K Kimata

Aichi Medical University, Okazaki, Aichi, Japan

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Publications (149)647.86 Total impact

  • Clinical and Experimental Nephrology 09/2014; · 1.25 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Hyaluronan (HA), a large anionic polysaccharide (glycosaminoglycan), is a major constituent of the extracellular matrix of the adult brain. To address its function, we examined the neurophysiology of knock-out mice deficient in hyaluronan synthase (Has) genes. Here we report that these Has mutant mice are prone to epileptic seizures, and that in Has3(-/-) mice, this phenotype is likely derived from a reduction in the size of the brain extracellular space (ECS). Among the three Has knock-out models, namely Has3(-/-), Has1(-/-), and Has2(CKO), the seizures were most prevalent in Has3(-/-) mice, which also showed the greatest HA reduction in the hippocampus. Electrophysiology in Has3(-/-) brain slices demonstrated spontaneous epileptiform activity in CA1 pyramidal neurons, while histological analysis revealed an increase in cell packing in the CA1 stratum pyramidale. Imaging of the diffusion of a fluorescent marker revealed that the transit of molecules through the ECS of this layer was reduced. Quantitative analysis of ECS by the real-time iontophoretic method demonstrated that ECS volume was selectively reduced in the stratum pyramidale by ∼40% in Has3(-/-) mice. Finally, osmotic manipulation experiments in brain slices from Has3(-/-) and wild-type mice provided evidence for a causal link between ECS volume and epileptiform activity. Our results provide the first direct evidence for the physiological role of HA in the regulation of ECS volume, and suggest that HA-based preservation of ECS volume may offer a novel avenue for development of antiepileptogenic treatments.
    Journal of Neuroscience 04/2014; 34(18):6164-6176. · 6.91 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Neuronal axons and their growth cones recognize molecular guidance cues within the local environment, forming axonal pathways to produce precise neuronal networks during nervous system development. Chondroitin sulfates (CS), carbohydrate chains on chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans, exhibit great structural diversity and exert various influences on axons and growth cones as guidance cues or their modulators; however, the relationship between their structural diversity and function in axonal guidance is not well known. To uncover the roles of CS in axonal guidance, artificially modified hybrid molecules: CS derivatives of biotinylated CS and lipid-derivatized CS, were used. The experiments with biotinylated CS suggest that the growing axons act on their environment, modifying CS, and rendering it more favorable for their growth. The experiments with lipid-derivatized CS demonstrated that growth cones distinguish types of CS with different unit contents and are likely to discriminate the structural diversity of CS. The application of CS derivatives is useful in uncovering axon–environment interaction and structure–function relationship of CS directly.
    Polymers. 02/2013; 5:254-268.
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    ABSTRACT: Hyaluronan (HA) is a primary component of the extracellular matrix of cells, and it is involved in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of HA in neointimal formation after vascular injury and determine its tissue-specific role in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) by using a cre-lox conditional transgenic (cTg) strategy. HA was found to be expressed in neointimal lesions in humans with atherosclerosis and after wire-mediated vascular injury in mice. Inhibition of HA synthesis using 4-methylumbelliferone markedly inhibited neointimal formation after injury. In vitro experiments revealed that low-molecular-weight HA (LMW-HA) induced VSMC activation, including migration, proliferation, and production of inflammatory cytokines, and reactive oxygen species (ROS). The migration and proliferation of VSMCs were mediated by the CD44/RhoA and CD44/ERK1/2 pathways, respectively. Because HA synthase 2 (HAS2) is predominantly expressed in injured arteries, we generated cTg mice that overexpress the murine HAS2 gene specifically in VSMCs (cHAS2/CreSM22α mice) and showed that HA overexpression markedly enhanced neointimal formation after cuff-mediated vascular injury. Further, HA-overexpressing VSMCs isolated from cHAS2/CreSM22α mice showed augmented migration, proliferation, and production of inflammatory cytokines and ROS. VSMC-derived HA promotes neointimal formation after vascular injury, and HA may be a potential therapeutic target for cardiovascular disease.
    PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(3):e58760. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Chondroitin sulfate (CS), the carbohydrate chain of chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans, is involved in neuronal circuit formation during development. CS shows great structural diversity with combination of disaccharide units of different structure (A-, C-, D-, or E-unit). However, whether its structural diversity contributes to pathway formation remains unclear. We chemically coupled the reducing end of various types of CS to the amino group of phosphatidylethanolamine (lipid-derivatized CS, CS-PE) and established an in vitro time-lapse assay to observe the behaviors of growth cones of retinal ganglion cells from embryonic day 6 chick retina on exposure to beads coated with lipid-derivatized CS (CS-PE beads). Among CS-PEs with different content of the structural units, the beads coated with E-unit-containing CS-PE [E-unit: GlcAβ1-3GalNAc(4,6-O-disulfate)] (CSE-PE beads) significantly caused the growth cones to retract and to turn away from the beads, but the beads coated with CSA-, CSC- or CSD-PE beads did not. Importantly, not all the growth cones retracted equally from the CSE-PE beads, but they showed continuum of the repulsive behaviors; some behaved moderately and others remarkably. The growth cones distinguished different samples of CS: CSE and the others. Moreover, the continuum of the repulsive behaviors suggests that CS might be involved with the fine regulation of growth cones' behavior through its characteristic structure.
    Brain research 11/2012; · 2.46 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cell surface heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) are involved in the binding and entry of human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) into host cells, while sulfated polysaccharides such as heparin inhibit HTLV-1 infection. Chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs) are classified as another major type of proteoglycans. Here, we examined the effect of four types of chondroitin sulfate (CS) on HTLV-1 infection. Accordingly, a human T-cell line, MOLT-4, was inoculated with cell-free HTLV-1 in the presence or absence of soluble CS, and the synthesis of reverse-transcribed HTLV-1 DNA within cells 20 hours after inoculation was detected using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Among the four types of CS (A, C, D, and E), the E type (CSE), which was derived from the squid cartilage, exhibited anti-HTLV-1 activity. Furthermore, we observed that CSE directly interacted with recombinant HTLV-1 envelope (Env) proteins and inhibited the binding of HTLV-1 virions to MOLT-4 cells, indicating that the interaction between Env and CSE plays a significant role in its anti-HTLV-1 activity. In addition, CSE inhibited syncytium formation that was induced by HTLV-1-producing cells. When CSE was mixed with the synthetic fusion inhibitor peptide corresponding to the ectodomain of the Env transmembrane subunit (TM) gp21, the HTLV-1 infection was further inhibited when compared with the inhibitory effect of each compound alone. Thus, further elucidation of the in vitro antiviral mechanism of CSE shown in this study will lead to the development of CSE-like molecules for the entry inhibition of HTLV-1.
