Kai-Nan An

Mayo Clinic - Rochester, Рочестер, Minnesota, United States

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Publications (481)1083.3 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Understanding spinal kinematics is essential for distinguishing between pathological conditions of spine disorders, which ultimately lead to low back pain. It is of high importance to understand how changes in mechanical properties affect the response of the lumbar spine, specifically in an effort to differentiate those associated with disc degeneration from ligamentous changes, allowing for more precise treatment strategies. To do this, the goals of this study were twofold: (1) develop and validate a finite element (FE) model of the lumbar spine and (2) systematically alter the properties of the intervertebral disc and ligaments to define respective roles in functional mechanics. A three-dimensional non-linear FE model of the lumbar spine (L3-sacrum) was developed and validated for pure moment bending. Disc degeneration and sequential ligament failure were modelled. Intersegmental range of motion (ROM) and bending stiffness were measured. The prediction of the FE model to moment loading in all three planes of bending showed very good agreement, where global and intersegmental ROM and bending stiffness of the model fell within one standard deviation of the in vitro results. Degeneration decreased ROM for all directions. Stiffness increased for all directions except axial rotation, where it initially increased then decreased for moderate and severe degeneration, respectively. Incremental ligament failure produced increased ROM and decreased stiffness. This effect was much more pronounced for all directions except lateral bending, which is minimally impacted by ligaments. These results indicate that lateral bending may be more apt to detect the subtle changes associated with degeneration, without being masked by associated changes of surrounding stabilizing structures.
    Computer Methods in Biomechanics and Biomedical Engineering 09/2015; DOI:10.1080/10255842.2015.1088524 · 1.77 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Hypothesis: A composite of multilayer tendon slices (COMTS) seeded with bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) may impart mechanical and biologic augmentation effects on supraspinatus tendon repair under tension, thereby improving the healing process after surgery in rats. Methods: Adult female Lewis rats (n = 39) underwent transection of the supraspinatus tendon and a 2-mm tendon resection at the distal end, followed by immediate repair to its bony insertion site under tension. Animals received 1 of 3 treatments at the repair site: (1) no augmentation, (2) COMTS augmentation alone, or (3) BMSC-seeded COMTS augmentation. BMSCs were labeled with a fluorescent cell marker. Animals were euthanized 6 weeks after surgery, and the extent of healing of the repaired supraspinatus tendon was evaluated with biomechanical testing and histologic analysis. Results: Histologic analysis showed gap formation between the repaired tendon and bone in all specimens, regardless of treatment. Robust fibrous tissue was observed in rats with BMSC-seeded COMTS augmentation; however, fibrous tissue was scarce within the gap in rats with no augmentation or COMTS-only augmentation. Labeled transplanted BMSCs were observed throughout the repair site. Biomechanical analysis showed that the repairs augmented with BMSC-seeded COMTS had significantly greater ultimate load to failure and stiffness compared with other treatments. However, baseline (time 0) data showed that COMTS-only augmentation did not increase mechanical strength of the repair site. Conclusion: Although the COMTS scaffold did not increase the initial repair strength, the BMSC-seeded scaffold increased healing strength and stiffness 6 weeks after rotator cuff repair in a rat model.
    Journal of shoulder and elbow surgery / American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons ... [et al.] 09/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.jse.2015.08.008 · 2.29 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Osteoporosis is characterized by bony material loss and decreased bone strength leading to a significant increase in fracture risk. Patient-specific quantitative computed tomography (QCT) finite element (FE) models may be used to predict fracture under physiological loading. Material properties for the FE models used to predict fracture are obtained by converting grayscale values from the CT into volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD) using calibration phantoms. If there are any variations arising from the CT acquisition protocol, vBMD estimation and material property assignment could be affected, thus, affecting fracture risk prediction. We hypothesized that material property assignments may be dependent on scanning and postprocessing settings including voltage, current and reconstruction kernel, thus, potentially having an effect in fracture risk prediction. A rabbit femur and a standard calibration phantom were imaged by QCT using different protocols. Cortical and cancellous regions were segmented, their average HU values obtained and converted to vBMD. Estimated vBMD for the cortical and cancellous regions were affected by voltage and kernel but not by current. Our study demonstrated that there exists a significant variation in the estimated vBMD values obtained with different scanning acquisitions. In addition, the large noise differences observed utilizing different scanning parameters could have an important negative effect on small subregions containing fewer voxels.
