Junichi Eguchi

Showa University, Shinagawa, Tōkyō, Japan

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Publications (21)80.19 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Interferon-alpha (IFN-α) has strong antitumor effects, and IFN-α gene therapy has been used clinically against some cancers. In this study, we evaluated the efficacy of the combination of IFN-α-transduced tumor cell vaccines and programmed cell death 1 (PD-1) blockade, and investigated the mechanisms of the antitumor effects of the combined therapy. A poorly immunogenic murine colorectal cancer cell line, MC38, was transduced to overexpress IFN-α. In a therapeutic model, parental tumor-bearing mice were inoculated with MC38-IFNα cells and an anti-PD-1 antagonistic antibody. Analyses of immunohistochemistry and tumor-specific lysis were performed. The outgrowth of the established tumors was significantly reduced in mice treated with the combination of IFN-α and anti-PD-1. Immunohistochemical analyses of the therapeutic model showed marked infiltration of CD4(+) cells and CD8(+) cells in the established MC38 tumors of mice treated with both IFN-α and anti-PD-1. Significant tumor-specific cytolysis was detected when splenocytes of mice that were treated with both IFN-α and anti-PD-1 were used as effector cells. These results suggest that blockade of the PD-1 PD-ligand enhanced the Th1-type antitumor immune responses induced by IFN-α. The combination of IFN-α gene-transduced tumor cell vaccines and PD-1 blockade may be a possible candidate for a cancer vaccine for clinical trials.
    Cancer gene therapy 07/2012; 19(9):637-43. · 3.13 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Because IL-4 and CpG oligodeoxynucleotides (CpG-ODNs) are immune stimulants, we evaluated the antitumor effects of IL-4 gene therapy and CpG-ODN treatment in a poorly immunogenic murine cancer model. We used a murine colorectal cancer MC38 cell line overexpressing the IL-4 gene (MC38-IL4). Incubation with MC38-IL4 and CpG-ODN enhanced bone marrow-derived dendritic cell (DC) maturation in vitro. In addition, interferon (IFN)-γ production was significantly increased in naïve splenocytes after they were coincubated with MC38-IL4 and CpG-ODN. When mice bearing MC38 wild-type tumors were inoculated subcutaneously with MC38-IL4 cells and CpG-ODN, the outgrowth of established parental tumors was significantly suppressed compared to those in the MC38-IL4-treated group (IL-4 vs. IL-4 + CpG-ODN, p=0.015). A marked infiltration of CD8+ cells in the established parental tumors of mice treated with MC38-IL4 and CpG-ODN was confirmed by immunohistochemical analyses (MC38-IL4, 2.8 ± 1.9 cells/field vs. MC38-IL4 + CpG-ODN, 20.7 ± 15.3 cells/field, p=0.027). Significant tumor-specific cytolysis was detected when splenocytes of MC38-IL4 + CpG-ODN-treated mice were stimulated by γ-irradiated MC38-IL4 cells and CpG-ODN twice weekly in vitro and used as effector cells in a chromium-release assay (32.2 ± 3.5% for MC38 cells vs. 3.2 ± 1.1% for YAC-1 cells; at an effector to target ratio of 40). These results suggest that IL-4 and CpG-ODN treatment promotes potent Th1-type antitumor immune responses. Therefore, the combination of IL-4 gene therapy and CpG-ODN treatment for cancer should be evaluated in clinical trials.
