Kai-Nan An

Jilin University, Yung-chi, Jilin Sheng, China

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Publications (410)826.45 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: The use of brightness-mode ultrasound and Doppler ultrasound in physical medicine and rehabilitation has increased dramatically. The continuing evolution of ultrasound technology has also produced ultrasound elastography, a cutting-edge technology that can directly measure the mechanical properties of tissue, including muscle stiffness. Its real-time and direct measurements of muscle stiffness can aid the diagnosis and rehabilitation of acute musculoskeletal injuries and chronic myofascial pain. It can also help monitor outcomes of interventions affecting muscle in neuromuscular and musculoskeletal diseases, and it can better inform the functional prognosis. This technology has implications for even broader use of ultrasound in physical medicine and rehabilitation practice, but more knowledge about its uses and limitations is essential to its appropriate clinical implementation. In this review, we describe different ultrasound elastography techniques for studying muscle stiffness, including strain elastography, acoustic radiation force impulse imaging, and shear-wave elastography. We discuss the basic principles of these techniques, including the strengths and limitations of their measurement capabilities. We review the current muscle research, discuss physiatric clinical applications of these techniques, and note directions for future research.
    Archives of physical medicine and rehabilitation. 07/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: To evaluate the effectiveness of a variety of neck guard brands when contacted by a sharpened hockey skate blade.
    Clinical journal of sport medicine: official journal of the Canadian Academy of Sport Medicine 06/2014; · 1.50 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Adhesions and poor healing are complications of flexor tendon repair.
    Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research 06/2014; · 2.79 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To investigate the ability of muscle-derived stem cells (MDSCs) supplemented with growth and differentiation factor-5 (GDF-5) to improve tendon healing compared with bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) in an in vitro tendon culture model.
    The Journal of hand surgery. 06/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: This study investigated the effects of a series of four hypertonic dextrose injections on the subsynovial connective tissue (SSCT) and median nerve within the carpal tunnel of a rabbit model. Twenty New Zealand white rabbits were used. One forepaw carpal tunnel was randomly injected with 0.1 ml of 10 % dextrose solution. The contralateral forepaw was injected with a similar amount of saline. This injection was made once per week for 4 weeks. The animals were killed at 16 weeks after the initial injection and were evaluated by electrophysiology (EP), SSCT mechanical testing, and histology. Mechanical testing revealed significantly greater ultimate load and energy absorption in the dextrose injection group compared to the saline injection group (P < 0.05). Histological evaluation revealed SSCT fibrosis and thickening and edema in the median nerve bundles in the dextrose injection group. There was a prolongation in the latency of the EP test in the dextrose injection group (P = 0.08). Previous studies had shown that one or two injections of 10 % dextrose could induce moderate SSCT fibrosis and mild EP changes without nerve histology changes. In this study, we have shown that higher doses create more severe fibrosis and, most importantly, more severe neuropathy, suggesting a dose-response effect, and confirming this as a potentially useful animal model for researching the etiology and treatment of carpal tunnel syndrome.
    Hand 03/2014; 9(1):52-7.
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    ABSTRACT: The proportion of load transmitted through the lumbar neural arch increases with aging, spinal degeneration, and lordosis, effectively shielding the lumbar vertebral bodies from load. This stress shielding may contribute to bone loss in the vertebral body, leading to increased fracture risk. To test his hypothesis, we performed a study to determine if vertebral body fractures were associated with a higher neural arch/vertebral body volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD) ratio. Trabecular vBMD was calculated by quantitative CT in the L3 vertebral body and neural arch (pars interarticularis) of 36 women with vertebral compression fractures and 39 controls. Neural arch/vertebral body vBMD ratio was calculated, and its relationship to fracture status was determined using linear regression models adjusted for age and body mass index. Vertebral body trabecular vBMD was lower in fracture cases as compared to controls (mean ± SD, 49.0 ± 36.0 vs. 87.5 ± 36.8 mg/cm(3), respectively; P < 0.001), whereas trabecular vBMD of the neural arch was similar (96.1 ± 57.6 in cases vs. 118.2 ± 57.4 mg/cm(3) in controls; P = 0.182). The neural arch/vertebral body vBMD ratio was significantly greater in the fracture group than in controls (2.31 ± 1.07 vs. 1.44 ± 0.57, respectively; P < 0.001). These results support the hypothesis that stress shielding is a contributor to vertebral body bone loss and may increase fracture risk. Although further studies are needed, there may be a role for interventions that can shift vertebral loading in the spine to help prevent fracture.
