[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recently, there has been a renewed interest in the development of new drugs for the treatment of leishmaniasis. This has spurred
the need for pharmacodynamic markers to monitor and compare therapies specifically for visceral leishmaniasis, in which the
primary recrudescence of parasites is a particularly long-term event that remains difficult to predict. We performed a systematic
review of studies evaluating biomarkers in human patients with visceral, cutaneous, and post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis,
which yielded a total of 170 studies in which 53 potential pharmacodynamic biomarkers were identified. In conclusion, the
large majority of these biomarkers constituted universal indirect markers of activation and subsequent waning of cellular
immunity and therefore lacked specificity. Macrophage-related markers demonstrate favorable sensitivity and times to normalcy,
but more evidence is required to establish a link between these markers and clinical outcome. Most promising are the markers
directly related to the parasite burden, but future effort should be focused on optimization of molecular or antigenic targets
to increase the sensitivity of these markers. In general, future research should focus on the longitudinal evaluation of the
pharmacodynamic biomarkers during treatment, with an emphasis on the correlation of studied biomarkers and clinical parameters.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We aimed to clarify the roles of the multidrug transporters ABCB1 and ABCG2 in oral availability and brain accumulation of ceritinib, an oral anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) inhibitor used to treat metastatic non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) after progression on crizotinib. Importantly, NSCLC is prone to form brain metastases. Transport of ceritinib by human (h) ABCB1 or hABCG2 or mouse (m) Abcg2 was assessed in vitro. To study the single and combined roles of Abcb1a/1b and Abcg2 in ceritinib disposition in vivo, we used appropriate knockout mouse strains. Ceritinib was very efficiently transported by hABCB1, and efficiently by hABCG2 and mAbcg2 in vitro, and transport was specifically inhibited by the ABCB1 inhibitor zosuquidar and ABCG2 inhibitor Ko143, respectively. Absorption and 24-h oral availability were not significantly affected by the absence of Abcb1 and/or Abcg2, but the brain concentrations were greatly increased (>38-fold) in Abcb1a/1b(-/-) mice at 3 and 24h after oral administration of 20mg/kg ceritinib. The brain concentrations increased another ∼3-fold (to >90-fold) in Abcb1a/1b;Abcg2(-/-) mice, indicating that there was a significant additional effect of Abcg2-mediated transport of ceritinib as well in vivo. Overall, brain accumulation, but not the 24-h oral availability of ceritinib were profoundly restricted by Abcb1a/1b and Abcg2, with Abcb1a/1b being the dominant efflux protein. Our data suggest that coadministration of ceritinib with a dual ABCB1 and ABCG2 inhibitor may improve treatment of brain (micro) metastases positioned behind a functionally intact blood-brain barrier, and possibly also of tumors resistant to ceritinib due to ABCB1 or ABCG2 overexpression.
Pharmacological Research 09/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.phrs.2015.09.003 · 4.41 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We aimed to clarify the roles of the multidrug-detoxifying proteins ABCB1, ABCG2, ABCC2, and CYP3A in oral availability and brain accumulation of cabazitaxel, a taxane developed for improved therapy of docetaxel-resistant prostate cancer. Cabazitaxel pharmacokinetics were studied in Abcb1a/1b, Abcg2, Abcc2, Cyp3a, and combination knockout mice. We found that human ABCB1, but not ABCG2, transported cabazitaxel in vitro. Upon oral cabazitaxel administration, total plasma levels were greatly increased due to binding to plasma carboxylesterase Ces1c, which is highly upregulated in several knockout strains. Ces1c inhibition and in vivo hepatic Ces1c knockdown reversed these effects. Correcting for Ces1c effects, Abcb1a/1b, Abcg2, and Abcc2 did not restrict cabazitaxel oral availability, whereas Abcb1a/1b, but not Abcg2, dramatically reduced cabazitaxel brain accumulation (>10-fold). Coadministration of the ABCB1 inhibitor elacridar completely reversed this brain accumulation effect. After correction for Ces1c effects, Cyp3a knockout mice demonstrated a strong (6-fold) increase in cabazitaxel oral availability, which was completely reversed by transgenic human CYP3A4 in intestine and liver. Cabazitaxel markedly inhibited mouse Ces1c, but human CES1 and CES2 only weakly. Ces1c upregulation can thus complicate preclinical cabazitaxel studies. In summary, ABCB1 limits cabazitaxel brain accumulation and therefore potentially therapeutic efficacy against (micro)metastases or primary tumors positioned wholly or partly behind a functional blood-brain barrier. This can be reversed with elacridar coadministration, and similar effects may apply to ABCB1-expressing tumors. CYP3A4 profoundly reduces the oral availability of cabazitaxel. This may potentially be greatly improved by coadministering ritonavir or other CYP3A inhibitors, suggesting the option of patient-friendly oral cabazitaxel therapy.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To determine the health-related quality of life (HRQOL) of overweight and obese multi-ethnic children compared with normal-weight children; and to investigate differences in HRQOL between self- and parent-proxy reports and ethnic groups.