    Oncology Reports 03/2012; 27(6):1765-71. · 2.30 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Successful oncolytic virus treatment of malignant glioblastoma multiforme depends on widespread tumor-specific lytic virus replication and escape from mitigating innate immune responses to infection. Here we characterize a new HSV vector, JD0G, that is deleted for ICP0 and the joint sequences separating the unique long and short elements of the viral genome. We observed that JD0G replication was enhanced in certain glioblastoma cell lines compared to HEL cells, suggesting that a vector backbone deleted for ICP0 may be useful for treatment of glioblastoma. The innate immune response to virus infection can potentially impede oncolytic vector replication in human tumors. Indoleamine-2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) is expressed in response to interferon γ (IFNγ) and has been linked to both antiviral functions and to the immune escape of tumor cells. We observed that IFNγ treatment of human glioblastoma cells induced the expression of IDO and that this expression was quelled by infection with both wild-type and JD0G viruses. The role of IDO in inhibiting virus replication and the connection of this protein to the escape of tumor cells from immune surveillance suggest that IDO downregulation by HSV infection may enhance the oncolytic activity of vectors such as JD0G.
    Advances in Virology 01/2012; 2012:815465.
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    ABSTRACT: We report a case of iliopsoas abscess caused by Aspergillus fumigatus with pulmonary complications. A 60-year-old man was admitted to the Showa University Hospital Department of Gastroenterology with fulminant hepatitis B on April 14, 2010, and treated with steroids. Although fulminant hepatitis B was improved by steroid and symptomatic therapy, he developed a fever on hospital day 39. The chest X-ray film showed a nodular lesion in the right middle-lower lung field, and both the (1 → 3)-β-D: -glucan and Candida mannan antigen tests were positive. The β-D: -glucan level increased despite treatment with fluconazole and other drugs, including low-dose micafungin. Abdominal computed tomography showed a low-density area in the right iliopsoas muscle. He was then referred to the Department of Clinical Infectious Diseases. A. fumigatus was isolated from the iliopsoas lesion and the pulmonary lesion after specimens were obtained by aspiration and bronchofiberscopy, respectively, leading to a diagnosis of fungal iliopsoas abscess. Steroid therapy was tapered early, the abscess was drained, and the micafungin dose was increased. This treatment led to improvement of the fever, inflammatory reaction, β-D: -glucan level, and lesions of the lung and iliopsoas muscle. In preparation for discharge, treatment was changed to voriconazole (parenteral → per oral) followed by itraconazole (per oral). His clinical course was satisfactory, and there was no recurrence after antifungal therapy was stopped. We conclude that after invasive pulmonary aspergillosis developed, A. fumigatus spread hematogenously to create an extremely rare iliopsoas abscess. The β-D: -glucan level closely reflected the response to treatment and was useful for follow-up.
    Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy 11/2011; 18(4):569-75. · 1.55 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Aim: Because polymorphisms of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and osteopontin (OPN) promoter regions and a promoter/enhancer region of forkhead box protein 3 (FOXP3) gene are known to affect immune responses, we examined whether these polymorphisms can influence susceptibility to hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and progression of liver disease.Methods: Peripheral blood samples were obtained from 104 Japanese patients with chronic HCV infection and 74 healthy Japanese donors. Polymerase chain reaction single-stranded conformational polymorphism analysis of genomic DNA was performed to determine the polymorphisms.Results: The risk of persistent HCV infection was decreased in subjects with –1195GG genotype of the COX-2 promoter region. However, in patients with chronic HCV infection, the –1195GG genotype was associated with advanced-stage liver disease. A luciferase reporter assay performed to analyze the effect of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) (–1195A or –1195G) in COX-2 gene on transcriptional activity using the HepG2, Huh7 and HeLa cell lines indicated that the –1195G genotype showed higher transcriptional activity than the –1195A genotype. SNP of OPN and FOXP3 did not differ between patients with chronic HCV infection and controls. However, the –443TT genotype of the OPN promoter region was associated with increased inflammatory activity of the liver.Conclusion: These results suggest that the –1195GG genotype of the COX-2 promoter region protects against HCV infection in the Japanese. However, once chronic infection is established, the –443TT genotype of the OPN promoter region and the –1195GG genotype of the COX-2 promoter are thought to promote inflammation and contribute to the progression of liver disease.
