursing
      • • Department of Cardiology
      • • Department of Mental Health Law & Policy
      Tampa, Florida, United States
    • University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center
      • Department of Ophthalmology
      Dallas, TX, United States
    • Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health
      • Department of Epidemiology
      Baltimore, Maryland, United States
  • 1998–2013
    • University of Pittsburgh
      • • Department of Dermatology
      • • Department of Medicine
      • • Department of Pediatrics
      • • Department of Epidemiology
      Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States
  • 2007
    • Northwestern University
      Evanston, Illinois, United States
  • 2004–2007
    • Rhode Island Hospital
      Providence, Rhode Island, United States
  • 2006
    • Indiana State University
      HUF, Indiana, United States
    • Boston University
      Boston, Massachusetts, United States
  • 2002
    • UHN: Toronto General Hospital
      Toronto, Ontario, Canada
  • 2000
    • Jaeb Center for Health Research
      Tampa, Florida, United States