Prospective cross-sectional study.
Out-patient clinic where children and their parents filled out a validated HRQOL questionnaire (KIDSCREEN-52) and height, weight, waist circumference and fat percentage were measured.
Overweight and obese children, aged 8-18 years (mean BMI Z-score 3·2 (sd 0·6)), from the obesity out-patient clinic.
Three hundred and eight self- and 213 parent-proxy reported questionnaires were completed. Global HRQOL and the Physical Wellbeing, Moods & Emotions and Self-Perception subscales were markedly reduced in our multi-ethnic obese cohort, relative to the Dutch reference values. Parent proxies reported significantly lower on the global HRQOL and the Physical Wellbeing, Moods & Emotions and Bullying subscales. In Caucasian children, multivariate analyses showed that BMI was associated with the quality-of-life subscales Moods & Emotions, Self-Perception and Bullying.
HRQOL was markedly reduced in our multi-ethnic overweight and obese out-patient clinic cohort, with significantly lower parent-proxy scores compared with self-reported scores. We believe intervention programmes aiming to improve HRQOL should be directed to both parents and children, while ethnic-specific programmes to enhance HRQOL seem of less importance.
Public Health Nutrition 07/2015; DOI:10.1017/S1368980015002074 · 2.68 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Olaparib (AZD2281), a PARP-1/2 inhibitor, has been extensively investigated in clinical trials. However, limited clinical data are available about its long-term safety and anti-tumour activity.
Patients had first participated in a phase I study of olaparib combined with carboplatin and/or paclitaxel. They continued with olaparib monotherapy in their best interest if they failed to tolerate the combination due to the treatment-related adverse events (TRAEs). Safety data were collected by physical examination and regular laboratory evaluations. Disease evaluations were performed by CT scan.
At data cutoff, 21 patients were included; 10 with breast, 9 with ovarian and 2 with fallopian tube cancer of whom 16 patients had a BRCA mutation (13 BRCA1; 3 BRCA2). TRAEs were mostly haematological and most prominent shortly after switching from combination to monotherapy, probably due to carry-over effects of chemotherapy. Over time, both severity and frequency of TRAEs decreased. Responses to olaparib were durable with a median treatment duration of 52 (range 7-183) weeks. In total, nine (43%) patients were still on study at data cutoff.
Continued long-term daily olaparib was found to be safe and tolerable. Encouragingly, patients who showed a favourable response on earlier combination therapy maintained this response on olaparib monotherapy.British Journal of Cancer advance online publication, 16 July 2015; doi:10.1038/bjc.2015.256 www.bjcancer.com.