    Hepatology Research 09/2010; 40(12):1219 - 1226. · 2.07 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Immune responses of cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) are implicated in viral eradication and the pathogenesis of hepatitis C. Weak CTL response against hepatitis C virus (HCV) may lead to a persistent infection. HCV infection impairs the function of HCV-specific CTLs; HCV proteins are thought to actively suppress host immune responses, including CTLs. Induction of a strong HCV-specific CTL response in HCV-infected patients can facilitate complete HCV clearance. Thus, the development of a vaccine that can induce potent CTL response against HCV is strongly expected. We investigated HCV-specific CTL responses by enzyme-linked immuno-spot assay and/or synthetic peptides and identified over 40 novel CTL epitopes in the HCV protein. Our findings may contribute to the development of the HCV vaccine. In this paper, we describe the CTL responses in HCV infection and the attempts at vaccine development based on recent scientific articles.
    BioMed Research International 01/2010; 2010:263810. · 2.88 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We investigated whether tumor-specific CD8(+) T-cell responses affect tumor-free survival as well as the relationship between CD8(+) T-cell responses against tumor-associated antigens (TAAs) and the clinical course after tumor treatment in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Twenty patients with HCC that were treated by radiofrequency ablation or trans-catheter chemo-embolization (TACE) and in whom HCC was undetectable by ultrasonography, CT, and/or MRI 1 month after treatment were enrolled in the study. Before and after treatment for HCC, analyses of TAA (glypican-3, NY-ESO-1, and MAGE-1)-specific CD8(+) T-cell responses were evaluated with an interferon-gamma enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISpot) assay using peripheral CD8(+) T-cells, monocytes, and 104 types of 20-mer synthetic peptide overlapping by 10 residues and spanning the entirety of the 3 TAAs. Sixteen out of 20 patients (80%) showed a positive response (> or = 10 TAA-specific cells/10(5) CD8(+) T-cells) before or after treatment. When we performed univariate analysis of prognostic factors for the tumor-free period in the 20 patients, platelet count, prothrombin time, and the number of TAA-specific CD8(+) T-cells after treatment were significant factors (P = 0.027, 0.030, and 0.004, respectively). In multivariate analysis, the magnitude of the TAA-specific CD8(+) T-cell response (> or = 40 TAA-specific cells/10(5) CD8(+) T-cells) was the only significant prognostic factor for a prolonged tumor-free interval (hazard ratio 0.342, P = 0.022). Our results suggest that strong TAA-specific CD8(+) T-cell responses suppress the recurrence of HCC. Immunotherapy to induce TAA-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes by means such as the use of peptide vaccines should be considered for clinical application in patients with HCC after local therapy.
    Journal of Gastroenterology 11/2009; 45(4):451-8. · 3.79 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Aim: We investigated the relationship between the magnitude of comprehensive hepatitis C virus (HCV)-specific CD8+ T-cell responses and the clinical course of acute HCV infection.Methods: Six consecutive patients with acute HCV infection were studied. Analysis of HCV-specific CD8+ T-cell responses was performed using an interferon--based enzyme-linked immunospot assay using peripheral CD8+ T-cells, monocytes and 297 20-mer synthetic peptides overlapping by 10 residues and spanning the entire HCV sequence of genotype 1b.Results: Five patients presented detectable HCV-specific CD8+ T-cell responses against a single and different peptide, whereas 1 patient showed responses against three different peptides. Neither the magnitude of HCV-specific CD8+ T-cell responses nor the severity of hepatitis predicts the outcome of acute hepatitis. The maximum number of HCV-specific CD8+ T-cells correlated with maximum serum alanine aminotransferase level during the course (r = 0.841, P = 0.036).Conclusions: HCV-specific CD8+ T-cell responses were detectable in all 6 patients with acute HCV infection, and 6 novel HCV-specific CTL epitopes were identified. Acute HCV infection can resolve with detectable HCV-specific CD8+ T-cell responses, but without development of antibody against HCV.