    European Spine Journal 01/2014; · 2.47 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Using allograft is an attractive alternative for flexor tendon reconstruction because of the lack of donor morbidity, and better matching to the intrasynovial environment. The purpose of this study was to use biolubricant molecules to modify the graft surface to decrease adhesions and improve digit function. 28 flexor digitorum profundus (FDP) tendons from the 2 and 5 digits of 14 dogs were first lacerated and repaired to create a model with repair failure and scar digit for tendon reconstruction. Six weeks after the initial surgery, the tendons were reconstructed with FDP allograft tendons obtained from canine cadavers. One graft tendon in each dog was treated with saline as a control and the other was treated with gelatin, carbodiimide derivatized, hyaluronic acid and lubricin (cd-HA-Lubricin). Six weeks postoperatively, digit function, graft mechanics, and biology were analyzed. Allograft tendons treated with cd-HA-Lubricin had decreased adhesions at the proximal tendon/graft repair and within flexor sheath, improved digit function, and increased graft gliding ability. The treatment also reduced the strength at the distal tendon to bone repair, but the distal attachment rupture rate was similar for both graft types. Histology showed that viable cells migrated to the allograft, but these were limited to the tendon surface. cd-HA-Lubricin treatment of tendon allograft improves digit functional outcomes after flexor tendon reconstruction. However, delayed bone-tendon healing should be a caution. Furthermore, the cell infiltration into the allograft tendons substance should be a target for future studies, to shorten the allograft self-regeneration period.
    Plastic and reconstructive surgery 01/2014; · 2.74 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Hypothesis Our aim was to test whether anatomically designed metallic radial head implants could better reproduce native radiocapitellar contact pressure and areas than nonanatomic implants. Methods The distal humerus and proximal radius from 6 cadaveric upper extremities were serially tested in supination with 100 N of compression force at 4 angles of flexion (0°, 30°, 60°, and 90°). By use of a thin flexible pressure transducer, contact pressures and areas were measured for the native radial head, an anatomic implant, a nonanatomic circular monopolar implant, and a bipolar nonanatomic implant. The data (mean contact pressure and mean contact area) were modeled using a 2-factor repeated-measures analysis of variance with P ≤ .05 considered to be significant. Results The mean contact areas for the prosthetic radial heads were significantly less than those seen with the intact radial heads at every angle tested (P < .01). The mean contact pressures increased significantly with all prosthetic radial head types as compared with the native head. The mean contact pressures increased by 29% with the anatomic prosthesis, 230% with the monopolar prosthesis, and 220% with the bipolar prosthesis. Peak pressures of more than 5 MPa were more commonly observed with both the monopolar and bipolar prostheses than with the anatomic or native radial heads. Conclusions The geometry of radial head implants strongly influences their contact characteristics. In a direct radius-to-capitellum axial loading experiment, an anatomically designed radial head prosthesis had lower and more evenly distributed contact pressures than the nonanatomic implants that were tested.
