[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: S-1 and gemcitabine (GS) combination therapy is a promising treatment for advanced biliary tract cancer (BTC). However, systemic administration of GS is associated with a high rate of grade 3 and 4 neutropenia. Hepatic arterial infusion (HAI) of gemcitabine may overcome this problem. We conducted a prospective phase 1 trial to determine the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of S-1 and rates of dose-limiting toxicities (DLTs) associated with HAI of gemcitabine in patients with unresectable BTC.
BTC patients were treated with 21-day cycles of HAI of gemcitabine (1000 mg/m(2) on days 1 and 8) and oral S-1 (60, 70, or 80 mg/m(2) on days 1-14) until disease progression occurred.
Fifteen patients were enrolled in the study. Grade 3 and 4 neutropenia occurred in five of 15 (33 %) patients. Among six patients who were treated with 60 mg/m(2) S-1, one developed grade 4 neutropenia. DLTs (grade 4 neutropenia and bladder infection) occurred in two of six patients who were treated with 70 mg/m(2) S-1. Two of the three patients who were treated with 80 mg/m(2) S-1 experienced DLTs (grade 4 leukopenia and neutropenia and grade 3 febrile neutropenia). Thus, 80 mg/m(2) was defined as the MTD of S-1.
The MTD of oral S-1 in GS therapy is 80 mg/m(2). Furthermore, HAI of gemcitabine may reduce the rate of grade 3 and 4 neutropenia in BTC patients receiving GS therapy.
Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology 02/2015; · 2.80 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to determine the recommended dose (RD) of a triweekly capecitabine, oxaliplatin, irinotecan, and bevacizumab (XELOXIRI/bevacizumab) regimen that was easier to administer than FOLFOXIRI/bevacizumab, using capecitabine instead of 5-fuorouracil (5-FU), in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC).
Patients received oxaliplatin (100 mg/m(2), day 1), capecitabine (1,700 mg/m(2) per day from day 2 to 15), irinotecan (100, 120, 150 mg/m(2) for dose levels 1, 2, 3, day 1), and bevacizumab (7.5 mg/kg, day 1), repeated every 3 weeks. Dose-limiting toxicities (DLTs) were assessed in the first two cycles to determine the maximum tolerated dose (MTD).
Twelve patients received a median of 6.5 cycles of therapy (range 2-12). The DLT was grade 4 neutropenia, observed in one of six patients at dose level 2. The MTD was not reached at dose level 3. Therefore, the RD of irinotecan was defined as 150 mg/m(2). The most common grade ≥3 toxicities were neutropenia (41 %), anemia (17 %), diarrhea (8 %), and febrile neutropenia (8 %). The response rate and median progression-free survival were 83 % and 15 months, respectively.
XELOXIRI/bevacizumab is a feasible regimen for patients with mCRC, neutropenia was the DLT, and the RD of irinotecan is 150 mg/m(2). The response rate observed is very promising and warrants further investigation.
Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology 01/2015; · 2.80 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: ST6GalNAc I is a sialyltransferase controlling the expression of sialyl-Tn antigen (STn), which is overexpressed in several epithelial cancers, including gastric cancer, and is highly correlated with cancer metastasis. However, the functional contribution of ST6GalNAc I to development or progression of gastric cancer remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the effects of suppression of ST6GalNAc I on gastric cancer in vitro and in vivo.
Gastric cancer cell lines were transfected with ST6GalNAc I siRNA and were examined by cell proliferation, migration, and invasion assays. We also evaluated the effect of ST6GalNAc I siRNA treatment in a peritoneal dissemination mouse model. The differences in mRNA levels of selected signaling molecules were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) arrays associated with tumor metastasis in MKN45 cells. The signal transducer and activator of transcription 5b (STAT5b) signaling pathways that reportedly regulate the insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) were analyzed by Western blot.
ST6GalNAc I siRNA inhibited gastric cancer cell growth, migration, and invasion in vitro. Furthermore, intraperitoneal administration of ST6GalNAc I siRNA- liposome significantly inhibited peritoneal dissemination and prolonged the survival of xenograft model mice with peritoneal dissemination of gastric cancer. PCR array confirmed that suppression of ST6GalNAc I caused a significant reduction in expression of IGF-1 mRNA. Decreased IGF-1 expression in MKN45 cells treated with ST6GalNAc I siRNA was accompanied by reduced phosphorylation of STAT5b.