    Hepatology Research 11/2008; 39(3):256 - 265. · 2.07 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Dendritic cells (DC) are potent antigen-presenting cells that elicit immune responses to foreign antigens. We have previously demonstrated the synergistic effects of cytidine-phosphate-guanosine (CpG) oligodeoxynucleotides (ODN) and interferon (IFN)-alpha on DC maturation in vitro. In the present study, the antitumor effects of DC preincubated with IFN-alpha gene-overexpressing murine colorectal cancer MC38 cells (MC38-IFN-alpha) and CpG ODN were evaluated in a poorly immunogenic murine cancer system. When we injected DC preincubated with MC38-IFNalpha and CpG ODN subcutaneously to mice bearing MC38 wild-type tumors, the outgrowth of the established parental tumors was suppressed significantly compared with that following administration of DC with MC38-IFN-alpha (P = 0.008). All mice injected with DC preincubated with MC38-IFN-alpha and CpG ODN rejected a subsequent parental tumor challenge. Immunohistochemical and flow cytometric analyses showed that CD4(+), CD8(+), and NK1.1(+) cells markedly infiltrated the established tumors of mice treated with DC preincubated with MC38-IFN-alpha and CpG ODN. From the results in immune cell-depleted mice, CD4(+) and asialo-GM-1(+) cells seemed to contribute to the antitumor effects induced by the combination DC therapy. Furthermore, non-specific cytolysis was detected when splenocytes of mice inoculated with DC preincubated with MC38-IFNalpha and CpG ODN were used as effector cells. Using an interleukin (IL)-12-neutralizing antibody it was suggested that IL-12 stimulates natural killer cells and contributes in part to the antitumor effects induced by DC incubated with CpG ODN and IFN-alpha. As DC-based immunotherapy with CpG ODN and IFN-alpha-expressing tumor cells induces a potent antitumor immune response, it should be considered for clinical application.
    Cancer Science 09/2008; 99(8):1663-9. · 3.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Allogeneic glioma cell lines that are partially matched to the patient at class I human leukocyte antigen (HLA) loci and that display tumor-associated antigens (TAA) or antigenic precursors [tumor antigen precursor proteins (TAPP)] could be used for generating whole tumor cell vaccines or, alternatively, for extraction of TAA peptides to make autologous dendritic cell vaccines. Twenty human glioma cell lines were characterized by molecular phenotyping and by flow cytometry for HLA class I antigen expression. Twelve of the 20 cell lines, as well as analyses of freshly resected glioma tissues, were further characterized for protein and/or mRNA expression of 16 tumor antigen precursor proteins or TAA. These 20 human glioma cell lines potentially cover 77%, 85%, and 78% of the U.S. Caucasian population at HLA-A, HLA-B, and HLA-C alleles, respectively. All cells exhibited multiple TAA expressions. Most glioma cells expressed antigen isolated from immunoselected melanoma-2 (Aim-2), B-cyclin, EphA2, GP100, beta1,6-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase V (GnT-V), IL13Ralpha2, Her2/neu, hTert, Mage, Mart-1, Sart-1, and survivin. Real-time PCR technology showed that glioblastoma specimens expressed most of the TAA as well. Tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes and CD8(+) CTL killed T2 cells when loaded with specific HLA-A2(+) restricted TAA, or gliomas that were both HLA-A2(+) and also positive for specific TAA (Mart-1, GP100, Her2/neu, and tyrosinase) but not those cells negative for HLA-A2 and/or lacking the specific epitope. These data provide proof-in-principle for the use of allogeneic, partially HLA patient-matched glioma cells for vaccine generation or for peptide pulsing with allogeneic glioma cell extracts of autologous patient dendritic cells to induce endogenous CTL in brain tumor patients.