    Journal of shoulder and elbow surgery / American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons ... [et al.] 01/2014; 23(4):456–462. · 1.93 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Rationale and Objectives Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is the most common peripheral nerve entrapment syndrome. Strong pinch or grip with wrist flexion has been considered a risk factor for CTS. Studying median nerve displacement during wrist movements may provide useful information about median nerve kinematic changes in patients with CTS. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the deformability and mobility of the median nerve in patients with CTS compared to healthy subjects. Materials and Methods Dynamic ultrasound images were obtained in 20 affected wrists of 13 patients with CTS. Results were compared to complementary data obtained from both wrists of 10 healthy subjects reported in a previous study. Shape and position of initial and final median nerve were measured and analyzed for six defined wrist movements. The deformation ratios for each movement were defined as the median nerve area, perimeter, and circularity of the final position normalized by respective values assessed in the initial position. The median nerve displacement vector and magnitude were also calculated. Results The deformation ratio for circularity was significantly less in patients with CTS compared to healthy subjects during wrist flexion (P < .05). The mean vector of median nerve displacement during wrist flexion was significantly different between patients with CTS and healthy subjects (P < .05). The displacement magnitude of the median nerve was found to be less in patients with CTS compared to healthy subjects during most movements, with the exception of wrist extension with fingers extended. Conclusions Patients with CTS differ from normal subjects with regard to mobility and deformability of the median nerve.
    Academic radiology 01/2014; 21(4):472–480. · 2.09 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Spinal posture affects how individuals function from a manual wheelchair. There is a need to directly quantify spinal posture in this population to ultimately improve function. A fiber optic system, comprised of an attached series of sensors, is promising for measuring large regions of the spine in individuals sitting in a wheelchair. The purpose of this study was to determine the agreement between fiber optic and optoelectronic systems for measuring spinal curvature, and describe the range of sagittal plane spinal curvatures in natural sitting. Able-bodied adults (n = 26, 13 male) participated. Each participant assumed three sitting postures: natural, slouched (accentuated kyphosis), and extension (accentuated lordosis) sitting. Fiber optic (ShapeTape) and optoelectronic (Optotrak) systems were applied to the skin over spinous processes from S1 to C7 and used to measure sagittal plane spinal curvature. Regions of kyphosis and lordosis were identified. A Cobb angle-like method was used to quantify lordosis and kyphosis. Generalized linear model and Bland-Altman analyses were used to assess agreement. A strong correlation exists between curvature values obtained with Optotrak and ShapeTape (R2 = 0.98). The mean difference between Optotrak and ShapeTape for kyphosis in natural, extension, and slouched postures was 4.30° (95%LOA: -3.43–12.04°), 3.64° (95%LOA: -1.07–8.36°), and 4.02° (95%LOA: -2.80–10.84°), respectively. The mean difference for lordosis, when present, in natural and extension postures is 2.86° (95%LOA: -1.18–6.90°) and 2.55° (95%LOA: -3.38–8.48°), respectively. In natural sitting, the mean ± SD of kyphosis values was 35.07 ± 6.75°. Lordosis was detected in 8/26 participants: 11.72 ± 7.32°. The fiber optic and optoelectronic systems demonstrate acceptable agreement for measuring sagittal plane thoracolumbar spinal curvature.
    Gait & posture 01/2014; · 2.58 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A novel biodegradable copolymer, poly(propylene fumarate-co-caprolactone) [P(PF-co-PL)], has been developed in our laboratory as an injectable scaffold for bone defect repair. In the current study, we evaluated the ability of P(PF-co-CL) to reconstitute the load bearing capacity of vertebral bodies with lytic lesions. Forty vertebral bodies from four fresh-frozen cadaveric thoracolumbar spines were used for this study. They were randomly divided into four groups: intact vertebral body (intact control), simulated defect without treatment (negative control), defect treated with P(PF-co-CL) (copolymer group), and defect treated with poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA group). Simulated metastatic lytic defects were made by removing a central core of the trabecular bone in each vertebral body with an approximate volume of 25% through an access hole in the side of the vertebrae. Defects were then filled by injecting either P(PF-co-CL) or PMMA in-situ crosslinkable formulations. After the spines were imaged with quantitative computerized tomography (QCT), single vertebral body segments were harvested for mechanical testing. Specimens were compressed until failure or to 25% reduction in body height and ultimate strength and elastic modulus of each specimen were then calculated from the force-displacement data. The average failure strength of the copolymer group was 1.83 times stronger than the untreated negative group and it closely matched the intact vertebral bodies (intact control). The PMMA treated vertebrae, however, had a failure strength 1.64 times larger than that of the intact controls. The elastic modulus followed the same trend. This modulus mismatch between PMMA-treated vertebrae and the host vertebrae could potentially induce a fracture cascade and degenerative changes in adjacent intervertebral discs. In contrast, P(PF-co-CL) restored the mechanical properties of the treated segments to be similar to the normal, intact, vertebrae. Therefore, P(PF-co-CL) may be a suitable alternative to PMMA for vertebroplasty treatment of vertebral bodies with lytic defects.