    Journal of Biomechanical Engineering 09/2015; DOI:10.1115/1.4031572 · 1.78 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A new wireless sensor was designed, fabricated and applied for in situ monitoring of tensile force at a wound site. The sensor was comprised of a thin strip of magnetoelastic material with its two ends connected to suture threads for securing the sensor across a wound repair site. Since the sensor was remotely interrogated by applying an AC magnetic field and capturing the resulting magnetic field, it did not require direct wire connections to an external device or internal battery for long-term use. Due to its magnetoelastic property, the application of a tensile force changed the magnetic permeability of the sensor, altering the amplitude of the measured magnetic field. This work presents two sensor designs: one for high and one for low force ranges. A sensor was fabricated by directly adhering the magnetoelastic strip to the suture. This sensor showed good sensitivity at low force, but its response saturated at about 1.5 N. To monitor high tensile force, the magnetoelastic strip was attached to a metal strip for load sharing. The suture thread was attached to both ends of the metal strip so only a fraction of the applied force was directed to the sensor, allowing it to exhibit good sensitivity even at 44.5 N. The sensor was applied to two ex vivo models: a sutured section of porcine skin and a whitetail deer Achilles tendon. The results demonstrate the potential for in vivo force monitoring at a wound repair site.
    IEEE transactions on bio-medical engineering 09/2015; DOI:10.1109/TBME.2015.2470248 · 2.35 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A) serves to increase local insulin-like growth factor (IGF) stimulation of proliferation and differentiation in many tissues through proteolysis of inhibitory IGF-binding proteins. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of PAPP-A on tendon structure and mechanical properties. A total of 30 tails from 6-month-old mice were tested with 10 tails in each of following groups: PAPP-A knockout (KO), skeletal-specific PAPP-A overexpressing transgenic (Tg) and Wild type (WT). Morphologically, the total tail cross-sectional area (CSA), individual tissue CSAs of bone, muscle and tendon, and fascicle diameter were measured. A fascicle pullout test was performed to assess stiffness and strength of interfascicular structures. Fascicles were mechanically characterized through low and high displacement rate uniaxial tension tests providing modulus at each rate, hysteresis area and stress relaxation ratio. The KO mice had a smaller total tail CSA (p<0.05), fascicle diameter (p<0.05), absolute tendon CSA (p<0.05), fast and slow stiffness (p<0.05 for both) and larger hysteresis area (p<0.05) compared to WT and Tg mice. On the other hand, the Tg mice had a larger fascicle diameter (p<0.05), absolute tendon CSA (p<0.05), higher interfascicular strength and stiffness (p<0.05) and lower fascicular modulus at low displacement rates (p<0.05) compared to WT and KO mice. Tg mice also had larger total tail CSA area (p<0.05) and smaller hysteresis area (p<0.05) than KO mice, and larger normalized tendon CSA (p<0.05) than WT mice. Based on these data, we conclude that PAPP-A affects fascicle structure, thereby affecting tendon phenotype. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.
