[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recently, there has been a renewed interest in the development of new drugs for the treatment of leishmaniasis. This has spurred
the need for pharmacodynamic markers to monitor and compare therapies specifically for visceral leishmaniasis, in which the
primary recrudescence of parasites is a particularly long-term event that remains difficult to predict. We performed a systematic
review of studies evaluating biomarkers in human patients with visceral, cutaneous, and post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis,
which yielded a total of 170 studies in which 53 potential pharmacodynamic biomarkers were identified. In conclusion, the
large majority of these biomarkers constituted universal indirect markers of activation and subsequent waning of cellular
immunity and therefore lacked specificity. Macrophage-related markers demonstrate favorable sensitivity and times to normalcy,
but more evidence is required to establish a link between these markers and clinical outcome. Most promising are the markers
directly related to the parasite burden, but future effort should be focused on optimization of molecular or antigenic targets
to increase the sensitivity of these markers. In general, future research should focus on the longitudinal evaluation of the
pharmacodynamic biomarkers during treatment, with an emphasis on the correlation of studied biomarkers and clinical parameters.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Purpose:
Fluoropyrimidines are frequently prescribed anticancer drugs. A polymorphism in the fluoropyrimidine metabolizing enzyme dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPD; ie, DPYD*2A) is strongly associated with fluoropyrimidine-induced severe and life-threatening toxicity. This study determined the feasibility, safety, and cost of DPYD*2A genotype-guided dosing.
Patients and methods:
Patients intended to be treated with fluoropyrimidine-based chemotherapy were prospectively genotyped for DPYD*2A before start of therapy. Variant allele carriers received an initial dose reduction of ≥ 50% followed by dose titration based on tolerance. Toxicity was the primary end point and was compared with historical controls (ie, DPYD*2A variant allele carriers receiving standard dose described in literature) and with DPYD*2A wild-type patients treated with the standard dose in this study. Secondary end points included a model-based cost analysis, as well as pharmacokinetic and DPD enzyme activity analyses.
A total of 2,038 patients were prospectively screened for DPYD*2A, of whom 22 (1.1%) were heterozygous polymorphic. DPYD*2A variant allele carriers were treated with a median dose-intensity of 48% (range, 17% to 91%). The risk of grade ≥ 3 toxicity was thereby significantly reduced from 73% (95% CI, 58% to 85%) in historical controls (n = 48) to 28% (95% CI, 10% to 53%) by genotype-guided dosing (P < .001); drug-induced death was reduced from 10% to 0%. Adequate treatment of genotype-guided dosing was further demonstrated by a similar incidence of grade ≥ 3 toxicity compared with wild-type patients receiving the standard dose (23%; P = .64) and by similar systemic fluorouracil (active drug) exposure. Furthermore, average total treatment cost per patient was lower for screening (€2,772 [$3,767]) than for nonscreening (€2,817 [$3,828]), outweighing screening costs.
DPYD*2A is strongly associated with fluoropyrimidine-induced severe and life-threatening toxicity. DPYD*2A genotype-guided dosing results in adequate systemic drug exposure and significantly improves safety of fluoropyrimidine therapy for the individual patient. On a population level, upfront genotyping seemed cost saving.
Journal of Clinical Oncology 11/2015; DOI:10.1200/JCO.2015.63.1325 · 18.43 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Treatment with monoclonal antibodies is becoming increasingly important in clinical oncology. These antibodies specifically inhibit signaling pathways in tumor growth and/or induce immunological responses against tumor cells. By combining monoclonal antibodies several pathways may be targeted simultaneously, potentially leading to additive or synergistic effects. Theoretically, antibodies are very suitable for use in combination therapy, because of limited overlapping toxicity and lack of pharmacokinetic interactions. In this article an overview is given of preclinical and clinical data on twenty-five different combinations of antibodies in oncology. Some of these combinations have proven clinical benefit, for example the combination of trastuzumab and pertuzumab in HER2-positive breast cancer, which exemplifies an additive or synergistic effect on antitumor activity in clinical studies and the combination of nivolumab and ipilimumab, which results in significant increases in progression-free and overall survival in patients with advanced melanoma. However, other combinations may lead to unfavorable results, such as bevacizumab with cetuximab or panitumumab in advanced colorectal cancer. These combinations result in shorter progression-free survival and increased toxicity compared to therapy with a single antibody. In summary, the different published studies showed widely varying results, depending on the combination of antibodies, indication and patient population. More preclinical and clinical studies are necessary to unravel the mechanisms behind synergistic or antagonistic effects of combining monoclonal antibodies. Most research on combination therapies is still in an early stage, but it is expected that for several tumor types the use of combination therapy of antibodies will become standard of care in the near future.