    Tissue Engineering Part A 11/2013; · 4.64 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Previous epidemiological studies indicate that the use of thumb-push mechanical pipettes is associated with musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) in the hand. The goal of the current study was to analyze the loading in the muscle-tendon units in the thumb during pipetting. The hand is modeled as a multi-body linkage system and includes four fingers (index, long, ring, and little finger), a thumb, and a palm segment. Since the current study is focused on the thumb, the model includes only nine muscles attached to the thumb via tendons. The time-histories of joint angles and push force at the pipette plunger during pipetting were determined experimentally and used as model input; whereas forces in the muscle-tendon units in the thumb were calculated via an inverse dynamic approach combined with an optimization procedure. Results indicate that all nine muscles have force outputs during pipetting, and the maximal force was in the abductor pollicis brevis (APB). The ratio of the mean peak muscle force to the mean peak push force during the dispensing cycle was approximately 2.3, which is comparable to values observed in grasping tasks in the literature. The analysis method and results in the current study provide a mechanistic understanding of MSD risk factors associated with pipetting, and may be useful in guiding ergonomic designs for manual pipettes.
    Journal of biomechanics 11/2013; · 2.66 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The supraspinatus tendon consists morphologically of two sub-regions, anterior and posterior. The anterior sub-region is thick and tubular while the posterior is thin and strap-like. The purpose of this study was to compare the structural and mechanical properties of the anterior and posterior sub-regions of the supraspinatus tendon. The supraspinatus tendons from seven human cadaveric shoulders were morphologically divided into the anterior and posterior sub-regions. Length, width, and thickness were measured. A servo-hydraulic testing machine (MTS Systems Corporation, Minneapolis, MN) was used for tensile testing. The maximal load at failure, modulus of elasticity and ultimate tendon stress were calculated. Repeated measures were used for statistical comparisons. The mean anterior tendon cross-sectional area was 47.3 mm(2) and the posterior was 32.1 mm(2) . Failure occurred most often at the insertion site: anterior (5/7) and posterior (6/7). All parameters of the anterior sub-region were significantly greater than those of the posterior sub-region. The moduli of elasticity at the insertion site were 592.4 MPa in the anterior sub-region and 217.7 MPa in the posterior (P = 0.01). The ultimate failure loads were 779.2 N in the anterior sub-region and 335.6 N in the posterior (P = 0.003). The ultimate stresses were 22.1 MPa in the anterior sub-region and 11.6 MPa in the posterior (P = 0.008). We recognized that the anterior and posterior sub-regions of the SSP tendon have significantly different mechanical properties. In a future study, we need to evaluate how best to repair an SSP tendon considering these region-specific properties. Clin. Anat., 2013. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Clinical Anatomy 11/2013; · 1.16 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The symptoms of carpal tunnel syndrome, a compression neuropathy of the median nerve at the wrist, are aggravated by wrist motion, but the effect of these motions on median nerve motion are unknown. To better understand the biomechanics of the abnormal nerve, it is first necessary to understand normal nerve movement. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the deformation and displacement of the normal median nerve at the proximal carpal tunnel level on transverse ultrasound images during different wrist movements, to have a baseline for comparison with abnormal movements. Dynamic ultrasound images of both wrists of 10 asymptomatic volunteers were obtained during wrist maximal flexion, extension and ulnar deviation. To simplify the analysis, the initial and final shape and position of the median nerve were measured and analyzed. The circularity of the median nerve was significantly increased and the aspect ratio and perimeter were significantly decreased in the final image compared with the first image during wrist flexion with finger extension, wrist flexion with finger flexion and wrist ulnar deviation with finger extension (p < 0.01). There were significant differences in median nerve displacement vector between finger flexion, wrist flexion with finger extension and wrist ulnar deviation with finger extension (all p's < 0.001). The mean amplitudes of median nerve motion in wrist flexion with finger extension (2.36 ± 0.79 normalized units [NU]), wrist flexion with finger flexion (2.46 ± 0.84 NU) and wrist ulnar deviation with finger extension (2.86 ± 0.51 NU) were higher than those in finger flexion (0.82 ± 0.33 NU), wrist extension with finger extension (0.77 ± 0.46 NU) and wrist extension with finger flexion (0.81 ± 0.58 NU) (p < 0.0001). In the normal carpal tunnel, wrist flexion and ulnar deviation could induce significant transverse displacement and deformation of the median nerve.