    AIDS research and human retroviruses 10/2012; · 2.18 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The contribution of hyaluronan (HA) to the regulatory network of the hematopoietic microenvironment was studied using knock-out mice of three hyaluronan synthase genes (Has1, Has2, and Has3). The number of hematopoietic progenitors was decreased in bone marrow and increased in extramedullary sites of Prx1-Cre;Has2(flox/flox);Has1(-/-);Has3(-/-) triple knock-out (tKO) mice as compared with wild type (WT) and Has1(-/-);Has3(-/-) double knock-out (dKO) mice. In line with this observation, decreased hematopoietic activity was observed in long term bone marrow cultures (LTBMC) from tKO mice, whereas the formation of the adherent layer and generation of hematopoietic cells in WT and dKO cultures was not different. 4-Methylumbelliferone (4MU) was used to pharmacologically inhibit the production of HA in LTBMC. Treatment with 4MU inhibited HA synthesis, decreased expression of HAS2 and HAS3, and eliminated hematopoiesis in LTBMC, and this effect was alleviated by the addition of exogenous HA. Exogenous HA also augmented the cell motility in LTBMC, which correlated with the HA-stimulated production of chemokines and growth factors. Conditioned media from HA-induced LTBMC enhanced the chemotaxis of hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPC) in response to SDF-1. Exposure of endothelial cells to 4MU decreased their ability to support HSPC rolling and adhesion. In addition, migration of transplanted HSPC into the marrow of 4MU-pretreated mice was lower than in untreated mice. Collectively, the results suggest that HA depletion reduces the ability of the microenvironment to support HSPC, and confirm a role for HA as a necessary regulatory element in the structure of the hematopoietic microenvironment.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 05/2012; 287(30):25419-33. · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Hyaluronan (HA) plays crucial roles in the tumourigenicity of many types of malignant tumours. 4-Methylumbelliferone (MU) is an inhibitor of HA synthesis. Several studies have shown its inhibitory effects on malignant tumours; however, none have focused on its effects on osteosarcoma. We investigated the effects of MU on HA accumulation and tumourigenicity of highly metastatic murine osteosarcoma cells (LM8) that have HA-rich cell-associated matrix, and human osteosarcoma cell lines (MG-63 and HOS). In vitro, MU inhibited HA retention, thereby reducing the formation of functional cell-associated matrices, and also inhibited cell proliferation, migration, and invasion. Akt phosphorylation was suppressed by MU (1.0 mM). In vivo, although MU showed only a mild inhibitory effect on the growth of the primary tumour, it markedly inhibited (75% reduction) the development of lung metastasis. Hyaluronan retention in the periphery of the primary tumour was markedly suppressed by MU. These findings suggested that MU suppressed HA retention and cell-associated matrix formation in osteosarcoma cells, resulting in a reduction of tumourigenicity, including lung metastasis. 4-Methylumbelliferone is a promising therapeutic agent targeting both primary tumours and distant metastasis of osteosarcoma, possibly via suppression of HA retention.
    British Journal of Cancer 11/2011; 105(12):1839-49. · 5.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Although chondroitin sulfate (CS) is known to act as an inhibitory axon guidance cue, retinal axons show substantial growth on a culture substrate containing CS. Thus, the question arises as to how retinal axons elongate on CS-containing culture substrates. To elucidate the effects of retinal axons on a substrate containing CS, we synthesized biotinylated CS (biotin-CS) and developed a culture substrate with streptavidin-conjugated biotin-CS (complex between streptavidin and biotin-CS) to culture retinal axons. The effects of retinal axons on the streptavidin-biotin-CS complex were analyzed immunocytochemically using antibodies against CS and streptavidin, which recognize the carbohydrate and protein portions of the complex, respectively. After the axons were cultured on the substrate, areas that were CS-immunonegative but streptavidin-immunopositive were observed on the surface, corresponding to areas with or without axons, respectively. Absence of CS immunostaining was considered to be caused by structural alterations in the carbohydrate chains of the CS under the influence of the axons.
    Anatomical science international. 03/2010; 85(4):189-93.
  • H Morita, A Yoshimura, K Kimata
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    ABSTRACT: Recent studies, including those by van den Hoven and colleagues, have challenged the classic negative-charge theory of glomerular filtration. However, the possibility remains that heparan sulfate in the glomerular basement membrane plays a role in maintaining the glomerular filtration barrier.
    Kidney International 03/2008; 73(3):247-8. · 8.52 Impact Factor
  • Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology - J ALLERG CLIN IMMUNOL. 01/2007; 119(1).
