[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Snap assembly automation remains a challenging task. While progress is being made in localization of parts, force controllers, and control strategies, little work has been done to help the robot reason about its current state, such that if necessary, the robot can assume corrective actions to accomplish the task. Error prone situations caused by the unexpected motion of parts, localization errors, jamming or wedging, cannot be solved by force controllers alone. For this reason we propose a snap assemblies verification system for cantilever-snap fasteners. The verification works in concert with a control strategy that makes use of constraint designs embedded in the snap parts' physical design. The constrained assembly motion generates similar sensory-signal patterns across trials that facilitates force signal discrimination into higher level abstractions of intuitive behavior. This work's contribution is the design of a hierarchical taxonomy for cantilever-snap verification based on increasingly abstract layers that encode relative-change in the task's force signatures. A five-layered taxonomy is built on the concept that relative-change patterns can be classified through a small category set and aided by contextual information. The verification system yielded human apropos intuitive categorizations of task behavior for every state and effectively determined the assembly result. This simple yet effective approach will be expanded to perform probabilistic online system verification to aid in fault tolerance and the automation of cantilever-based snap assemblies.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Industrial snap assembly processes remain largely a manual task. Much of the research in snap assembly has not sought to design strategies and controllers according to the class of snap-fastener used. Three fastener types are used in manufacturing: cantilever, torsional, and annular snaps. As a first step in solving the snap automation problem, sought to devise a force control strategy that could effectively perform cantilever-snap assemblies for various degrees of complexity and one that could generate reproducible sensory-motor signals across trials as a basis to facilitate the future discrimination of force signals and enable a robot to reason about the assembly's task state. Our contribution is two-fold, a control strategy that: (i) exploits constraint-motion designs built into cantilever snap parts to more effectively complete the task, and (ii) a strategy that can be applied to cantilever-snap parts of growing varying complexity such as those containing, one, two, or four snaps. The control basis approach was used as a framework to design force controllers for the Pivot Approach. The framework's modularity and scalability enables the flexible adaptation of force controllers to snaps of varying complexities and geometries. The Pivot Approach simulation results showed that the control strategy took advantage of hardware designs increasing the likelihood of successful insertions and yielding consistent sensory-motor signal patters across trials for the snap assembly. These results serve as foundational work to devise new signal interpretation methods to enable robot to reason about the assembly state and produce more fault tolerant behaviors.
IEEE Intl. Conf. on Mechatronics and Automation; 08/2012
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In this work a gradient calibration method was presented as part of the Relative-Change-Based-Hierarchical Taxonomy (RCBHT) cantilever-snap verification system and the Pivot Approach control strategy for the automation of cantilever-snaps. As part of a relative-change based force signal interpretation scheme, an effective gradient calibration process is needed to increase the RCBHT's system robustness. Prior to this work, all gradient classification schemes were derived on an intuitive trial and error basis. Statistical measures were used to derive contact and constant gradient thresholds in contextually sensitive ways. The method requires training assemblies to identify a minimum contact gradient which serves as a marker for all other gradient thresholds. Experimental procedures verified that our calibration method was effective. Assemblies with supervised successful outcomes were used in experimentation. The RCBHT assessed out assemblies as successful using the calibration method. Even two snaps that where classified falsely as unsuccessful when using a previously non-calibrated version of the RCBHT.
IEEE Int'l Conference on Robotics and Biomimetics, Guangzhou; 01/2012
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Autonomous snap assemblies is a highly desirable robotic functionality. While much work has been done in active sensing for peg-in-hole assemblies and general compliant motions, snap assembly state estimation remains an open re-search problem. This work presents a probabilistic framework designed to account for uncertainties in assembly and yield more intuitive and robust outcome assessments. Simulation of an anthropomorphic robot HIRO performed a cantilever-snap assembly using the Pivot Approach control strategy and our snap verification system. The latter used a Bayesian Filter within its hierarchical taxonomy yielding belief states at two levels of the taxonomy. The last layer of the system, effectively assessed the outcomes of all test assemblies. The framework was effective in correctly assessing the outcome of all test assemblies.
