ABSTRACT: Oenothera biennis (evening primrose) seed extract (OBSE) is known to contain polyphenols, which may possess antioxidant activities. Polyphenols extracted from several plants are reported to exhibit cariostatic activities by inhibiting mutans streptococcus growth and glucosyltransferase activities. The purpose of the present study was to examine the inhibitory effects of OBSE on the development of dental caries, both in vitro and in vivo.
OBSE was investigated for its inhibitory effects on cellular aggregation, hydrophobicity, sucrose-dependent adherence and insoluble glucan synthesis. Furthermore, biofilm formation was examined in the presence of OBSE, using confocal microscopic imaging. An animal experiment was also performed to examine the in vivo effects.
OBSE induced a strong aggregation of Streptococcus mutans MT8148 cells, while cell surface hydrophobicity was decreased by approximately 90% at a concentration of 0.25 mg/ml. The sucrose-dependent adherence of the MT8148 cells was also reduced by addition of OBSE, with a reduction rate of 73% seen at a concentration of 1.00 mg/ml. Additionally, confocal microscopic observations revealed the biofilm development phase to be remarkably changed in the presence of OBSE. Furthermore, insoluble glucan synthesis was significantly reduced when OBSE was present at concentrations greater than 0.03 mg/ml. In an animal experiment, the caries scores in rats given OBSE (0.05 mg/ml in drinking water) were significantly lower than those in rats given water without OBSE.
Our results indicate that OBSE has inhibitory activity on dental caries.
Caries Research 02/2011; 45(1):56-63. · 2.33 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: Streptococcus mutans is known to be a primary causative agent of dental caries and its surface proteins have been investigated to specify their association with its virulence. Amongst those, 4 glucan-binding proteins (Gbps) are considered to be important factors due to their glucan-binding properties, of which GbpB has been shown to participate in cell-wall construction and cell separation.
We examined clinical isolates of S. mutans collected from the oral cavities of Japanese and Finnish subjects, and focused on the association of their GbpB expression profiles and biological properties related to virulence.
Western blot analysis of GbpB expression by the isolates revealed a variety of patterns. Strains that showed single and multiple bands were used to designate S and M type strains, respectively, whilst those with no GbpB expression were classified as N type. The distribution of GbpB expression patterns was shown to be quite different between the Japanese and Finnish isolates. Furthermore, the chain length and doubling time of the N type in both populations were significantly longer than those of the other types.
Our results suggest variations in S. mutans GbpB expression patterns, which may have relationships with the virulence of S. mutans.
Archives of oral biology 10/2010; 56(3):258-63. · 1.65 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: Streptococcus mutans is considered to be one of the pathogens that cause infective endocarditis. The purpose of the present study was to examine the properties of S. mutans with regard to platelet aggregation by focusing on its high molecular protein antigen c (PAc).
The platelet aggregation properties of six clinical strains and one isogenic mutant strain of S. mutans were analysed using an aggregometer and confocal microscopy, as well as with an inhibition assay of platelet aggregation using anti-PAc serum.
S. mutans strains with PAc expression induced platelet aggregation, while a PAc-deficient mutant and two clinical isolates with no PAc expression did not. When platelets were pretreated with higher amounts of anti-PAc serum, the platelet aggregation rate was reduced in a dose-dependent manner, indicating that PAc binds directly to platelets.
S. mutans PAc is involved in human platelet aggregation and may be one of the virulence factors in the pathogenesis of infective endocarditis.
Oral Microbiology and Immunology 11/2009; 24(5):427-30. · 2.81 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: Recombinase A (RecA) is essential for the transformation of both plasmid and chromosomal DNA in Streptococcus pneumoniae and is considered to be related to the SOS-response in Streptococcus mutans.
In the present study, a RecA-deficient mutant strain (RAD) was constructed by insertional inactivation of the recA gene encoding the RecA protein in strain MT8148 of S. mutans, after which the biological functions of acid tolerance and biofilm formation were investigated.
RAD showed reduced acid tolerance and produced lower density biofilm compared with the wild-type strain. In addition, confocal microscopic observation indicated that the biofilm produced by RAD was composed of cells with significantly lower viability compared with that produced by strain MT8148.
These results suggest that RecA has a relationship with biofilm formation.
Oral Microbiology and Immunology 05/2009; 24(2):104-8. · 2.81 Impact Factor