ST6GalNAc I may regulate the gene expression of IGF-1 through STAT5b activation in gastric cancer cells and may be a potential target for treatment of metastasizing gastric cancer.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Branched‑chain amino acids (BCAAs) and trace element deficiencies are associated with poor prognosis in hepatitis C virus (HCV)‑infected patients. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of BCAA and zinc‑enriched supplementation on prognostic factors in HCV‑infected patients. Fifty‑three HCV‑infected patients were enrolled in this multicenter randomized controlled trial. The patients were assigned to either the placebo (n=27) or supplement group (n=26; 6,400 mg/day BCAAs and 10 mg/day zinc) and were followed up for 60 days. Primary outcomes were prognostic factors for chronic liver disease, including the serum BCAA‑to‑tyrosine ratio (BTR), zinc levels and α‑fetoprotein (AFP) levels. There were no significant differences in any of the prognostic factors between the placebo and supplement groups at baseline. In the supplement group, the BTR and zinc levels were significantly increased compared with the placebo group (BTR: 5.14±1.59 vs. 4.23±1.14, P=0.0290; zinc: 76±11 vs. 68±11 µg/dl, P=0.0497). No significant differences were observed in AFP levels between the groups in the whole analysis. However, a stratification analysis showed a significant reduction in ΔAFP levels in the supplement group, with elevated AFP levels compared with the other groups (‑2.72±3.45 ng/ml, P=0.0079). It was demonstrated that BCAA and zinc‑enriched supplementation increased the BTR and zinc levels in the HCV‑infected patients. Furthermore, the supplementation reduced the serum AFP levels in patients who had elevated serum AFP levels at baseline. Thus, BCAA and zinc‑enriched supplementation may prolong the survival of HCV‑infected patients by improving amino acid imbalance and zinc deficiency, and by partly downregulating AFP.
Molecular Medicine Reports 11/2014; · 1.48 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pazopanib, an oral tyrosine kinase inhibitor, is the first molecular-targeted agent approved for the treatment of advanced soft tissue sarcoma(STS). Rhabdomyosarcoma in adults is rare, accounting for less than 3%of all adult STS cases. A 57-yearold woman presented with cervical lymphadenopathy. Computed tomography revealed a heterogeneous mass in the retroperitoneum, replacing the entire right kidney. On the basis of the above findings, the patient was diagnosed with alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma. She was first treated with 4 courses of vincristine, actinomycin D, and cyclophosphamide(VAC), which resulted in a partial response. Dose reduction and delay occurred owing to hematological toxicity and febrile neutropenia. As second-line chemotherapy, the patient was administered a single daily dose of 800 mg of pazopanib. Because of an episode of hand-foot syndrome and hepatic impairment, the 800-mg daily dose of pazopanibwas reduced to a daily dose of 600 mg, which had to be further reduced to a daily dose of 400 mg owing to fatigue and anorexia. The patient maintained a partial response for a total of 4.3 months when treated with pazopanib. Therefore, this drug may be a new treatment option for patients showing metastatic STS after previous chemotherapy.
Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy 08/2014; 41(8):1041-4.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background and study aims: The clinical utility of
computed virtual chromoendoscopy with flexible
spectral imaging color enhancement (FICE) in
capsule endoscopy (CE) remains controversial. To
clarify the clinical utility of FICE-enhanced CE in
evaluating small bowel lesions, we quantitatively
assessed white light (WL), FICE, and blue mode
(BM) images and examined the sensitivity of
these 3 imaging modes of small-bowel lesions
from patients who underwent CE.
Methods: The CIELAB color difference (ΔE) and
visual analogue scales (VAS) were measured in
261CE images (3 different lesion categories) using
WL and FICE set 1, 2, and 3, and BM images,
respectively. Three endoscopists reviewed CE videos
with WL, 3 FICE mode settings, and BM, and
compared the sensitivity and detectability for
small intestinal diseases from 50 patients who
Results: In the assessment of visibility in the 152
vascular lesion images, the ΔE and VAS of FICE set
1, 2, and BM images were significantly higher
than that of WL images. In 88 erosion/ulceration
images, the ΔE and VAS of FICE set 1 and 2 images
were significantly higher than that of WL images.
In 21 tumor images, there were no significant differences
in ΔE among these modalities.When analyzed
on a per-patient basis, FICE settings 1 and 2
had the highest sensitivity (100%) and specificity
(97.3–100%) for vascular lesions. As for erosive/
ulcerative lesions, FICE setting 2 had the highest
sensitivity (100%) and specificity (97.2 %). For tumors
or polyps, WL had the highest sensitivity
(90.9 %) and specificity (87.1 %). In per-lesion analysis,
FICE settings 1 and 2 showed significantly
superior detection ability overWL for vascular lesions.