Cancer Treatment Reviews 11/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.ctrv.2015.10.008 · 7.59 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Purpose:
The prognosis of gastroesophageal cancer is poor, and current regimens are associated with limited efficacy. The purpose of this study was to explore the safety and preliminary efficacy of docetaxel, oxaliplatin plus capecitabine for advanced cancer of the stomach or the gastroesophageal junction (GEJ). Secondary objectives included pharmacokinetic and pharmacogenetic analyses.
Patients were treated in escalating dose levels with docetaxel and oxaliplatin (both on day 1), plus capecitabine b.i.d. on days 1-14 every 3 weeks, to determine the dose-limiting toxicity and maximum tolerated dose (MTD). An expansion cohort was treated at the MTD. A total of ten polymorphisms in pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic candidate genes were analyzed and tested for association with treatment outcome.
A total of 34 evaluable patients were enrolled. The MTD was docetaxel 50 mg/m(2), oxaliplatin 100 mg/m(2) plus capecitabine 850 mg/m(2) b.i.d. The median number of treatment cycles was 6 (range 2-8). Grade ≥ 3 toxicities included neutropenia (24 %), leukocytopenia (15 %), febrile neutropenia (12 %), fatigue (9 %) and diarrhea (6 %). The overall response rate was 45 %; two patients achieved a complete response. Median progression-free survival and overall survival were 6.5 months (95 % CI 5.4-7.6) and 11.0 months (95 % CI 7.9-14.1), respectively. The polymorphisms ERCC1 354C>T, TYMS 1053C>T and rs2612091 in ENOSF1 were associated with severe toxicity; ERCC1 354C>T and ERCC2 2251A>C were associated with poor progression-free survival.
Docetaxel, oxaliplatin plus capecitabine are a well-tolerable, safe and effective treatment regimen for patients with advanced cancer of the stomach or GEJ. Pharmacogenetic markers in pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic candidate genes may be predictive for treatment outcome.
Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology 10/2015; DOI:10.1007/s00280-015-2872-y · 2.77 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A validated simple, fast and sensitive bio-analytical assay for ibrutinib and its dihydrodiol metabolite in human and mouse plasma was set up. Sample preparation was performed by protein precipitation, and addition of the respective deuterated internal standards, followed by LC-MS/MS analysis. Separation was performed on a 3.5μm particle-size, bridged ethylene hybrid column with gradient elution by 0.1% v/v formic acid and acetonitrile. The full eluate was transferred to an electrospray interface in positive ionization mode, and subsequently analyzed by a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer by selected reaction monitoring. The assay was validated in a 5-5000 ng/ml calibration range. Both ibrutinib and dihydrodiol-ibrutinib were deemed stable under refrigerated or frozen storage conditions. At room temperature, ibrutinib showed a not earlier described instability, and revealed rapid degradation at 37°C. Finally, the assay was used for a pharmacokinetic study of plasma levels in treated FVB mice.
Journal of pharmaceutical and biomedical analysis 10/2015; 118. DOI:10.1016/j.jpba.2015.10.033 · 2.98 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We aimed to clarify the roles of the multidrug transporters ABCB1 and ABCG2 in oral availability and brain accumulation of ceritinib, an oral anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) inhibitor used to treat metastatic non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) after progression on crizotinib. Importantly, NSCLC is prone to form brain metastases. Transport of ceritinib by human (h) ABCB1 or hABCG2 or mouse (m) Abcg2 was assessed in vitro. To study the single and combined roles of Abcb1a/1b and Abcg2 in ceritinib disposition in vivo, we used appropriate knockout mouse strains. Ceritinib was very efficiently transported by hABCB1, and efficiently by hABCG2 and mAbcg2 in vitro, and transport was specifically inhibited by the ABCB1 inhibitor zosuquidar and ABCG2 inhibitor Ko143, respectively. Absorption and 24-h oral availability were not significantly affected by the absence of Abcb1 and/or Abcg2, but the brain concentrations were greatly increased (>38-fold) in Abcb1a/1b(-/-) mice at 3 and 24h after oral administration of 20mg/kg ceritinib. The brain concentrations increased another ∼3-fold (to >90-fold) in Abcb1a/1b;Abcg2(-/-) mice, indicating that there was a significant additional effect of Abcg2-mediated transport of ceritinib as well in vivo. Overall, brain accumulation, but not the 24-h oral availability of ceritinib were profoundly restricted by Abcb1a/1b and Abcg2, with Abcb1a/1b being the dominant efflux protein. Our data suggest that coadministration of ceritinib with a dual ABCB1 and ABCG2 inhibitor may improve treatment of brain (micro) metastases positioned behind a functionally intact blood-brain barrier, and possibly also of tumors resistant to ceritinib due to ABCB1 or ABCG2 overexpression.