    Journal of Structural Biology 08/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.jsb.2015.08.012 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To determine if impregnating a suture with a cross-linking agent, 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide hydrochloride (EDC), improved suture pull-out strength and cell viability. Canine flexor digitorum profundus tendons were cut in canine zone D, and a single suture loop was placed in each end, with sutures soaked in either saline or an EDC solution with a concentration of 1%, 10%, or 50%. Suture pull-out strength, stiffness, and elongation to failure was determined by pulling the loop until failure. Cytotoxicity of the EDC treatment was evaluated by suspending treated sutures over cultured tenocytes. Mechanical properties for the EDC-treated side were improved over controls when treated with the 10% and 50% EDC solutions. The ratio of dead to live cells was significantly increased at all distances from the suture for the 50% EDC-treated group. Suture treated with a 10% EDC solution provided the best combination of mechanical reinforcement and limited toxicity. Sutures so treated may improve the ability of a tendon repair to sustain early mobilization. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    The Journal of hand surgery 08/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.jhsa.2015.06.117 · 1.67 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Osteoporotic vertebral body fractures are an increasing clinical problem among the aging population. Specimen-specific finite element models, derived from quantitative computed tomography (QCT), have the potential to more accurately predict failure loads in the vertebra. Additionally, the use of extended finite element modeling (X-FEM) allows for a detailed analysis of crack initiation and propagation in various materials. Our aim was to study the feasibility of QCT/X-FEM analysis to predict fracture properties of vertebral bodies. Three cadaveric specimens were obtained, and the L3 vertebrae were excised. The vertebrae were CT scanned to develop computational models and mechanically tested in compression to measure failure load, stiffness and to observe crack location. One vertebra was used for calibration of the material properties from experimental results and CT gray-scale values. The two additional specimens were used to assess the model prediction. The resulting QCT/X-FEM model of the specimen used for calibration had 2 and 4 % errors in stiffness and failure load, respectively, compared with the experiment. The predicted failure loads of the additional two vertebrae were larger by about 41-44 % when compared to the measured values, while the stiffness differed by 129 and 40 %. The predicted fracture patterns matched fairly well with the visually observed experimental cracks. Our feasibility study indicated that the QCT/X-FEM method used to predict vertebral compression fractures is a promising tool to consider in future applications for improving vertebral fracture risk prediction in the elderly.
    Medical & Biological Engineering 08/2015; DOI:10.1007/s11517-015-1348-x · 1.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of the study was to test a novel treatment that carbodiimide-derivatized-hyaluronic acid-lubricin (cd-HA-lubricin) combined cell-based therapy in an immobilized flexor tendon repair in a canine model. Seventy-eight flexor tendons from 39 dogs were transected. One tendon was treated with cd-HA-lubricin plus an interpositional graft of 8×10(5) BMSCs and GDF-5. The other tendon was repaired without treatment. After 21-day of immobilization, 19 dogs were sacrificed; the remaining 20 dogs underwent a 21-day rehabilitation protocol before euthanasia. The work of flexion, tendon gliding resistance, and adhesion score in treated tendons were significantly less than the untreated tendons (P<0.05). The failure strength of the untreated tendons was higher than the treated tendons at 21 and 42 days (P<0.05). However, there is no significant difference in stiffness between two groups at day-42. Histologic analysis of treated tendons showed a smooth surface and viable transplanted cells 42 days after the repair, whereas untreated tendons showed severe adhesion formation around the repair site. The combination of lubricant and cell treatment resulted in significantly improved digit function, reduced adhesion formation. This novel treatment can address the unmet needs of patients who are unable to commence an early mobilization protocol after flexor tendon repair. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Journal of Orthopaedic Research 07/2015; DOI:10.1002/jor.22980 · 2.99 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To compare the mechanical performance of a rotator cuff repaired with a novel tendon-fibrocartilage-bone composite bridging patch vs the traditional Mason-Allen repair in an in vitro canine model. Twenty shoulders and 10 bridging patches from patellar tendon were harvested. The patches were trimmed and sliced into 2 layers. An infraspinatus tendon tear was created in each shoulder. Modified Mason-Allen sutures were used to repair the infraspinatus tendon to the greater tuberosity, with or without the bridging patch (bridging patch group and controls, respectively). Shoulders were loaded to failure under displacement control at a rate of 0.5mm/s. The ultimate tensile load was significantly higher in the bridging patch group than control (mean [SD], 365.46 [36.45] vs 272.79 [48.88] N; P<.001). Stiffness at the greater tuberosity repair site and the patch-infraspinatus tendon repair site was significantly higher than the control repair site (93.96 [27.72] vs 42.62 [17.48] N/mm P<.001; 65.94 [24.51] vs 42.62 [17.48] N/mm P=.02, respectively). The tendon-fibrocartilage-bone composite bridging patch achieved higher ultimate tensile load and stiffness at the patch-greater tuberosity repair site compared with traditional repair in a canine model. This composite tissue transforms the traditional tendon-to-bone healing interface (with dissimilar tissues) into a pair of bone-to-bone and tendon-to-tendon interfaces, which may improve healing quality and reduce retear rate. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
    Clinical biomechanics (Bristol, Avon) 07/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.clinbiomech.2015.06.020 · 1.97 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The major concern of using a large animal model to study rotator cuff repair is the high rate of repair retears. The purpose of this study was to test a non-weight-bearing (NWB) canine model for rotator cuff repair research. First, in the in vitro study, 18 shoulders were randomized to 3 groups. 1) Full-width transections repaired with modified Mason-Allen sutures using 3-0 polyglactin suture, 2) Group 1 repaired using number 2 (#2) polyester braid and long-chain polyethylene suture, and 3) Partial-width transections leaving the superior 2 mm infraspinatus tendon intact without repair. In the in vivo study of 6 dogs, the infraspinatus tendon was partially transected as the same as the in vitro group 3. A radial neurectomy was performed to prevent weight bearing. The operated limb was slung in a custom-made jacket for 6 weeks. In the in vitro study, mean ultimate tensile load and stiffness in Group 2 were significantly higher than Group 1 and 3 (p<0.05). In the in vivo study, gross inspection and histology showed that the preserved superior 2-mm portion of the infraspinatus tendon remained intact with normal structure. Based on the biomechanical and histological findings, this canine NWB model may be an appropriate and useful model for studies of rotator cuff repair.