  • Osteoarthritis and Cartilage 01/2006; 14. · 4.26 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Human lactoferrin is a component of the non-specific immune system with distinct antiviral properties. We used alphaviruses, adapted to interaction with heparan sulfate (HS), as a tool to investigate the mechanism of lactoferrin's antiviral activity. Lactoferrin inhibited infection of BHK-21 cells by HS-adapted, but not by non-adapted, Sindbis virus (SIN) or Semliki Forest virus (SFV). Lactoferrin also inhibited binding of radiolabeled HS-adapted viruses to BHK-21 cells or liposomes containing lipid-conjugated heparin as a receptor analog. On the other hand, low-pH-induced fusion of the viruses with liposomes, which occurs independently of virus-receptor interaction, was unaffected. Studies involving preincubation of virus or cells with lactoferrin suggested that the protein does not bind to the virus, but rather blocks HS-moieties on the cell surface. Charge-modified human serum albumin, with a net positive charge, had a similar antiviral effect against HS-adapted SIN and SFV, suggesting that the antiviral activity of lactoferrin is related to its positive charge. It is concluded that human lactoferrin inhibits viral infection by interfering with virus-receptor interaction rather than by affecting subsequent steps in the viral cell entry or replication processes.
    Virology 04/2005; 333(2):284-92. · 3.37 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Hyaluronan is a major molecule in joint fluid and plays a crucial role in joint motion and the maintenance of joint homeostasis. The concentration and average molecular weight of hyaluronan in the joint fluids are reduced in osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis. To elucidate the underlying mechanism, we analyzed the message expression of three isoforms of hyaluronan synthase and hyaluronidase from knee synovium, using real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. Synovia were obtained from 17 patients with osteoarthritis, 14 patients with rheumatoid arthritis, and 20 healthy control donors. The message expression of hyaluronan synthase-1 and -2 in the synovium of both types of arthritis was significantly less than in the control synovium, whereas that of hyaluronidase-2 in the synovium of both arthritides was significantly greater than in the control synovium. The decreased expression of the messages for hyaluronan synthase-1 and -2 and/or the increased expression of the message for hyaluronidase-2 may be reflected in the reduced concentration and decreased average molecular weight of hyaluronan in the joint fluids of patients with osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis.
    Arthritis research & therapy 01/2004; 6(6):R514-20. · 4.27 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Liposarcoma is common soft tissue sarcoma that is sometimes difficult to treat, besides its good prognosis. The inter-alpha-trypsin inhibitor heavy chains (HCs) has been reported to be linked to hyaluronan, which play important roles in tumour progression and metastasis. In this study, clinical significance of HCs in patients with liposarcoma was investigated. HC expression was studied by immunohistochemistry on resected specimens of 33 liposarcoma patients and 10 lipoma patients. The expression of HC mRNA was analyzed by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Serum concentration of HC was determined with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Prominent positive staining of HC was observed in extracellular matrix of pleomorphic and myxoid liposarcoma. In well-differentiated liposarcoma and lipoma, faint staining was seen with HC. No products of HC could be detected by RT-PCR. Serum concentration of HC was not up-regulated in any subtypes of liposarcoma. HC expression was not significantly correlated with tumour subtypes and prognosis. HC was strongly accumulated in pleomorphic and myxoid liposarcoma, however, was not locally synthesized in liposarcoma. HC might play roles in stabilizing extracellular matrix, such as hyaluronan (HA), in liposarcoma.
    European Journal of Surgical Oncology 11/2003; 29(8):665-9. · 2.61 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The importance of proteoglycans for secretion of proteolytic enzymes was studied in the murine macrophage cell line J774. Untreated or 4beta-phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA)-stimulated macrophages were treated with hexyl-beta-d-thioxyloside to interfere with the attachment of glycosaminoglycan chains to their respective protein cores. Activation of the J774 macrophages with PMA resulted in increased secretion of trypsin-like serine proteinase activity. This activity was completely inhibited by plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 and by amiloride, identifying the activity as urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA). Treatment of both the unstimulated or PMA-stimulated macrophages with xyloside resulted in decreased uPA activity and Western blotting analysis revealed an almost complete absence of secreted uPA protein after xyloside treatment of either control- or PMA-treated cells. Zymography analyses with gels containing both gelatin and plasminogen confirmed these findings. The xyloside treatment did not reduce the mRNA levels for uPA, indicating that the effect was at the post-translational level. Treatment of the macrophages with xylosides did also reduce the levels of secreted matrix metalloproteinase 9. Taken together, these findings indicate a role for proteoglycans in the secretion of uPA and MMP-9.