    Clinical Cancer Research 02/2007; 13(2 Pt 1):566-75. · 7.84 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Toll-like receptor (TLR)3 ligands serve as natural inducers of pro-inflammatory cytokines capable of promoting Type-1 adaptive immunity, and TLR3 is abundantly expressed by cells within the central nervous system (CNS). To improve the efficacy of vaccine strategies directed against CNS tumors, we evaluated whether administration of a TLR3 ligand, polyinosinic-polycytidylic (poly-IC) stabilized with poly-lysine and carboxymethylcellulose (poly-ICLC) would enhance the anti-CNS tumor effectiveness of tumor peptide-based vaccinations. C57BL/6 mice bearing syngeneic CNS GL261 glioma or M05 melanoma received subcutaneous (s.c.) vaccinations with synthetic peptides encoding CTL epitopes--mEphA2 (671-679), hgp100 (25-33) and mTRP-2 (180-188) for GL261, or ovalbumin (OVA: 257-264) for M05. The mice also received intramuscular (i.m.) injections with poly-ICLC. The combination of subcutaneous (s.c.) peptide-based vaccination and i.m. poly-ICLC administration promoted systemic induction of antigen (Ag)-specific Type-1 CTLs expressing very late activation antigen (VLA)-4, which confers efficient CNS-tumor homing of vaccine-induced CTLs based on experiments with monoclonal antibody (mAb)-mediated blockade of VLA-4. In addition, the combination treatment allowed expression of IFN-gamma by CNS tumor-infiltrating CTLs, and improved the survival of tumor bearing mice in the absence of detectable autoimmunity. These data suggest that poly-ICLC, which has been previously evaluated in clinical trials, can be effectively combined with tumor Ag-specific vaccine strategies, thereby providing a greater index of therapeutic efficacy.
    Journal of Translational Medicine 02/2007; 5:10. · 3.46 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Background Toll-like receptor (TLR)3 ligands serve as natural inducers of pro-inflammatory cytokines capable of promoting Type-1 adaptive immunity, and TLR3 is abundantly expressed by cells within the central nervous system (CNS). To improve the efficacy of vaccine strategies directed against CNS tumors, we evaluated whether administration of a TLR3 ligand, polyinosinic-polycytidylic (poly-IC) stabilized with poly-lysine and carboxymethylcellulose (poly-ICLC) would enhance the anti-CNS tumor effectiveness of tumor peptide-based vaccinations. Methods C57BL/6 mice bearing syngeneic CNS GL261 glioma or M05 melanoma received subcutaneous (s.c.) vaccinations with synthetic peptides encoding CTL epitopes- mEphA2 (671–679), hgp100 (25–33) and mTRP-2 (180–188) for GL261, or ovalbumin (OVA: 257–264) for M05. The mice also received intramuscular (i.m.) injections with poly-ICLC. Results The combination of subcutaneous (s.c.) peptide-based vaccination and i.m. poly-ICLC administration promoted systemic induction of antigen (Ag)-specific Type-1 CTLs expressing very late activation antigen (VLA)-4, which confers efficient CNS-tumor homing of vaccine-induced CTLs based on experiments with monoclonal antibody (mAb)-mediated blockade of VLA-4. In addition, the combination treatment allowed expression of IFN-γ by CNS tumor-infiltrating CTLs, and improved the survival of tumor bearing mice in the absence of detectable autoimmunity. Conclusion These data suggest that poly-ICLC, which has been previously evaluated in clinical trials, can be effectively combined with tumor Ag-specific vaccine strategies, thereby providing a greater index of therapeutic efficacy.