    PLoS ONE 06/2015; 10(6):e0130576. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0130576 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Functional restoration is the major concern after flexor tendon reconstruction in the hand. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of modifying the surface of extrasynovial tendon autografts with carbodiimide-derivatized synovial fluid with gelatin (cd-SF-G) on functional outcomes of flexor tendon reconstruction using a canine model. The second and fifth flexor digitorum profundus tendons from eleven dogs were transected and repaired in zone II. The dogs then had six weeks of free activity leading to tendon rupture and scar formation (the repair-failure phase). In the reconstruction phase, two autologous peroneus longus tendons from each dog were harvested; one tendon was coated with cd-SF-G and the other, with saline solution, as a control. A non-weight-bearing rehabilitation protocol was followed for six weeks after reconstruction. The digits were then harvested and evaluations of function, adhesion status, gliding resistance, attachment strength, cell viability, and histology were performed. The tendons coated with cd-SF-G demonstrated significantly lower values (mean and standard deviation) compared with the saline-solution group for work of flexion (0.63 ± 0.24 versus 1.34 ± 0.42 N-mm/deg), adhesion score (3.5 ± 1.6 versus 6.1 ± 1.3), proximal adhesion breaking force (8.6 ± 3.2 versus 20.2 ± 10.2 N), and gliding resistance (0.26 ± 0.08 versus 0.46 ± 0.22 N) (p < 0.05). There was no significant difference between the cd-SF-G and saline-solution groups (p > 0.05) in distal attachment-site strength (56.9 ± 28.4 versus 77.2 ± 36.2 N), stiffness (19 ± 7.5 versus 24.5 ± 14.5 N/mm), and compressive modulus from indentation testing (4.37 ± 1.26 versus 3.98 ± 1.24 N/mm). Histological analysis showed that tendons coated with cd-SF-G had smoother surfaces and demonstrated tendon-to-bone and tendon-to-tendon incorporation. No significant difference in viable cell count between the two groups was observed on tendon culture. Modification of the flexor tendon surface with cd-SF-G significantly improved digital function and reduced adhesion formation without affecting graft healing and stiffness. This study used native synovial fluid as a basic lubricating reagent to treat a tendon graft in vivo, a novel avenue for improving clinical outcomes of flexor tendon reconstruction. This methodology may also apply to other surgical procedures where postoperative adhesions impair function. Copyright © 2015 by The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, Incorporated.