    European Journal of Biochemistry 11/2003; 270(19):3971-80. · 3.58 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This study was designed to examine the adhesion, proliferation, and morphology of chondrocytes on new scaffolds; and to examine these cells histologically for the ability of the chondrocytes to maintain chondrogenic properties after subcutaneous implantation into nude mice. Both 75:25 poly (L-lactide-co-epsilon-caprolactone) (75PLC) and 50:50 poly (L-lactide-co-epsilon-capro-lactone) scaffold (50PLC) were tested as a scaffold for rat costochondral resting zone chondrocytes in comparison with a type I collagen sponge scaffold (collagen scaffold). Both of the poly (L-lactide-co-epsilon-caprolactone) scaffolds (75PLC and 50PLC) were coated with type I collagen solution and the effects of the collagen coat (hybrid-PLC) were also examined. The hybrid-75PLC bound the same number of cells as the collagen scaffold, whereas the 75PLC and the 50PLC bound 60% and 50% fewer cells than the collagen scaffold, respectively. The cell growth on the scaffolds progressed with culture time in all scaffolds. Cell morphology was assessed by scanning electron microscopy for differences in the structure of cellular interaction. Chondrocytes on every scaffold maintained a spherical shape. The hybrid-PLCs were superior to the PLCs with respect to the number of cells attached. The PLCs had an advantageous degradation characteristic in that they retained their original shape better than the collagen scaffold. Additionally, in the PLCs seeded, the cells retained their integrity 4 weeks after implantation, although the volume of collagen scaffold decreased by 50%.
    Biomaterials 10/2003; 24(20):3511-9. · 8.31 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This study was designed to examine the adhesion, proliferation, and morphology of chondrocytes on new scaffolds; and to examine these cells histologically for the ability of the chondrocytes to maintain chondrogenic properties after subcutaneous implantation into nude mice. Both 75:25 poly (l-lactide-co-ε-caprolactone) (75PLC) and 50:50 poly (l-lactide-co-ε-capro-lactone) scaffold (50PLC) were tested as a scaffold for rat costochondral resting zone chondrocytes in comparison with a type I collagen sponge scaffold (collagen scaffold). Both of the poly (l-lactide-co-ε-caprolactone) scaffolds (75PLC and 50PLC) were coated with type I collagen solution and the effects of the collagen coat (hybrid-PLC) were also examined. The hybrid-75PLC bound the same number of cells as the collagen scaffold, whereas the 75PLC and the 50PLC bound 60% and 50% fewer cells than the collagen scaffold, respectively. The cell growth on the scaffolds progressed with culture time in all scaffolds. Cell morphology was assessed by scanning electron microscopy for differences in the structure of cellular interaction. Chondrocytes on every scaffold maintained a spherical shape. The hybrid-PLCs were superior to the PLCs with respect to the number of cells attached. The PLCs had an advantageous degradation characteristic in that they retained their original shape better than the collagen scaffold. Additionally, in the PLCs seeded, the cells retained their integrity 4 weeks after implantation, although the volume of collagen scaffold decreased by 50%.