IEEE-RAS Intl. Conf. on Humanoid Robots, Osaka, Japan; 01/2012
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This paper presents a grasping system for picking up an indicated object in a complex real-world environment using a parallel jaw gripper. The proposed grasping scheme comprises the following three main steps: (1) A user indicates a target object and provides the system with a task instruction on how to grasp it, (2) the system acquires geometric information about the target object and constructs a 3D environment model around the target by stereo vision using the information obtained from the task instruction, and (3) the system finds a grasp point based on grasp evaluation using the acquired information. As an example of the scheme, we examined the picking up of a cylindrical object by grasping at the brim. An important and advantageous feature of this scheme is that the user can easily instruct the robot on how to perform the object-picking task through simple clicking operations, and the robot can execute the task without exact models of the target object and the environment being available in advance.
Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS), 2010 IEEE/RSJ International Conference on; 11/2010
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In this paper, a training system designed to familiarize persons who have severe upper limb disabilities with robotic arm operation is described. The system combines a robotic arm simulator with various control interfaces and provides training tasks to learn how to operate robotic arms. In our training system, four test subjects used a virtual system to practice how to execute peg insertion tasks, and thus improved their ability to operate actual robotic arms. The training results, along with the results of post-training experiments conducted using an actual robotic arm, demonstrate the effectiveness of the training system.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A grasping and manipulation with a multi-fingered hand is comprised of one or more functional finger actions. We define a functional finger action as a Â¿primitive action,Â¿ and fingers that are used in separate primitive actions in a grasping and manipulation as Â¿functional finger isolation.Â¿ Various grasping and manipulations can be realized by assigning different primitive actions to the functional finger isolation form. This paper presents a towel picking task with a multi-fingered hand by assigning different primitive actions to fingers. In this paper, we describe the towel picking task by a series of primitive actions applied to the towel. Experimental results are given, and we also show that the specification of a hand for the towel picking can be derived by analyzing the primitive actions assigned to the fingers. By describing a grasping and manipulation task with primitive actions, it can be used with other type of robot hands.
Intelligent Robots and Systems, 2009. IROS 2009. IEEE/RSJ International Conference on; 11/2009
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To support disabled people with less muscle strength like muscular dystrophy patients, we are developing simple robot arm systems. In this paper, we report the improvements of the inter-face part of the system. The user can change the buttons' position on the input panel only with the single switch. The user can let the buttons on the input panel scan with single click and can select a button with double click.
Robotics and Biomimetics, 2008. ROBIO 2008. IEEE International Conference on; 03/2009
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This paper describes a grasping operation with a multi-fingered robot hand by cooperation of primitive finger operations. We define functional unit operation realized by one or more fingers in cooperation as a primitive operation. And when a grasping operation consists of two or more primitive operations and fingers are used in separate primitive operations, we call this ldquofunctional finger isolation.rdquo Various grasping operations can be realized by assigning different primitive operations to the functional finger isolation pattern. We describe the primitive operations using a combination of software modules running in our multi-fingered robot hand system. We demonstrate that some grasping operations are realized by the cooperation of primitive operations.
Robotics and Biomimetics, 2008. ROBIO 2008. IEEE International Conference on; 03/2009
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We are developing a manipulator system in order to support disabled people with less muscle strength such as muscular dystrophy patients. Such a manipulator should have an easy interface for the users to control it. In this paper, we report on the construction of the user interface of the system using RT-middleware. RT-middleware is an open software platform for robot systems. Therefore other interface components or robot components which are adapted to other symptoms can be replaced with the interface without any change of the contents. A single switch is introduced as the input device for the manual control of the robot arm in our interface. The scanning menu panel is designed to perform various actions of the robot arm with the single switch. A manipulator simulation system was constructed to evaluate the input performance. Two muscular dystrophy patients tried of our interface to control the robot simulator and made comments.
Control, Automation, Robotics and Vision, 2008. ICARCV 2008. 10th International Conference on; 01/2009
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To support disabled persons with less muscle strength like muscular dystrophy patients, a single switch and a scanning menu panel is introduced to input method for the manipulator control. The iArm manipulator and its simulator are connected to evaluate the input performance. The evaluation task is the handling of pegs on the pegboard with the manipulator. Muscle dystrophy patients tested our interface to control both of the simulator and the real manipulator with a pegboard. The view of the robot control by the subject is shown on the video.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This paper presents a simple task instruction scheme for a supporting robot in a daily life environment. It is difficult for a robot to perform an automatic task in the daily life environment because its sensors are not perfect in such an environment and the world model of the robot cannot cover the specific details of this environment. On the other hand, a user of the robot may control the robot by full teleoperation scheme. But the teleoperation puts the burden on the user. Instead, we propose a new instruction scheme for the supporting robot in which the user selects a task model which the robot can perform and indicates the key points on the monitoring image of the robot task environment according to the robot's request. The monitoring image is captured by a stereo camera and the range image is stored simultaneously. Therefore the system can detect the important position parameters of the target object with the indication provided by the user and the robot can complete the task with the information which the user simply gives the system.