    The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery 06/2015; 97(12):972-8. DOI:10.2106/JBJS.N.01100 · 5.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cell-based tissue engineered tendons have potential to improve clinical outcomes following rotator cuff repair, especially in large or massive rotator cuff tears, which pose a great clinical challenge. The aim of this study was to develop a method of constructing a functional engineered tendon patch for rotator cuff repair with cyclic mechanical stimulation. Decellularized tendon slices (DTSs) were seeded with BMSCs and subjected to cyclic stretching for 1, 3, or 7 days. The mechanical properties, morphologic characteristics and tendon-related gene expression of the constructs were investigated. Viable BMSCs were observed on the DTS after 7 days. BMSCs penetrated into the DTSs and formed dense cell sheets after 7 days of mechanical stretching. Gene expression of type I collagen, decorin, and tenomodulin significantly increased in cyclically stretched BMSC-DTS constructs compared with the unstrained control group (P < 0.05). The ultimate tensile strength and stiffness of the cyclically stretched tendon constructs were similar to the unstrained control group (P > 0.05). In conclusion, mechanical stimulation of BMSC-DTS constructs upregulated expression of tendon-related proteins, promoted cell tenogenic differentiation, facilitated cell infiltration and formation of cell sheets, and retained mechanical properties. The patch could be used as a graft to enhance the surgical repair of rotator cuff tears. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
    Biomaterials 05/2015; 51. DOI:10.1016/j.biomaterials.2015.01.070 · 8.56 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The knee joint is generally characterized by very low friction and high wear resistance. Several previous studies have compared ACL with the commonly used allografts from tensile properties perspective. No study has reported about the graft tendons from a frictional perspective, which is an important parameter for ACL functional performance. Twenty hind legs were used to harvest FDP tendon, ACL, ACH, and patellar tendon. Samples were evaluated with surface friction testing, indentation testing for tendon compressive moduli, lubricin immunohistochemistry, and histologic analysis. Frictional force of FDP tendon and ACL was significantly less than that of patellar tendon and ACH at first and fifth cycles. At the tenth cycle, the FDP tendon, ACL, and ACH showed significantly less frictional force than patellar tendon; after 100 cycles, the FDP tendon and ACL showed significantly less frictional force than patellar tendon. The compressive moduli of the FDP tendon, ACL, and ACH were significantly greater than that of patellar tendon. Histologic results showed that FDP tendon and ACL had a smooth surface with a thin layer of epitenon cells; patellar tendon and ACH had a rough surface and a layer of paratenon. Lubricin was found on the surface and extracellular matrix of FDP tendon and ACL. There was only limited lubricin expression on the surface and extracellular matrix of the ACH and patellar tendon. The FDP tendon has friction force and lubricin expression similar to those of native ACL. However, patellar tendon and ACH show higher friction force and less lubricin expression than ACL. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
    Journal of Biomechanics 05/2015; 48(10). DOI:10.1016/j.jbiomech.2015.04.041 · 2.75 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background Total wrist arthroplasty (TWA) is a viable surgical treatment for disabling wrist arthritis. While current designs are a notable improvement from prior generations, radiographic loosening and failures remain a concern. Purpose The purpose of this investigation is to evaluate a new total wrist arthroplasty design kinematically. The kinematic function of a native, intact cadaveric wrist was compared with that of the same wrist following TWA. Method Six, fresh-frozen wrist cadaveric specimens were utilized. Each wrist was fixed to an experimental table and its range of motion, axis of rotation, and muscle moment arms were calculated. The following tendons were attached to the apparatus to drive motion: extensor carpi radialis longus (ECRL), extensor carpi radialis brevis (ECRB), extensor carpi ulnaris (ECU), flexor carpi radialis (FCR), flexor carpi ulnaris (FCU), and abductor pollicis longus (APL). The wrist was then manually moved along a guide by an experimenter through a series of motions including flexion-extension, radial-ulnar deviation, and circumduction. The experiment was then performed on the specimen following implantation of the TWA. Results Following the TWA procedure, there were statistically significant decreases in the ulnar deviation and the flexion/ulnar deviation component of dart throw ranges of motion. There were no statistically significant changes in flexion, extension, radial deviation, the extension/radial deviation component of the dart thrower motion, or the circumduction range of motion. Conclusions Kinematic analysis of the new TWA suggests that a stable, functional wrist is achievable with this design. Clinical Relevance While appreciating the limitations of a cadaveric study, this investigation indicates that the TWA design studied merits study in human populations.