    Biomaterials 01/2003; 24(20):3511-3519. · 8.31 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Passage of Sindbis virus (SIN) in BHK-21 cells has been shown to select for virus mutants with high affinity for the glycosaminoglycan heparan sulfate (HS). Three loci in the viral spike protein E2 (E2:1, E2:70, and E2:114) have been identified that mutate during adaptation and independently confer on the virus the ability to bind to cell surface HS (W. B. Klimstra, K. D. Ryman, and R. E. Johnston, J. Virol. 72:7357-7366, 1998). In this study, we used HS-adapted SIN mutants to evaluate a new model system involving target liposomes containing lipid-conjugated heparin (HepPE) as an HS receptor analog for the virus. HS-adapted SIN, but not nonadapted wild-type SIN TR339, interacted efficiently with HepPE-containing liposomes at neutral pH. Binding was competitively inhibited by soluble heparin. Despite the efficient binding of HS-adapted SIN to HepPE-containing liposomes at neutral pH, there was no fusion under these conditions. Fusion did occur, however, at low pH, consistent with cellular entry of the virus via acidic endosomes. At low pH, wild-type or HS-adapted SIN underwent fusion with liposomes with or without HepPE with similar kinetics, suggesting that interaction with the HS receptor analog at neutral pH has little influence on subsequent fusion of SIN at low pH. Finally, Semliki Forest virus (SFV), passaged frequently on BHK-21 cells, also interacted efficiently with HepPE-containing liposomes, indicating that SFV, like other alphaviruses, readily adapts to cell surface HS. In conclusion, the liposomal model system presented in this paper may serve as a novel tool for the study of receptor interactions and membrane fusion properties of HS-interacting enveloped viruses.
    Journal of Virology 11/2002; 76(20):10128-37. · 5.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The formation of heparan sulfate occurs within the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum-Golgi complex-trans-Golgi network by the concerted action of several glycosyltransferases, an epimerase, and multiple sulfotransferases. In this report, we have examined the location and interaction of tagged forms of five of the biosynthetic enzymes: galactosyltransferase I and glucuronosyltransferase I, required for the formation of the linkage region, and GlcNAc N-deacetylase/N-sulfotransferase 1, uronosyl 5-epimerase, and uronosyl 2-O-sulfotransferase, the first three enzymes involved in the modification of the chains. All of the enzymes colocalized with the medial-Golgi marker alpha-mannosidase II. To study whether any of these enzymes interacted with each other, they were relocated to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) by replacing their cytoplasmic N-terminal tails with an ER retention signal derived from the cytoplasmic domain of human invariant chain (p33). Relocating either galactosyltransferase I or glucuronosyltransferase I had no effect on the other's location or activity. However, relocating the epimerase to the ER caused a parallel redistribution of the 2-O-sulfotransferase. Transfected epimerase was also located in the ER in a cell mutant lacking the 2-O-sulfotransferase, but moved to the Golgi when the cells were transfected with 2-O-sulfotransferase cDNA. Epimerase activity was depressed in the mutant, but increased upon restoration of 2-O-sulfotransferase, suggesting that their physical association was required for both epimerase stability and translocation to the Golgi. These findings provide in vivo evidence for the formation of complexes among enzymes involved in heparan sulfate biosynthesis. The functional significance of these complexes may relate to the rapidity of heparan sulfate formation.
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 12/2001; 98(23):12984-9. · 9.81 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

5k Citations
647.86 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1989–2013
    • Aichi Medical University
      • • Institute for Molecular Science of Medicine
      • • Division of Internal Medicine
      Okazaki, Aichi, Japan
  • 2008
    • Showa University
      • Department of Medicine
      Shinagawa, Tōkyō, Japan
  • 1984–2003
    • Nagoya University
      • • Division of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
      • • Division of Surgery
      • • Division of General Medicine
      • • Department of Chemistry
      Nagoya-shi, Aichi-ken, Japan
  • 2001
    • National Defense Medical College
      • Division of Dermatology
      Tokorozawa, Saitama-ken, Japan
  • 2000
    • Aichi Prefectural Institute of Public Health
      Nagoya, Aichi, Japan
  • 1995–1998
    • National Institutes of Health
      • Laboratory of Cell and Developmental Biology
      Bethesda, MD, United States
  • 1997
    • Osaka University
      • Division of Pediatric Surgery
      Suika, Ōsaka, Japan
  • 1996
    • Nippon Veterinary and Animal Science University
      • Department of Veterinary Anatomy
      Edo, Tōkyō, Japan
  • 1989–1995
    • University of Washington Seattle
      • Department of Pathology
      Seattle, WA, United States
  • 1990
    • National Institute for Basic Biology
      Okazaki, Aichi, Japan