    Journal of Translational Medicine 01/2007; · 3.46 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Restricted and high-level expression of interleukin-13 receptor alpha2 (IL-13Ralpha2) in a majority of human malignant gliomas makes this protein an attractive vaccine target. We have previously described the identification of the IL-13Ralpha2(345-353) peptide as a human leukocyte antigen-A2 (HLA-A2)-restricted CTL epitope. However, as it remains unclear how efficiently peptide-based vaccines can induce specific CTLs in patients with malignant gliomas, we have examined whether analogue epitopes could elicit heteroclitic antitumor T-cell responses versus wild-type peptides. We have created three IL-13Ralpha2 analogue peptides by substitutions of the COOH-terminal isoleucine (I) for valine (V) and the NH(2)-terminal tryptophan (W) for either alanine (A), glutamic acid (E), or nonsubstituted (W; designated as 1A9V, 1E9V, and 9V, respectively). In comparison with the native IL-13Ralpha2 epitope, the analogue peptides 9V and 1A9V displayed higher levels of binding affinity and stability in HLA-A2 complexes and yielded an improved stimulatory index for patient-derived, specific CTLs against the native epitope expressed by HLA-A2(+) glioma cells. In HLA-A2-transgenic HHD mice, immunization with the peptides 9V and 1A9V induced enhanced levels of CTL reactivity and protective immunity against an intracranial challenge with IL13Ralpha2-expressing syngeneic tumors when compared with vaccines containing the native IL-13Ralpha2 epitope. These findings indicate highly immunogenic IL-13Ralpha2 peptide analogues may be useful for the development of vaccines capable of effectively expanding IL-13Ralpha2-specific, tumor-reactive CTLs in glioma patients.
    Cancer Research 07/2006; 66(11):5883-91. · 8.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The development of effective immunotherapeutic strategies for central nervous system (CNS) tumors requires a firm understanding of factors regulating the trafficking of tumor antigen-specific CTLs into CNS tumor lesions. Using C57BL/6 mice bearing intracranial (i.c.) ovalbumin-transfected melanoma (M05), we evaluated the efficacy and tumor homing of i.v. transferred type 1 or 2 CTLs (Tc1 or Tc2, respectively) prepared from ovalbumin-specific T-cell receptor-transgenic OT-1 mice. We also tested our hypothesis that intratumoral (i.t.) delivery of dendritic cells that had been transduced with IFN-alpha cDNA (DC-IFN-alpha) would enhance the tumor-homing and antitumor effectiveness of adoptively transferred Tc1 via induction of an IFN-gamma-inducible protein 10 (IP-10). In vitro, DC-IFN-alpha induced IP-10 production by M05 and enhanced the cytolytic activity of Tc1. In vivo, i.v. transferred Tc1 trafficked efficiently into i.c. M05 and mediated antitumor responses more effectively than Tc2, and their effect was IP-10 dependent. I.t. injections of DC-IFN-alpha remarkably enhanced the tumor homing, therapeutic efficacy, and in situ IFN-gamma production of i.v. delivered Tc1, resulting in the long-term survival and persistence of systemic ovalbumin-specific immunity. These data suggest that Tc1-based adoptive transfer therapy may represent an effective modality for CNS tumors, particularly when combined with strategies that promote a type 1 polarized tumor microenvironment.
    Cancer Research 05/2006; 66(8):4478-87. · 8.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Both dendritic cell (DC)-based immunotherapy and interferon (IFN)-alpha therapy have been proved to have potent long-lasting antitumor effects. In anticipation of synergistic antitumor effects, we performed combination therapy with DCs and IFN-alpha gene-transduced murine colorectal cancer MC38 cells (MC38-IFN-alpha). DCs incubated with MC38-IFN-alpha, but not neomycin-resistance gene-transduced MC38 cells (MC38-Neo), effectively enhanced proliferation of allogeneic splenocytes in vitro. In 12 of 17 mice, DCs in combination with MC38-IFN-alpha prevented the development of a parental tumor, while DCs and MC38-Neo did in only three of 17 mice (P=0.008). In a therapeutic model of an established parental tumor, inoculation of DCs and MC38-IFN-alpha suppressed the growth of the established parental tumors significantly compared with the administration of DCs with MC38-Neo or naive splenocytes with MC38-IFN-alpha (P=0.016 and 0.024, respectively). Analyses of immunohistochemistry and tumor-infiltrating mononuclear cells showed that CD8(+), CD11c(+), and NK1.1(+) cells markedly infiltrated the established tumors of mice treated with DCs and MC38-IFN-alpha. From the results of observation of parental tumor outgrowth in immune cell-depleted mice, CD8(+) cells, and asialo-GM-1(+) cells were thought to contribute to the antitumor effects induced by the combination therapy. Furthermore, MC38-specific cytolysis was detected when splenocytes of mice inoculated with DCs and MC38-IFN-alpha cells were stimulated with MC38-IFN-alpha cells in vitro. Since DC-based immunotherapy in combination with IFN-alpha-expressing tumor cells induces potent antitumor cellular immune responses, it should be considered for clinical application.