    05/2015; 4(2):121-7. DOI:10.1055/s-0035-1549288
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    ABSTRACT: Therapy after flexor pollicis longus (FPL) repair typically mimics finger flexor management, but this ignores anatomic and biomechanical features unique to the FPL. We measured FPL tendon tension in zone T2 to identify biomechanically appropriate exercises for mobilizing the FPL. Eight human cadaver hands were studied to identify motions that generated enough force to achieve FPL movement without exceeding hypothetical suture strength. With the carpometacarpal and metacarpophalangeal joints blocked, appropriate forces were produced for both passive interphalangeal (IP) motion with 30° wrist extension and simulated active IP flexion from 0° to 35° with the wrist in the neutral position. This work provides a biomechanical basis for safely and effectively mobilizing the zone T2 FPL tendon. Our cadaver study suggests that it is safe and effective to perform early passive and active exercise to an isolated IP joint. NA. Copyright © 2015 Hanley & Belfus. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Journal of Hand Therapy 04/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.jht.2015.04.002 · 2.00 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Accurate diagnosis of wrist instability resulting from ligament injuries is crucial for providing the most effective interventions for preventing progression to osteoarthritis. Current imaging techniques are unable to detect injuries reliably and are static in nature, thereby capturing bone position information rather than motion which is indicative of ligament injury. A recently-developed technique, 4D (3D + time) CT enables 3D volume sequences to be obtained during wrist motion. The next step in successful clinical implementation of the tool is quantification and validation of measures obtained from the 4DCT image sequences. Methods of approach: Measures of bone motion and joint proximities are obtained by: segmenting bone volumes in each frame of the dynamic sequence, registering their positions relative to a known static posture, and generating surface polygonal meshes from which minimum distance (proximity) measures can be quantified. Method accuracy was assessed during in vitro simulated wrist movement by comparing a fiducial-based determination of bone orientation to a bone-based approach. The reported errors for the 4DCT technique were: 0.00- 0.68 deg in rotation; 0.02- 0.30 mm in translation. Results are on the order of the reported accuracy of other image-based kinematic techniques.
    Journal of Biomechanical Engineering 04/2015; 137(7). DOI:10.1115/1.4030405 · 1.78 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to investigate the feasibility and reliability of passive muscle stiffness measurements in children by shear wave ultrasound elastography. We conducted a prospective cross-sectional study quantifying the passive stiffness of bilateral lateral gastrocnemius muscles during passive stretching in 20 typically developing children (age range, 2.0-12.6 years). Data collected included passive stiffness of the lateral gastrocnemius muscle (shear modulus in kilopascals) at 4 positions of progressive passive foot dorsiflexion, demographic characteristics of the participants, and comparison of demographic characteristics with the shear modulus. Passive stiffness increased with increasing stretching (mean [SD] range of stiffness, 7.1 [2.0] to 36.2 [22.0] kPa). For all 4 foot positions, no significant difference was found between right and left legs (range, P = .42 to P = .98) or between the sexes (range, P = .28 to P > .99). No correlation of passive muscle stiffness with age, body mass index, or ankle range of motion was found. The reliability of measurements was good to excellent (mean [95% confidence interval] range of reliability, 0.67 [0.44-0.83] to 0.80 [0.63-0.90]). Measurements of passive stiffness of the lateral gastrocnemius muscle are feasible and reliable in children as young as 2 years. Because this study found no significant difference between sex and the side tested in this age group, future studies involving children of this age range may not need to be stratified on the basis of these parameters. Defining normal passive muscle stiffness in children is critical for identifying and understanding the implications of abnormal passive muscle stiffness in children with neuromuscular disorders. © 2015 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.
    Journal of ultrasound in medicine: official journal of the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine 04/2015; 34(4):663-70. DOI:10.7863/ultra.34.4.663 · 1.54 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Dynamic loading on articular joints is essential for the evaluation of the risk of the articulation degeneration associated with occupational activities. In the current study, we analyzed the dynamic constraint loading for the thumb during pipetting. The constraint loading is considered as the loading that has to be carried by the connective tissues of the joints (i.e., the cartilage layer and the ligaments) to maintain the kinematic constraints of the system. The joint loadings are solved using a classic free-body approach, using the muscle forces obtained in a previous study (Wu et al., J Biomech, 47:392-9, 2014). The constraint forces in the thumb joint obtained in the current study are compared with those obtained in the pinch and grasp tests in a previous study (Cooney and Chao, J Bone Joint Surg Am, 59:27-36, 1977). The maximal compression force during pipetting is approximately 83% and 60% greater than those obtained in the tip pinch and key pinch, respectively, while substantially smaller than that obtained during grasping. The maximal lateral shear force is approximately six times, 32 times, and 90% greater than those obtained in the tip pinch, key pinch, and grasp, respectively. The maximal dorsal shear force during pipetting is approximately 3.2 and 1.4 times greater than those obtained in the tip pinch and key pinch, respectively, while substantially smaller than that obtained during grasping. Our analysis indicated that the thumb joints are subjected to repetitive, intensive loading during pipetting, compared to other daily activities.