British Journal of Cancer 07/2015; 113(3). DOI:10.1038/bjc.2015.256 · 4.84 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Introduction Palbociclib is a cyclin dependent kinase (CDK) 4/6 inhibitor with nanomolar potency and was recently approved for treatment of breast cancer. The drug may also be useful in glioblastoma (GBM) and diffuse intrinsic pontine gliomas (DIPG), which often have an activated CDK4/6-retinoblastoma signaling pathway. However, GBM and DIPG spread widely into the surrounding brain, which calls for a CDK4/6 inhibitor with sufficient blood-brain barrier penetration. Methods We first performed in vitro transwell assays and demonstrate that palbociclib is a substrate of both P-gp and BCRP. Next, we conducted pharmacokinetic studies using wildtype, Abcg2(-/-), Abcb1a/b(-/-) and Abcg2; Abcb1a/b(-/-) mice. Results The plasma levels were about 3000 and 500 nM and similar in all genotypes at 1 and 4 h after i.v. administration of 10 mg/kg. At 4 h the brain-to-plasma ratios were 0.3 in WT and Abcg2(-/-) mice versus 5.5 and 15 in Abcb1a/b(-/-) and Abcg2; Abcb1a/b(-/-) mice, respectively. The oral bioavailability of palbociclib was high (63 %) in WT mice and increased only modestly and non-significantly in Abcg2; Abcb1a/b(-/-) mice. The plasma level after oral dosing of 150 mg/kg was already much higher than observed in patients (200-400 nM) and exceeded 2500 nM for up to 24 h. This latter dose is commonly used in preclinical studies, which calls into question their predictive value as they were conducted at dose levels causing a clinically non-relevant systemic drug exposure. Conclusion Thus, the brain penetration of palbociclib is restricted by P-gp and BCRP, which may restrict the efficacy against GBM and DIPG. Moreover, preclinical studies with this agent should be conducted at a more clinically relevant dose level.
Investigational New Drugs 07/2015; 33(5). DOI:10.1007/s10637-015-0266-y · 2.92 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The antiestrogenic drug tamoxifen is widely used in the treatment of estrogen receptor-α-positive breast cancer and substantially decreases recurrence and mortality rates. However, high interindividual variability in response is observed, calling for a personalized approach to tamoxifen treatment. Tamoxifen is bioactivated by cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes such as CYP2B6, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP2D6 and CYP3A4/5, resulting in the formation of active metabolites, including 4-hydroxy-tamoxifen and endoxifen. Therefore, polymorphisms in the genes encoding these enzymes are proposed to influence tamoxifen and active tamoxifen metabolites in the serum and consequently affect patient response rates. To tailor tamoxifen treatment, multiple studies have been performed to clarify the influence of polymorphisms on its pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. Nevertheless, personalized treatment of tamoxifen based on genotyping has not yet met consensus. This article critically reviews the published data on the effect of various genetic polymorphisms on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of tamoxifen, and reviews the clinical implications of its findings. For each CYP enzyme, the influence of polymorphisms on pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic outcome measures is described throughout this review. No clear effects on pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics were seen for various polymorphisms in the CYP encoding genes CYP2B6, CYP2C9, CYP2C19 and CYP3A4/5. For CYP2D6, there was a clear gene-exposure effect that was able to partially explain the interindividual variability in plasma concentrations of the pharmacologically most active metabolite endoxifen; however, a clear exposure-response effect remained controversial. These controversial findings and the partial contribution of genotype in explaining interindividual variability in plasma concentrations of, in particular, endoxifen, imply that tailored tamoxifen treatment may not be fully realized through pharmacogenetics of metabolizing enzymes alone.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Tamoxifen, an endocrine agent, is widely used in the treatment of estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer. It has greatly reduced recurrence and mortality rates of breast cancer patients, however, not all patients benefit from tamoxifen treatment as in about 25-30% of the patients the disease recurs. Many researchers have sought to find factors associated with endocrine treatment outcome in the past years, however this quest has not been finished yet. In this paper, we focus on a factor that might influence outcome of tamoxifen treatment; inter-patient variability in tamoxifen pharmacokinetics. In recent years it has become clear that tamoxifen undergoes extensive metabolism and that some of the formed metabolites are much more pharmacologically active than tamoxifen itself. Despite the wide inter-patient variability in tamoxifen pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics, all patients receive a standard dose of 20 mg tamoxifen per day. Different approaches can be pursued to individualize tamoxifen dosing; genotyping, phenotyping and therapeutic drug monitoring. Therapeutic drug monitoring seems the most direct and promising approach, however, further clinical research is warranted to establish the added value of individual dosing in tamoxifen treatment optimization.