    Ultrasound in medicine & biology 11/2013; · 2.46 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The humeral head and glenoid cavity are not perfectly spherical, nor do they have matching radii of curvature. We hypothesized that glenohumeral stability is dependent on axial humeral rotation. Seven cadaveric shoulders were investigated. For each test, the humeral head was translated relative to the glenoid in 2 directions (starting from neutral), anterior and anteroinferior. Contact forces and lateral humeral displacement were recorded. Joint stability was quantified using the stability ratio and energy to dislocation. The humerus was set in 60° of abduction for all tests. Testing was performed in neutral rotation and 60° of external rotation. The force displacement curves differed between rotations. In both displacement directions, the peak translational force occurred with less displacement in neutral rotation than in external rotation. The stability ratio and energy to dislocation in the anteroinferior direction were greater than in the anterior direction for both rotation positions. While there were no significant differences in the stability ratio or energy to dislocation between rotation conditions at complete dislocation, the energy required to move the humeral head 10% of the glenoid width was significantly greater with the arm in neutral rotation. The energy to dislocation, a new parameter of dislocation risk, and the stability ratio, indicate that the glenohumeral joint is more stable in the anteroinferior direction than the anterior direction. During initial displacement, axial rotation of the humeral head contributes to glenohumeral geometrical stability. However, humeral head rotation does not have a significant effect when looking at complete dislocation.
    Clinical biomechanics (Bristol, Avon) 09/2013; · 1.76 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Press-fit cementless radial head implant longevity relies on adequate bone ingrowth. Failed implant osseointegration remains a clinical concern and has been shown to lead to prosthetic failure. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that implants with sufficient initial press-fit stability would be less likely to fail due to implant pull-out, as demonstrated by an increasing amount of energy required to remove the prosthesis from the canal. Ten cadaveric radii were implanted with five sizes (6-10 mm in 1-mm increments) of grit-blasted, cementless radial head stems. A customised slap hammer was used to measure the energy required to remove each stem. Stem-bone micromotion was also measured. The suboptimally sized stem (Max - 1) (i.e. 1 mm undersized) required less energy (0.5 ± 0 J) to pull out than the optimally sized stem (Max) (1.7 ± 0.3 J) (p = 0.008). The optimally sized stem demonstrated greater initial stability (45 ± 7 μm) than the suboptimally sized stem (79 ± 12 μm) (p = 0.004). This investigation demonstrates the importance of obtaining adequate press-fit stability for the prevention of radial head stem pull-out failure. These data add to the relatively scant knowledge in the literature regarding radial head biomechanics. The energy required to remove a prosthetic radial head ingrowth stem decreases in conjunction with diameter. The use of an inadequately sized stem increases the stem's micromotion as well as the risk of prosthetic loosening due to pull-out.