Pharmacological Research 09/2015; 102. DOI:10.1016/j.phrs.2015.09.003 · 4.41 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We aimed to clarify the roles of the multidrug-detoxifying proteins ABCB1, ABCG2, ABCC2, and CYP3A in oral availability and brain accumulation of cabazitaxel, a taxane developed for improved therapy of docetaxel-resistant prostate cancer. Cabazitaxel pharmacokinetics were studied in Abcb1a/1b, Abcg2, Abcc2, Cyp3a, and combination knockout mice. We found that human ABCB1, but not ABCG2, transported cabazitaxel in vitro. Upon oral cabazitaxel administration, total plasma levels were greatly increased due to binding to plasma carboxylesterase Ces1c, which is highly upregulated in several knockout strains. Ces1c inhibition and in vivo hepatic Ces1c knockdown reversed these effects. Correcting for Ces1c effects, Abcb1a/1b, Abcg2, and Abcc2 did not restrict cabazitaxel oral availability, whereas Abcb1a/1b, but not Abcg2, dramatically reduced cabazitaxel brain accumulation (>10-fold). Coadministration of the ABCB1 inhibitor elacridar completely reversed this brain accumulation effect. After correction for Ces1c effects, Cyp3a knockout mice demonstrated a strong (6-fold) increase in cabazitaxel oral availability, which was completely reversed by transgenic human CYP3A4 in intestine and liver. Cabazitaxel markedly inhibited mouse Ces1c, but human CES1 and CES2 only weakly. Ces1c upregulation can thus complicate preclinical cabazitaxel studies. In summary, ABCB1 limits cabazitaxel brain accumulation and therefore potentially therapeutic efficacy against (micro)metastases or primary tumors positioned wholly or partly behind a functional blood-brain barrier. This can be reversed with elacridar coadministration, and similar effects may apply to ABCB1-expressing tumors. CYP3A4 profoundly reduces the oral availability of cabazitaxel. This may potentially be greatly improved by coadministering ritonavir or other CYP3A inhibitors, suggesting the option of patient-friendly oral cabazitaxel therapy.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To determine the health-related quality of life (HRQOL) of overweight and obese multi-ethnic children compared with normal-weight children; and to investigate differences in HRQOL between self- and parent-proxy reports and ethnic groups.
Prospective cross-sectional study.
Out-patient clinic where children and their parents filled out a validated HRQOL questionnaire (KIDSCREEN-52) and height, weight, waist circumference and fat percentage were measured.
Overweight and obese children, aged 8-18 years (mean BMI Z-score 3·2 (sd 0·6)), from the obesity out-patient clinic.
Three hundred and eight self- and 213 parent-proxy reported questionnaires were completed. Global HRQOL and the Physical Wellbeing, Moods & Emotions and Self-Perception subscales were markedly reduced in our multi-ethnic obese cohort, relative to the Dutch reference values. Parent proxies reported significantly lower on the global HRQOL and the Physical Wellbeing, Moods & Emotions and Bullying subscales. In Caucasian children, multivariate analyses showed that BMI was associated with the quality-of-life subscales Moods & Emotions, Self-Perception and Bullying.
HRQOL was markedly reduced in our multi-ethnic overweight and obese out-patient clinic cohort, with significantly lower parent-proxy scores compared with self-reported scores. We believe intervention programmes aiming to improve HRQOL should be directed to both parents and children, while ethnic-specific programmes to enhance HRQOL seem of less importance.
Public Health Nutrition 07/2015; DOI:10.1017/S1368980015002074 · 2.68 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Olaparib (AZD2281), a PARP-1/2 inhibitor, has been extensively investigated in clinical trials. However, limited clinical data are available about its long-term safety and anti-tumour activity.
Patients had first participated in a phase I study of olaparib combined with carboplatin and/or paclitaxel. They continued with olaparib monotherapy in their best interest if they failed to tolerate the combination due to the treatment-related adverse events (TRAEs). Safety data were collected by physical examination and regular laboratory evaluations. Disease evaluations were performed by CT scan.