Clinical Breast Cancer 04/2015; 15(4). DOI:10.1016/j.clbc.2015.04.005 · 2.11 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Handling of data below the lower limit of quantification (LLOQ), below the limit of quantification (BLOQ) in population pharmacokinetic (PopPK) analyses is important for reducing bias and imprecision in parameter estimation. We aimed to evaluate whether using the concentration data below the LLOQ has superior performance over several established methods. The performance of this approach (“All data”) was evaluated and compared to other methods: “Discard,” “LLOQ/2,” and “LIKE” (likelihood-based). An analytical and residual error model was constructed on the basis of in-house analytical method validations and analyses from literature, with additional included variability to account for model misspecification. Simulation analyses were performed for various levels of BLOQ, several structural PopPK models, and additional influences. Performance was evaluated by relative root mean squared error (RMSE), and run success for the various BLOQ approaches. Performance was also evaluated for a real PopPK data set. For all PopPK models and levels of censoring, RMSE values were lowest using “All data.” Performance of the “LIKE” method was better than the “LLOQ/2” or “Discard” method. Differences between all methods were small at the lowest level of BLOQ censoring. “LIKE” method resulted in low successful minimization (<50%) and covariance step success (<30%), although estimates were obtained in most runs (~90%). For the real PK data set (7.4% BLOQ), similar parameter estimates were obtained using all methods. Incorporation of BLOQ concentrations showed superior performance in terms of bias and precision over established BLOQ methods, and shown to be feasible in a real PopPK analysis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPD) activity determination in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of DPD deficient patients was hitherto inaccurate due to hemoglobin (Hb) contamination. We developed an improved method for accurate measurement of DPD activity in patients.
DPD activity was determined by HPLC with online radioisotope detection using liquid scintillation counting. Hb was determined spectrophotometrically. Method accuracy and precision were significantly improved by using cumulative area of all peaks as IS. Peripheral blood mononuclear cell lysates from DPD deficient patients were highly contaminated with on average 23.3% (range 2.7-51%) of Hb resulting in up to twofold underestimated DPD activity. DPD activities were corrected for Hb contamination. The method was validated and showed good long-term sample stability.
This method has increased specificity allowing accurate identification of DPD deficient patients.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To determine the effect of renal impairment and prior platinum-based chemotherapy on the toxicities and pharmacokinetics of oral topotecan and to identify recommended doses for patients with renal impairment or prior platinum-based (PB)-chemotherapy.
A multi-center phase I toxicity and pharmacokinetic study of oral topotecan in patients with advanced solid tumors. Patients were grouped by normal renal function with limited- or prior PB-chemotherapy or impaired renal function (mild [creatinine clearance (Clcr) = 50-79 mL/min], moderate [Clcr = 30-49 mL/min], severe [Clcr <30 mL/min]).
Fifty-nine patients were evaluable. Topotecan lactone and total topotecan 'area under the concentration-time curve' (AUC) was significantly increased in patients with moderate and severe renal impairment (109% and 174%, respectively, topotecan lactone and 148% and 298%, respectively, total topotecan). Asian patients (23 in total) had higher AUCs than non-Asian patients with the same degree of renal impairment. Thirteen dose-limiting toxicities (DLTs) were observed, which were mostly hematological. The maximum-tolerated dose (MTD) was 2.3 mg/m(2) /day, given on days 1 to 5 in a 21-day cycle, for patients with prior PB-chemotherapy or mild renal impairment, and 1.2 mg/m(2) /day for patients with moderate renal impairment (suggested dose 1.9 mg/m(2) /day for non-Asians). Due to incomplete enrollment of patients with severe renal impairment, the MTD was determined as ≥ 0.6 mg/m(2) /day in this cohort.
Oral topotecan dose adjustments are not required in patients with prior PB-chemotherapy or mildly impaired renal function, but reduced doses are required for patients with moderate or severe renal impairment.
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British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 02/2015; 80(2). DOI:10.1111/bcp.12606 · 3.88 Impact Factor