Kenji Inaba

Keck School of Medicine USC, Los Ángeles, California, United States

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Publications (362)811.98 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to examine the ability of Focused Assessment Using Sonography for Trauma (FAST) to discriminate between survivors and nonsurvivors undergoing resuscitative thoracotomy (RT). RT is a high-risk, low-salvage procedure performed in arresting trauma patients with poorly defined indications. Patients undergoing RT from 10/2010 to 05/2014 were prospectively enrolled. A FAST examination including parasternal/subxiphoid cardiac views was performed before or concurrent with RT. The result was captured as adequate or inadequate with presence or absence of pericardial fluid and/or cardiac motion. A sensitivity analysis utilizing the primary outcome measure of survival to discharge or organ donation was performed. Overall, 187 patients arrived in traumatic arrest and underwent FAST. Median age 31 (1-84), 84.5% male, 51.3% penetrating. Loss of vital signs occurred at the scene in 48.1%, en-route in 23.5%, and in the ED in 28.3%. Emergent left thoracotomy was performed in 77.5% and clamshell thoracotomy in 22.5%. Sustained cardiac activity was regained in 48.1%. However, overall survival was only 3.2%. An additional 1.6% progressed to organ donation. FAST was inadequate in 3.7%, 28.9% demonstrated cardiac motion and 8.6% pericardial fluid. Cardiac motion on FAST was 100% sensitive and 73.7% specific for the identification of survivors and organ donors. With a high degree of sensitivity for the detection of potential survivors after traumatic arrest, FAST represents an effective method of separating those that do not warrant the risk and resource burden of RT from those who may survive. The likelihood of survival if pericardial fluid and cardiac motion were both absent was zero.
    Annals of surgery 09/2015; 262(3):512-518. DOI:10.1097/SLA.0000000000001421 · 7.19 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The early and accurate identification of patients with blunt thoracic aortic injury (BTAI) remains a challenge. Traditionally, a portable AP chest X-ray (CXR) is utilized as the initial screening modality for BTAI, however, there is controversy surrounding its sensitivity. The purpose of this study was to assess the sensitivity of CXR as a screening modality for BTAI. After IRB approval, all adult (≥18 yo) blunt trauma patients admitted to LAC+USC (01/2011-12/2013) who underwent CXR and chest CT were retrospectively reviewed. Final radiology attending CXR readings were reviewed for mediastinal abnormalities (widened mediastinum, mediastinal to chest width ratio greater than 0.25, irregular aortic arch, blurred aortic contour, opacification of the aortopulmonary window, and apical pleural haematoma) suggestive of aortic injury. Chest CT final attending radiologist readings were utilized as the gold standard for diagnosis of BTAI. The primary outcome analyzed was CXR sensitivity. A total of 3728 patients were included in the study. The majority of patients were male (72.6%); mean age was 43 (SD 20). Median ISS was 9 (IQR 4-17) and median GCS was 15 (IQR 14-15). The most common mechanism of injury was MVC (48.0%), followed by fall (20.6%), and AVP (16.9%). The total number of CXRs demonstrating a mediastinal abnormality was 200 (5.4%). Widened mediastinum was present on 191 (5.1%) of CXRs, blurred aortic contour on 10 (0.3%), and irregular aortic arch on 4 (0.1%). An acute aortic injury confirmed by chest CT was present in 17 (0.5%) patients. Only 7 of these with CT-confirmed BTAI had a mediastinal abnormality identified on CXR, for a sensitivity of 41% (95% CI: 19-67%). The results from this study suggest that CXR alone is not a reliable screening modality for BTAI. A combination of screening CXR and careful consideration of other factors, such as mechanism of injury, will be required to effectively discriminate between those who should and should not undergo chest CT. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