    International Orthopaedics 09/2013; · 2.32 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Fibrosis of the subsynovial connective tissue (SSCT) in the carpal tunnel is the most common histological finding in carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS). Fibrosis may result from damaged SSCT. Previous studies found that with low-velocity (2 mm/s), tendon excursions can irreversibly damage the SSCT. We investigated the effect of tendon excursion velocity in the generation of SSCT damage. Nine human cadaver wrists were used. Three repeated cycles of ramp-stretch testing were performed simulating 40%, 60%, 90%, and 120% of the middle finger flexor tendon superficialis physiological excursion with an excursion velocity of 60 mm/s. Energy and force were calculated and normalized by values obtained in the first cycle for each excursion level. Data were compared with low-velocity excursion data. For high-velocity excursions, a significant drop in the excursion energy ratio was first observed at an excursion level of 60% physiological excursion (p < 0.024) and that for low-velocity excursions was first observed at 90% physiological excursion (p < 0.038). Furthermore, the energy ratio was lower at 60% for high velocities (p ≤ 0.039). Increasing velocity lowers the SSCT damage threshold. This finding may be relevant for understanding the pathogenesis of SSCT fibrosis, such as that accompanying CTS, and a relationship with occupational factors. © 2013 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res.
    Journal of Orthopaedic Research 09/2013; · 2.88 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose: Delayed healing is a common problem whenever tendon allografts are used for tendon or ligament reconstruction. Repopulating the allograft with host cells may accelerate tendon regeneration, but cell penetration into the allograft tendon is limited. Processing the tendon surface with slits that guide cells into the allograft substrate may improve healing. The purpose of this study was to describe a surface modification of allograft tendon that includes slits to aid cell repopulation and lubrication to enhance tendon gliding. Methods: Canine flexor digitorum profundus (FDP) tendons were used for this study. Cyclic gliding resistance was measured over 1000 cycles. Tensile stiffness was assessed for normal tendon, tendon decellularized with trypsin and Triton X-100 (decellularized group), tendon decellularized and perforated with multiple slits (MS group) and tendon decellularized, perforated with slits and treated with a carbodiimide-derivatized hyaluronic acid and gelatin (cd-HA-gelatin) surface modification (MS-SM group). To assess tendon repopulation, bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) were used in the decellularized and MS groups. DNA concentration and histology were evaluated, and compared to normal tendons and non-seeded decellularized tendons. Results: The gliding resistance of the decellularized and MS groups was significantly higher than that of the normal group. There was no significant difference in gliding resistance between the decellularized and MS group. Gliding resistance of the normal group and MS-SM group was not significantly different. Young's modulus was not significantly different among the four groups. DNA concentration in the MS group was significantly lower than in normal tendons, but significantly higher than in decellularized tendons, with or without BMSCs. Viable BMSCs were found in the slits after 2 weeks in tissue culture. Conclusions: Tendon slits can successfully harbor BMSCs without compromising their survival and without changing tendon stiffness. Surface modification restores normal gliding function to the slit tendon. Clinical Relevance: A multi-slit tendon reseeded with BMSCs, with a surface treatment applied to restore gliding properties, may potentially promote tendon revitalization and accelerate healing for tendon or ligament reconstruction applications.
    Tissue Engineering Part A 09/2013; · 4.64 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Non-inflammatory fibrosis of the subsynovial connective tissue (SSCT) is a hallmark of carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS). The etiology of this finding and its relationship to the development of CTS remain poorly understood. Recent studies have found that transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) plays a central role in fibrosis. The purpose of this study was to investigate the expression of TGF-β and connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), a downstream mediator of TGF-β, in the pathogenesis of CTS. We compared SSCT specimens from 26 idiopathic CTS patients with specimens from 10 human cadaver controls with no previous diagnosis of CTS. Immunohistochemistry was performed to determine levels TGF-β1, CTGF, collagen 1(Col1) and collagen 3 (Col3) expression. TGF-β1 (p < 0.01), CTGF (p < 0.01), and Col3 (p < 0.01) were increased in SSCT of CTS patients compared with control tissue. In addition, a strong positive correlation was found between TGF-β1 and CTGF, (R(2) = 0.80, p < 0.01) and a moderate positive correlation between Col3 and TGF-β1 (R(2) = 0.49, p < 0.01). These finding suggest that there is an increased expression of TGF-β and CTGF, a TGF-β regulated protein, and that this TGF-β activation may be responsible for SSCT fibrosis in CTS patients. © 2013 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res XX:XXX-XXX, 2013.