    Gene Therapy 02/2006; 13(1):78-87. · 4.32 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Dendritic cells (DCs) play an important role in immune response and cytidine-phosphate-guanosine (CpG) oligodeoxynucleotides (ODN) as well as interferon (IFN)-alpha have been proven to induce DC maturation. In this study, the synergistic effects of CpG-ODN and IFN-alpha on DC maturation were evaluated. Surface molecules on DCs and the stimulatory responses of DCs to allogeneic splenocytes were analyzed after cultivation with CpG-ODN and IFN-alpha-overexpressing murine colorectal cancer MC38 cells (MC38-IFNalpha). Co-incubation with CpG-ODN and MC38-IFNalpha, but not wild-type MC38 cells (MC38-WT), effectively up-regulated co-stimulatory molecules on the DCs. CpG, in combination with IFN-alpha, stimulated IL-1beta and TNF-alpha production by DCs effectively. When DCs preincubated with CpG-ODN and MC38-IFNalpha were co-incubated with allogeneic splenocytes in vitro, the proliferation of these splenocytes was significantly enhanced compared with that of splenocytes incubated with CpG-ODN and MC38-WT cells (p = 0.041). Since CpG-ODN and IFN-alpha have synergistic effects on DC maturation, they may induce potent antitumor immune responses and combination therapy should be considered for clinical application.
    Anticancer research 01/2006; 26(1A):211-8. · 1.71 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We tested whether modulation of the CNS-tumor microenvironment by delivery of IFN-alpha-transduced dendritic cells (DCs: DC-IFN-alpha) would enhance the therapeutic efficacy of peripheral vaccinations with cytokine-gene transduced tumor cells. Mice bearing intracranial GL261 glioma or MCA205 sarcoma received peripheral immunizations with corresponding irradiated tumor cells engineered to express IL-4 or GM-CSFs, respectively, as well as intratumoral delivery of DC-IFN-alpha. This regimen prolonged survival of the animals and induced tumor-specific CTLs that expressed TRAIL, which in concert with perforin and Fas ligand (FasL) was involved in the tumor-specific CTL activity of these cells. The in vivo antitumor activity associated with this approach was abrogated by administration of neutralizing mAbs against TRAIL or FasL and was not observed in perforin-/-, IFN-gamma-/-, or FasL-/- mice. Transduction of the tumor cells with antiapoptotic protein cellular FLIP rendered the gene-modified cells resistant to TRAIL- or FasL-mediated apoptosis and to CTL killing activity in vitro. Furthermore, the combination therapeutic regimen was ineffective in an intracranial cellular FLIP-transduced MCA205 brain tumor model. These results suggest that the combination of intratumoral delivery of DC-IFN-alpha and peripheral immunization with cytokine-gene transduced tumor cells may be an effective therapy for brain tumors that are sensitive to apoptotic signaling pathways.
    The Journal of Immunology 09/2005; 175(4):2730-40. · 5.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: EphA2 is a receptor tyrosine kinase and is frequently overexpressed in a wide array of advanced cancers. We demonstrate in the current study that the EphA2 protein is restrictedly expressed in primary glioblastoma multiforme and anaplastic astrocytoma tissues in comparison to normal brain tissues. To evaluate the possibility of targeting EphA2 in glioma vaccine strategies, we stimulated human leukocyte antigen (HLA) A2+ peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) obtained from healthy donors and glioma patients with autologous dendritic cells (DCs) loaded with synthetic EphA2883-891 peptide (TLADFDPRV), which has previously been reported to induce interferon-gamma in HLA-A2+ PBMCs. Stimulated PBMCs demonstrated antigen-specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) responses as detected by specific lysis of T2 cells loaded with the EphA2883 peptide as well as HLA-A2+ glioma cells, SNB19 and U251, that express EphA2. Furthermore, in vivo immunization of HLA-A2 transgenic HHD mice with the EphA2883-891 peptide resulted in the development of an epitope-specific CTL response in splenocytes, despite the fact that EphA2883-891 is an autoantigen in these mice. Taken together, these data suggest that EphA2883-891 may be an attractive antigen epitope for molecularly targeted glioma vaccines.