At data cutoff, 21 patients were included; 10 with breast, 9 with ovarian and 2 with fallopian tube cancer of whom 16 patients had a BRCA mutation (13 BRCA1; 3 BRCA2). TRAEs were mostly haematological and most prominent shortly after switching from combination to monotherapy, probably due to carry-over effects of chemotherapy. Over time, both severity and frequency of TRAEs decreased. Responses to olaparib were durable with a median treatment duration of 52 (range 7-183) weeks. In total, nine (43%) patients were still on study at data cutoff.
Continued long-term daily olaparib was found to be safe and tolerable. Encouragingly, patients who showed a favourable response on earlier combination therapy maintained this response on olaparib monotherapy.British Journal of Cancer advance online publication, 16 July 2015; doi:10.1038/bjc.2015.256 www.bjcancer.com.
British Journal of Cancer 07/2015; 113(3). DOI:10.1038/bjc.2015.256 · 4.84 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Introduction Palbociclib is a cyclin dependent kinase (CDK) 4/6 inhibitor with nanomolar potency and was recently approved for treatment of breast cancer. The drug may also be useful in glioblastoma (GBM) and diffuse intrinsic pontine gliomas (DIPG), which often have an activated CDK4/6-retinoblastoma signaling pathway. However, GBM and DIPG spread widely into the surrounding brain, which calls for a CDK4/6 inhibitor with sufficient blood-brain barrier penetration. Methods We first performed in vitro transwell assays and demonstrate that palbociclib is a substrate of both P-gp and BCRP. Next, we conducted pharmacokinetic studies using wildtype, Abcg2(-/-), Abcb1a/b(-/-) and Abcg2; Abcb1a/b(-/-) mice. Results The plasma levels were about 3000 and 500 nM and similar in all genotypes at 1 and 4 h after i.v. administration of 10 mg/kg. At 4 h the brain-to-plasma ratios were 0.3 in WT and Abcg2(-/-) mice versus 5.5 and 15 in Abcb1a/b(-/-) and Abcg2; Abcb1a/b(-/-) mice, respectively. The oral bioavailability of palbociclib was high (63 %) in WT mice and increased only modestly and non-significantly in Abcg2; Abcb1a/b(-/-) mice. The plasma level after oral dosing of 150 mg/kg was already much higher than observed in patients (200-400 nM) and exceeded 2500 nM for up to 24 h. This latter dose is commonly used in preclinical studies, which calls into question their predictive value as they were conducted at dose levels causing a clinically non-relevant systemic drug exposure. Conclusion Thus, the brain penetration of palbociclib is restricted by P-gp and BCRP, which may restrict the efficacy against GBM and DIPG. Moreover, preclinical studies with this agent should be conducted at a more clinically relevant dose level.
Investigational New Drugs 07/2015; 33(5). DOI:10.1007/s10637-015-0266-y · 2.92 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The antiestrogenic drug tamoxifen is widely used in the treatment of estrogen receptor-α-positive breast cancer and substantially decreases recurrence and mortality rates. However, high interindividual variability in response is observed, calling for a personalized approach to tamoxifen treatment. Tamoxifen is bioactivated by cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes such as CYP2B6, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP2D6 and CYP3A4/5, resulting in the formation of active metabolites, including 4-hydroxy-tamoxifen and endoxifen. Therefore, polymorphisms in the genes encoding these enzymes are proposed to influence tamoxifen and active tamoxifen metabolites in the serum and consequently affect patient response rates. To tailor tamoxifen treatment, multiple studies have been performed to clarify the influence of polymorphisms on its pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. Nevertheless, personalized treatment of tamoxifen based on genotyping has not yet met consensus. This article critically reviews the published data on the effect of various genetic polymorphisms on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of tamoxifen, and reviews the clinical implications of its findings. For each CYP enzyme, the influence of polymorphisms on pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic outcome measures is described throughout this review. No clear effects on pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics were seen for various polymorphisms in the CYP encoding genes CYP2B6, CYP2C9, CYP2C19 and CYP3A4/5. For CYP2D6, there was a clear gene-exposure effect that was able to partially explain the interindividual variability in plasma concentrations of the pharmacologically most active metabolite endoxifen; however, a clear exposure-response effect remained controversial. These controversial findings and the partial contribution of genotype in explaining interindividual variability in plasma concentrations of, in particular, endoxifen, imply that tailored tamoxifen treatment may not be fully realized through pharmacogenetics of metabolizing enzymes alone.