In the detection of erosive/ulcerative lesions,
FICE setting 2 was significantly superior to
WL. In tumor images, there was no significant improvement
with any of the settings relative to WL
Conclusions: FICE is most useful for improving CE
image quality and detection in cases of angioectasia
and erosion/ulceration of the small intestine.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Therapy-related leukemia (TRL) has been reported to occur after treatment with alkylating agents and/or topoisomerase II inhibitors. Oxaliplatin (OXP) is used as a key drug for the treatment of colorectal cancer (CRC). Cisplatin and carboplatin have been linked with TRL, but the involvement of OXP is questionable. A 74-year-old male was diagnosed with peritoneal metastasis from CRC in July 2011. The patient received nine cycles of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), leucovorin (LV), and OXP (mFOLFOX-6 regimen) and three cycles of 5-FU and LV only, resulting in a clinical complete response. However, recurrence of CRC was detected by CT within 3 months after the last course of chemotherapy. In April 2013, laboratory tests showed pancytopenia and 15% blast cells. A bone marrow examination revealed multilineage dysplasia and 20.4% myeloblasts. Cytogenetic analysis indicated a complex karyotype that included chromosome 5 and 7 abnormalities. The patient was diagnosed with TRL and treated with a combination of azacitidine (AZA) and cetuximab (Cmab) for both cancers. AZA might be useful in TRL when a patient needs to be treated simultaneously for more than one primary cancer because of its low toxicity. Moreover, Cmab is an effective therapeutic tool in TRL patients with metastatic CRC with the wild-type K-ras gene.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Radiation therapy (RTx) has been employed as a curative therapy for prostatic adenocarcinoma. RTx-induced sarcomas (RISs) are rare, late adverse events, representing less than 0.2% of all irradiated patients. RISs are more aggressive tumors than prostatic adenocarcinomas. Herein, we present a case with RTx-induced prostatic leiomyosarcoma after permanent brachytherapy for prostatic adenocarcinoma. A 69-year-old male presented with dysuria and gross hematuria. Six years previously, he had been diagnosed with localized prostate cancer and was treated by permanent brachytherapy. Urethroscopy showed stenosis by a tumor at the prostate. Transurethral prostatectomy was performed for a diagnosis. Based on pathological findings, the diagnosis was leiomyosarcoma of the prostate. He was treated with three cycles of neoadjuvant chemotherapy (CTx) that consisted of doxorubicin and ifosfamide (AI), followed by a prostatocystectomy with intrapelvic lymphadenectomy. The tumor extended from the prostate and infiltrated the bladder wall and serosa with lymphatic and venous invasion. The surgical margin was negative, and no residual prostatic adenocarcinoma was observed. The proportion of necrotic tumor cells by neoadjuvant CTx was around 50%. Subsequently, adjuvant CTx was offered, but the patient chose a follow-up without CTx. Local recurrence and lung metastasis were detected by computed tomography 3 months after the surgery. He was treated again with AI. However, CTx was not effective and he died 6 months after the operation. In conclusion, an effective treatment strategy for prostatic sarcoma should be developed in the near future, although the clinical feature of prostatic sarcoma remains unclear due to its rare incidence.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Narrowband ultraviolet B phototherapy (NB-UVB) is a therapeutic alternative for haematopoietic stem cell transplantation-related skin graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). The beneficial effects of this intervention may be induced by direct irradiation of inflammatory cells in the skin; however, the putative involvement of indirect effects on systemic immunity has not been elucidated. To address this issue, 11 acute skin GVHD patients refractory to standard corticosteroid treatment and with no gut/liver involvement were treated with NB-UVB irradiation. The median number of treatments was 10 times, with a mean cumulative exposure of 6.36 J/cm(2). No other immunosuppressive therapy was initiated during irradiation. Eight patients achieved an objective complete response, two had a partial response, and one showed no change. None of the patients experienced progressive skin GVHD or newly diagnosed gut/liver GVHD. NB-UVB was well tolerated, with no patients discontinuing irradiation due to toxicity. We additionally demonstrated by flow cytometry that NB-UVB irradiation induces the increment of the proportion of regulatory T cell (Tregs) in patients' peripheral blood. These results suggest that NB-UVB may exert beneficial effects on steroid-refractory skin GVHD through the expansion of Tregs.