    Journal of Biomechanical Engineering 04/2015; 137(8). DOI:10.1115/1.4030311 · 1.78 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In this paper, we model a simplified glenohumeral joint as a cam-follower mechanism during experimental simulated dislocation. Thus, humeral head trajectory and translational forces are predicted using only contact surface geometry and compressive forces as function inputs. We demonstrate this new interpretation of glenohumeral stability and verify the accuracy of the method by physically testing a custom-molded, idealized shoulder model and comparing data to the output of the 2D mathematical model. Comparison of translational forces between experimental and mathematical approaches resulted in r(2) of 0.88 and 0.90 for the small and large humeral head sizes, respectively. Comparison of the lateral displacement resulted in r(2) of 0.99 and 0.98 for the small and larger humeral head sizes, respectively. Comparing translational forces between experiments and the mathematical model when varying the compressive force to 30N, 60N, and 90N resulted in r(2) of 0.90, 0.82, and 0.89, respectively. The preliminary success of this study is motivation to introduce the effects of soft tissue such as cartilage and validation with a cadaver model. The use of simple mathematical models such as this aid in the set-up and understanding of experiments in stability research and avoid unnecessary depletion of cadaveric resources. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
    Journal of Biomechanics 03/2015; 48(10). DOI:10.1016/j.jbiomech.2015.02.053 · 2.75 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Pre-surgical measurement of supraspinatus muscle extensibility is important for rotator cuff repair. The purpose of the present study was to explore the potential feasibility of a shear wave ultrasound elastography (SWE)-based method, combined with B-mode ultrasound, to measure the in vivo stiffness of the supraspinatus muscle non-invasively and thus obtain key information about supraspinatus muscle extensibility. Our investigation comprised two steps. First, we determined the orientation of the supraspinatus muscle fibers in cadaveric shoulders without rotator cuff tear in order to optimize the ultrasound probe positions for SWE imaging. Second, we investigated the feasibility of quantifying the stiffness of the normal supraspinatus muscle by SWE in vivo. The supraspinatus muscle was divided into four anatomical regions: anterior superficial (AS), posterior superficial (PS), anterior deep (AD), and posterior deep (PD). Each region was examined by SWE. The SWE stiffnesses of AD, AS, PD, and PS were 40.0 ± 12.4, 34.0 ± 9.9, 32.7 ± 12.7, 39.1 ± 15.7 kPa, respectively. SWE combined with B-Mode ultrasound imaging could be a feasible method for quantifying the local stiffness of the rotator cuff muscles. Clin. Anat., 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Clinical Anatomy 03/2015; 28(2). DOI:10.1002/ca.22498 · 1.33 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

7k Citations
1,083.30 Total Impact Points


  • 1985–2015
    • Mayo Clinic - Rochester
      • • Division of Orthopaedic Surgery
      • • Department of Orthopedics
      Рочестер, Minnesota, United States
  • 2011
    • Sapporo Medical University
      • Graduate School of Health Sciences
      Sapporo, Hokkaido, Japan
    • Osaka University
      • Division of Orthopaedic Surgery
      Suika, Ōsaka, Japan
  • 2009
    • University of Rhode Island
      Кингстон, Rhode Island, United States
  • 2005
    • Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research
      Rochester, Michigan, United States
  • 2003
    • National Cheng Kung University
      • Institute of Biomedical Engineering (IBE)
      臺南市, Taiwan, Taiwan
  • 2002
    • Baylor College of Medicine
      • Department of Orthopedic Surgery
      Houston, TX, United States
  • 2001
    • Brock University
      • Faculty of Applied Health Sciences
      St. Catharines, Ontario, Canada