    Journal of Orthopaedic Research 09/2013; · 2.88 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Strong evidence indicates that highly repetitive manual work is associated with the development of upper extremity musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs). One of the occupational activities that involves highly repetitive and forceful hand work is manual pipetting in chemical or biological laboratories. In the current study, we quantified tendon displacement as a parameter to assess the cumulative loading exposure of the musculoskeletal system in the thumb during pipetting. The maximal tendon displacement was found in the flexor pollicis longus (FPL) tendon. Assuming that subjects' pipetting rates were maintained constant during a period of 1h, the average accumulated tendon displacement in the FPL reached 29m, which is in the lower range of those observed in other occupational activities, such as typing and nail gun operations. Our results showed that tendon displacement data contain relatively small standard deviations, despite high variances in thumb kinematics, suggesting that the tendon displacements may be useful in evaluating the musculoskeletal loading profile.
    Medical Engineering & Physics 09/2013; · 1.78 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

4k Citations
826.45 Total Impact Points


  • 2013
    • Jilin University
      Yung-chi, Jilin Sheng, China
    • Erasmus MC
      Rotterdam, South Holland, Netherlands
    • University of Pittsburgh
      Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States
  • 2011–2013
    • Shanghai Jiao Tong University
      • Department of Orthopaedics
      Shanghai, Shanghai Shi, China
    • Kenya Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
      Winam, Kisumu, Kenya
    • University of Missouri - Kansas City
      Kansas City, Missouri, United States
  • 1997–2013
    • Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research
      • • Department of Orthopaedic Surgery
      • • Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
      • • Department of Orthopedics
      Jacksonville, FL, United States
  • 1991–2013
    • Mayo Clinic - Rochester
      • • Division of Orthopaedic Surgery
      • • Department of Surgery
      • • Department of Orthopedics
      Rochester, Minnesota, United States
  • 2005–2012
    • Sapporo Medical University
      • Division of Orthopaedic Surgery
      Sapporo, Hokkaidō, Japan
  • 2010
    • University Medical Center Utrecht
      Utrecht, Utrecht, Netherlands
    • Logan University
      Missouri, United States
  • 2008–2010
    • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
      • Health Effects Laboratory Division
      Atlanta, MI, United States
    • Taipei Medical University
      • Department of Physiology
      T’ai-pei, Taipei, Taiwan
  • 2009
    • Rhode Island Hospital
      Providence, Rhode Island, United States
  • 2007
    • Naval Medical Center San Diego
      • Orthopedic Surgery Clinic
      San Diego, California, United States
    • Brunel University
      अक्सब्रिज, England, United Kingdom
    • Catholic University of Korea
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 2006
    • Iwate Medical University
      • Department of Orthopaedic Surgery
      Morioka, Iwate, Japan
    • Sapporo University
      Sapporo, Hokkaidō, Japan
  • 2004
    • Boise State University
      Boise, Idaho, United States
    • The Hong Kong Polytechnic University
      • Department of Health Technology and Informatics
      Hong Kong, Hong Kong
  • 2003–2004
    • National Cheng Kung University
      • Institute of Biomedical Engineering (IBE)
      Tainan, Taiwan, Taiwan
  • 2002–2004
    • Baylor College of Medicine
      • Department of Orthopedic Surgery
      Houston, TX, United States
    • Sungkyunkwan University
      • Samsung Medical Center
      Seoul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 2001–2004
    • Brock University
      • Faculty of Applied Health Sciences
      St. Catharines, Ontario, Canada