International journal of hematology 02/2014; · 1.17 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Relapsed or refractory Burkitt's lymphoma often has a poor prognosis in spite of intensive chemotherapy that induces apoptotic and/or necrotic death of lymphoma cells. Rapamycin (Rap) brings about autophagy, and could be another treatment. Further, anti-CD19-targeted liposomal delivery may enable Rap to kill lymphoma cells specifically. Rap was encapsulated by anionic liposome and conjugated with anti-CD19 antibody (CD19-GL-Rap) or anti-CD2 antibody (CD2-GL-Rap) as a control. A fluorescent probe Cy5.5 was also liposomized in the same way (CD19 or CD2-GL-Cy5.5) to examine the efficacy of anti-CD19-targeted liposomal delivery into CD19-positive Burkitt's lymphoma cell line, SKW6.4. CD19-GL-Cy5.5 was more effectively uptaken into SKW6.4 cells than CD2-GL-Cy5.5 in vitro. When the cells were inoculated subcutaneously into nonobese diabetic/severe combined immunodeficiency mice, intravenously administered CD19-GL-Cy5.5 made the subcutaneous tumor fluorescent, while CD2-GL-Cy5.5 did not. Further, CD19-GL-Rap had a greater cytocidal effect on not only SKW6.4 cells but also Burkitt's lymphoma cells derived from patients than CD2-GL-Rap in vitro. The specific toxicity of CD19-GL-Rap was cancelled by neutralizing anti-CD19 antibody. The survival period of mice treated with intravenous CD19-GL-Rap was significantly longer than that of mice treated with CD2-GL-Rap after intraperitoneal inoculation of SKW6.4 cells. Anti-CD19-targeted liposomal Rap could be a promising lymphoma cell-specific treatment inducing autophagic cell death.
Blood Cancer Journal 02/2014; 4:e180. · 2.88 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Solitary fibrous tumor of the central nervous system is uncommon, with only around 200 reported cases. Further, extracranial metastasis is extremely rare, and only 5 cases of hematogenous metastases have been reported so far. To the best of our knowledge, there have been no reports of solitary fibrous tumor of the central nervous system metastasizing to the pancreas.
A 62-year-old woman was referred for evaluation of a pancreatic mass, which was strongly suspected to be a neuroendocrine tumor. However, the histological findings and immunohistochemical profile indicated the presence of a solitary fibrous tumor. Because the medical history revealed previous transcranial resection for intracranial meningioma 16 years ago, we conducted a pathological review of the brain specimen obtained by the first operation and found that it had the same histology and immunohistochemical profile as the current endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration specimen. Consequently, the final diagnosis, on the basis of the brain specimen, was changed from meningioma to solitary fibrous tumor of the central nervous system, and the pancreatic mass was diagnosed as metastasis from solitary fibrous tumor of the central nervous system. The patient underwent middle pancreatectomy; the pancreatic specimen also had the same histology and immunohistochemical profile as the brain specimen.
Histological findings and immunohistochemical profile obtained by EUS-FNA are invaluable for the correct diagnosis to avoid excessive surgical procedures.
JOP: Journal of the pancreas 01/2014; 15(1):58-62.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The combination of glutamine, fiber and oligosaccharides (GFO) is thought to be beneficial for alleviating gastrointestinal mucosal damage caused by chemotherapy. A commercial enteral supplementation product (GFO) enriched with these 3 components is available in Japan. We performed a retrospective study to test whether oral GFO decreased the severity of mucosal injury following hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Of 44 HSCT patients, 22 received GFO and 22 did not. Severity of diarrhea/mucositis, overall survival, weight loss, febrile illness/documented infection, intravenous hyperalimentation days/hospital days, engraftment, acute and chronic GVHD, and cumulative incidence of relapse were studied. Sex, age, performance status, diagnosis, disease status, and treatment variables were similar in both groups. There were fewer days of diarrhea grade 3-4 in patients receiving GFO than in those who did not (0.86 vs. 3.27 days); the same was true for days of mucositis grade 3-4 (3.86 vs. 6.00 days). Survival at day 100 was 100% in the GFO group, but only 77.3% for the patients not receiving GFO (p = 0.0091, log-rank test). Weight loss and the number of days of intravenous hyperalimentation were better in the GFO group (p < 0.001 and p = 0.0014, respectively). Although not significant, less gut bacterial translocation with Enterococcus species developed in the GFO group (p = 0.0728) than in the non-GFO group. Other outcomes were not affected. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first comparative clinical study of GFO supplementation to alleviate mucosal injury after allo-HSCT. We conclude that glutamine, fiber and oligosaccharide supplementation is an effective supportive therapy to decrease the severity of mucosal damage in HSCT.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Reactivation of hepatitis B virus (HBV) has recently been reported as a fatal complication in patients undergoing cytotoxic chemotherapy. We herein describe a case of reactivation in a 76-year-old man who had undergone pelvic exenteration for colorectal cancer (CRC). He was treated with a modified FOLFOX6 chemotherapy regimen after the operation. Thirteen months later, his laboratory data showed severe liver dysfunction. His hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) test was positive, and his HBV-DNA level was elevated. We diagnosed the patient with HBV reactivation as his HBsAg test was negative before starting chemotherapy. His liver dysfunction improved after administration of entecavir. This is the first report describing HBV reactivation following chemotherapy for an HBsAg-negative CRC patient.