    Neoplasia 09/2005; 7(8):717-22. · 5.47 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We previously demonstrated that IL-4 gene-transfected glioma cell vaccines induce effective therapeutic immunity in preclinical glioma models, and have initiated phase I trials of these vaccines in patients with malignant gliomas. To gain additional mechanistic insight into the efficacy of this approach, we have treated mice bearing the MCA205 (H-2(b)) or CMS-4 (H-2(d)) sarcomas. IL-12/23 p40(-/-) and IFN-gamma(-/-) mice, which were able to reject the initial inoculation of IL-4 expressing tumors, failed to mount a sustained systemic response against parental (nontransfected) tumor cells. Paracrine production of IL-4 in vaccine sites promoted the accumulation and maturation of IL-12p70-secreting tumor-infiltrating dendritic cells (TIDCs). Adoptive transfer of TIDCs isolated from vaccinated wild-type, but not IL-12/23 p40(-/-), mice were capable of promoting tumor-specific CTL responses in syngeneic recipient animals. Interestingly, both STAT4(-/-) and STAT6(-/-) mice failed to reject IL-4-transfected tumors in concert with the reduced capacity of TIDCs to produce IL-12p70 and to promote specific antitumor CTL reactivity. These results suggest that vaccines consisting of tumor cells engineered to produce the type 2 cytokine, IL-4, critically depend on type 1 immunity for their observed therapeutic efficacy.
    The Journal of Immunology 07/2005; 174(11):7194-201. · 5.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To investigate antitumor mechanisms in interleukin (IL)-4 therapy, we established an IL-4-overexpressing MC38 murine colorectal cancer cell line (MC38-IL4). As a therapy against established tumors, MC38-IL4 cells were inoculated contralaterally 7 days after wild-type (MC38-WT) cells had been injected, significantly reducing growth of wild-type tumors (P=0.030). Immunohistochemical analysis showed numerous granulocytes infiltrating wild-type tumors of MC38-IL4-inoculated mice. Injection of MC38-IL4 cells in leukocyte-depleted mice confirmed that granulocytes were involved in IL-4-related primary antitumor effects. Inoculation of MC38-WT in leukocyte-depleted mice initially injected with MC38-IL4 suggested that T cells contributed to the antitumor effects. To investigate tumor-specific responses, we stimulated splenocytes of MC38-immune mice with MC38-IL4 cells in vitro, resulting in MC38-specific lysis (57.5±7.2%, effector to target ratio=20). Treatment of established wild-type tumors with MC38-IL4 in combination with interferon (IFN)-α-overexpressing MC38 cells (MC38-IFNα) significantly reduced the growth of wild-type tumors (P=0.009). In vitro IFN-γ production by splenocytes from mice injected with both MC38-IL4 and -IFNα was greatly enhanced in comparison with MC38-IL4 alone, while IL-10 production was not increased. Thus, granulocytes concern early antitumor effects of IL-4 therapy. Subsequently, IL-4 induces long-lasting, tumor-specific immune responses. IL-4 appears to promote a T-helper 1-type antitumor immune response, which is enhanced in cooperation with IFN-α.Gene Therapy advance online publication, 17 March 2005; doi:10.1038/sj.gt.3302401
    Gene Therapy 01/2005; 12(9):733-741. · 4.32 Impact Factor