Robot and Human interactive Communication, 2007. RO-MAN 2007. The 16th IEEE International Symposium on; 09/2007
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This paper presents a task instruction scheme for a service robot operating in a daily life environment. It is difficult for the robot to execute tasks automatically in the daily life environment, because it should handle various objects and the working environment is complex. In such an environment, the concept of shared autonomy by which the robot can share a task with a human is important. The task instruction that we propose is as follows: An operator clicks on a target object in a camera image and the system gets the position of the clicked point in the work space from the corresponding range image. Then, the operator selects the task model and attaches the task information to the position and the robot can perform its task safely and reliably using this task information. The features of the task instruction are as follows. An object model is composed of a list of task models which can be applied to the object category. The user recognizes the object type and its situation in the environment, and instructs a robot to execute a task by selecting a task model according to the object type and situation.
Robotics and Automation, 2007 IEEE International Conference on; 05/2007
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In this paper, the CPG-based control method for the rotating manipulation that can adaptively change the issuing cycle of motion-triggers is proposed. The CPG model consists of the mutual inhibition network and the rotating manipulation is performed by the motion-triggers that are issued from the CPG model. The smooth change of the desired velocity can be given by the output of neurons that keep smooth increase and decrease. Experimental results using 4-fingered hand system suggest that the issuing cycle of the motion-triggers can be adaptively changed by the feedback of joint angle according to an object size.
Robotics and Automation, 2005. ICRA 2005. Proceedings of the 2005 IEEE International Conference on; 05/2005
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Immune and inflammatory systems are controlled by multiple cytokines, including ILs and INFs. These cytokines exert their biological functions through Janus tyrosine kinases and STAT transcription factors. One such cytokine, IL-6, has been proposed to contribute to the development of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). We found that STAT3 was strongly tyrosine phosphorylated in synovial tissue of RA patients, but not those with osteoarthritis. Blockade of the IL-6-gp130-JAK-STAT3-signaling pathway might therefore be beneficial in the treatment of RA. We show here that the mRNA for the endogenous cytokine signaling repressor CIS3/SOCS3 is abundantly expressed in RA patients. To determine whether CIS3 is effective in treating experimental arthritis, a recombinant adenovirus carrying the CIS3 cDNA was injected periarticularly into the ankle joints of mice with antigen-induced arthritis or collagen-induced arthritis (CIA). Periarticular injection of CIS3 adenovirus drastically reduced the severity of arthritis and joint swelling compared with control groups. CIS3 was more effective than a dominant-negative form of STAT3 in the CIA model. Thus, induction of CIS3 could represent a new approach for effective treatment of RA.
Journal of Clinical Investigation 01/2002; 108(12):1781-8. · 12.81 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Lansoprazole and its derivative AG-1789 dose-dependently inhibited cellular respiration by an endogenous substrate and decreased the ATP level in Helicobacter pylori cells. The inhibitory action of lansoprazole and AG-1789 against respiration was specific to substrates such as pyruvate and alpha-ketoglutarate and similar to the inhibitory action of rotenone, which is an inhibitor for the mitochondrial respiratory chain. Growth inhibition by lansoprazole and AG-1789 as well as by rotenone was augmented at high oxygen concentrations under atmospheric conditions. Since the 50% inhibitory concentrations of these compounds for the respiration were close to their MICs for H. pylori growth, the growth inhibition might be due to respiratory inhibition by these compounds.
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 06/2001; 45(5):1522-7. · 4.57 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A case report.
To illustrate a rare case of synovial sarcoma arising within a peripheral nerve.
A synovial sarcoma arising within a peripheral nerve is very unusual. Only five cases of primary synovial sarcoma within a peripheral nerve have been reported. This is the first case with involvement of the nerve root. The authors diagnosed the tumor arising within the S1 nerve root as synovial sarcoma using cytogenetic analysis that detected the chimeric SYT/SSX gene.