Internal Medicine 01/2014; 53(16):1759-62. · 0.97 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) is a major inducer of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in different cell types. TGF-β-mediated EMT is thought to contribute to tumour cell spread and metastasis. Sialyl Lewis antigens synthesised by fucosyltransferase (FUT) 3 and FUT6 are highly expressed in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (CRC) and are utilised as tumour markers for cancer detection and evaluation of treatment efficacy. However, the role of FUT3 and FUT6 in augmenting the malignant potential of CRC induced by TGF-β is unclear.Methods:Colorectal cancer cell lines were transfected with siRNAs for FUT3/6 and were examined by cell proliferation, invasion and migration assays. The expression and phosphorylation status of TGF-β downstream molecules were analysed by western blot. Fucosylation of TGF-β receptor (TβR) was examined by lectin blot analysis.Results:Inhibition of FUT3/6 expression by siRNAs suppressed the fucosylation of type I TβR and phosphorylation of the downstream molecules, thereby inhibiting the invasion and migration of CRC cells by EMT.Conclusion:Fucosyltransferase 3/6 has an essential role in cancer cell adhesion to endothelial cells by upregulation of sialyl Lewis antigens and also by enhancement of cancer cell migration through TGF-β-mediated EMT.British Journal of Cancer Advance Online Publication, 19 November 2013 doi:10.1038/bjc.2013.699 www.bjcancer.com.
British Journal of Cancer 11/2013; · 5.08 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A 62-year-old man with transfusion-dependent severe aplastic anemia received immunosuppressive therapy (IST) with rabbit antithymocyte globulin and cyclosporine A in April 2010. However, his transfusion dependency did not improve. As more than 100 red blood cell (RBC) transfusions had been performed, he was administered iron chelation therapy (ICT) with deferasirox (DFX) to improve iron overload starting in July 2011. Consequently, both RBC and platelet transfusion dependency gradually improved concomitant with a decrease in serum ferritin. The bone marrow (BM) biopsy findings before administration of DFX showed severe iron accumulation and strong positive immunostaining for 8-OHdG, a marker of oxidative stress due to free iron. One year after ICT, the number of BM hematopoietic cells was increased and both iron deposition and oxidative stress were decreased. These findings suggest that DFX may contribute to hematological improvement in patients with IST-refractory aplastic anemia.
[Rinshō ketsueki] The Japanese journal of clinical hematology 11/2013; 54(11):2047-52.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The evidence that rituximab is effective therapy for refractory warm or cold autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA) has been accumulating; however, the efficacy of rituximab for mixed-type AIHA is not evident. Herein, we report a case of mixed-type AIHA refractory to corticosteroids and splenectomy, but successfully treated with rituximab (375 mg/m(2)/day, once weekly, four times). She achieved a complete response, which has been maintained for 16 months, to date, despite steroid tapering. Our case suggests that rituximab therapy should be considered for refractory AIHA even of mixed-type.
[Rinshō ketsueki] The Japanese journal of clinical hematology 11/2013; 54(11):2053-5.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Encapsulating peritoneal sclerosis (EPS) occurring without a history of peritoneal dialysis is rare. We report on a patient with idiopathic EPS following intractable ileus who was successfully treated by surgery and postoperative steroid therapy without any sign of recurrence. A 67-year-old woman was referred to our department for further treatment of intractable ileus. Abdominal CT scanning revealed wall thickening of the proximal jejunum. Double-balloon enteroscopy disclosed stenosis of the jejunum at 20 cm anally from the Treitz ligament, although the intestinal mucosa appeared normal without specific biopsy findings. In addition, FDG-PET showed no abnormal accumulation, thus discounting a malignant lesion. Since conservative therapy failed to improve the ileus, we performed an operation on her in order to release the ileus and make a histological diagnosis. Surgical findings included a whitish thickening of the serosa extending to the intestine and the whole mesentery. Accordingly, we made a diagnosis of idiopathic encapsulating peritoneal sclerosis because of her negative history of peritoneal dialysis, laparotomy or peritonitis, in addition to the above-noted findings. Postoperative oral administration of steroid has suppressed EPS recurrence. In patients with intractable ileus, EPS should be added to the list of differential diagnoses, even if they have not undergone peritoneal dialysis.
Clinical Journal of Gastroenterology 08/2013; 6(4).