In addition to the immunohistochemical study, a reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay was conducted for the SYT-SS10 fusion gene using archival formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tumor specimens.
Computed tomography scan, magnetic resonance imaging performed before surgery, and the intraoperative findings showed that the tumor was embedded within the S1 nerve root. Although the histologic findings were suggestive of a malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor, the results of the cytologic study confirmed its diagnosis of synovial sarcoma.
Primary intraneural synovial sarcoma, although rare, must be distinguished from malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor. The molecular assay of the detection of the SYT/SSX fusion gene is useful to make a definite diagnosis of monophasic synovial sarcoma.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Electrophoresis of a Corynebacterium glutamicum membrane preparation in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulfate, followed by staining for peroxidase activity (heme staining), showed only one band at about 28 kDa. This 28 kDa protein was purified from C. glutamicum membranes by chromatography in the presence of decylglucoside using DEAE-Toyopearl and hydroxylapatite columns, as the sole c-type cytochrome in the bacterium. The cytochrome showed an alpha band at 551 nm, and its E(m, 7) was about 210 mV. A QcrCAB operon encoding the subunits of a putative quinol cytochrome c reductase was found 3'-downstream of ctaE encoding subunit III of cytochrome aa(3) in the C. glutamicum genome. The deduced amino acid sequence of qcrC, composed of 283 amino acid residues, contained two heme C-binding motifs and was in agreement with partial peptide sequences obtained from the 28 kDa protein after V8 protease digestion. We propose to name this protein cytochrome cc. The presence of cytochrome cc is a common feature of high G+C content Gram-positive bacteria, since we could confirm this protein by electrophoresis; homologous QcrCAB operons are also known in Mycobacterium and Streptomyces. QcrA and qcrB of C. glutamicum encode the Rieske Fe-S protein and cytochrome b, respectively, although these proteins were not co-purified with cytochrome cc. The phylogenetic tree of cytochromes b and b(6) show that C. glutamicum cytochrome b, along with those of other bacteria in the high G+C group, is rather different from the Bacillus counterparts, but highly similar to the Deinococci and Thermus cytochromes. This indicates that there is a fourth group of bacteria in addition to the three clades: proteobacterial cytochrome b, cyanobacterial b(6) and green sulfur-low G+C Gram-positive bacteria.
Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 02/2001; 1503(3):279-90. · 4.66 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Electrophoresis of a Corynebacterium glutamicum membrane preparation in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulfate, followed by staining for peroxidase activity (heme staining), showed only one band at about 28 kDa. This 28 kDa protein was purified from C. glutamicum membranes by chromatography in the presence of decylglucoside using DEAE–Toyopearl and hydroxylapatite columns, as the sole c-type cytochrome in the bacterium. The cytochrome showed an alpha band at 551 nm, and its Em, 7 was about 210 mV. A QcrCAB operon encoding the subunits of a putative quinol cytochrome c reductase was found 3′-downstream of ctaE encoding subunit III of cytochrome aa3 in the C. glutamicum genome. The deduced amino acid sequence of qcrC, composed of 283 amino acid residues, contained two heme C-binding motifs and was in agreement with partial peptide sequences obtained from the 28 kDa protein after V8 protease digestion. We propose to name this protein cytochrome cc. The presence of cytochrome cc is a common feature of high G+C content Gram-positive bacteria, since we could confirm this protein by electrophoresis; homologous QcrCAB operons are also known in Mycobacterium and Streptomyces. QcrA and qcrB of C. glutamicum encode the Rieske Fe–S protein and cytochrome b, respectively, although these proteins were not co-purified with cytochrome cc. The phylogenetic tree of cytochromes b and b6 show that C. glutamicum cytochrome b, along with those of other bacteria in the high G+C group, is rather different from the Bacillus counterparts, but highly similar to the Deinococci and Thermus cytochromes. This indicates that there is a fourth group of bacteria in addition to the three clades: proteobacterial cytochrome b, cyanobacterial b6 and green sulfur-low G+C Gram-positive bacteria.
Biochimica Et Biophysica Acta-bioenergetics - BBA-BIOENERGETICS. 01/2001; 1503(3):279-290.