    Injury 08/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.injury.2015.08.003 · 2.46 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Incidental pneumomediastinum is a common radiologic finding following blunt thoracic injury; however, the clinical significance of pneumomediastinum on screening imaging is poorly defined (Curr Probl Surg. 2004;41(3):211-380; Injury. 2010;41(1):40-43). The purpose of this study was to define the incidence of aerodigestive injuries in patients with pneumomediastinum after blunt thoracic and neck injury. After institutional review board approval was obtained, a retrospective review was performed of all patients admitted to Los Angeles County + University of Southern California Medical Center with blunt neck and/or thoracic injuries between January 2007 and December 2012. All patients with pneumomediastinum on radiologic investigation were included. Data accrued included demographics, admission clinical data, injury severity patterns, incidence of aerodigestive injuries, operative findings, morbidity, mortality, as well as intensive care unit and hospital lengths of stay. A total of 9,946 patients were included in the study. The predominant mechanism was motor vehicle collision (49%), disproportionately male (76%). Overall, 258 patients (2.6%) had a pneumomediastinum: 65 (25%) and 193 (75%) were diagnosed on a chest x-ray or on a computed tomography (CT) scan, respectively. A total of 21 patients (8.1%) had an aerodigestive workup with bronchoscopy, esophagram, and/or esophagoscopy. Overall, four aerodigestive lesions (1.6%) were diagnosed. Three tracheobronchial injuries were identified on CT scan, and one esophageal injury was diagnosed on an esophagram. Two tracheobronchial injuries required surgery, while the remaining cases were managed nonoperatively. The overall mortality in this cohort was 10.9%. Isolated findings of pneumomediastinum on screening chest x-ray or CT following blunt trauma is a poor predictor of an aerodigestive injury. Highly selective workup in this clinical setting is warranted. Prognostic/epidemiologic study, level III; therapeutic study, level IV.
    08/2015; 79(2):188-193. DOI:10.1097/TA.0000000000000714
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    ABSTRACT: Unlike in the military setting, where the use of tourniquets has been well established, in the civilian sector their use has been far less uniform. The purpose of this study was to examine the outcomes associated with the use of tourniquets for civilian extremity trauma. Adult (≥18 years) patients admitted to our institution with an extremity injury requiring tourniquet application from January 2007 to June 2014 were retrospectively reviewed. The primary outcome analyzed was limb loss. Secondary outcomes included death, hospital length of stay, and complications. There were 87 patients who met inclusion criteria. Average age was 35.3 years, 90.8% were male, and 66.7% had penetrating injuries, with a median Injury Severity Score (ISS) of 6. Tourniquets were placed in the prehospital setting in 50.6%, in the emergency department in 39.1%, and in the operating room in 10.3% of patients. The windlass type Combat Application Tourniquet was the most commonly used type (67.8%), followed by a pneumatic system (24.1%) and self-made tourniquet (8.0%). The median duration of use was 75 minutes (interquartile range, 91) with no differences between groups (p = 0.547). Overall, 80.5% had a vascular injury (70.1% arterial), and a total of 99 limb operations were performed, including 15 amputations. Fourteen amputations (93.3%) occurred at the scene or were directly attributed to the extent of tissue damage with a median Mangled Extremity Severity Score (MESS) of 7 (interquartile range, 2). In the remaining patient, the tourniquet was lifesaving but likely contributed to limb loss. Seven patients sustained 13 other complications; however, none was directly attributed to tourniquet use. Tourniquet use in the civilian sector is associated with a low rate of complications. With the low complication rate and high potential for benefit, aggressive use of this potentially lifesaving intervention is justified. Epidemiologic/prognostic study, level III.
    08/2015; 79(2):232-237. DOI:10.1097/TA.0000000000000747
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    ABSTRACT: Although there is increasing interest in the use of a viscoelastic test procedure (ROTEM®/TEG®) for diagnostics and therapy guidance of severely injured and bleeding patients, currently no uniformly accepted guidelines exist for how this technology should be integrated into clinical treatment. In September 2014 an international multidisciplinary group of opinion leaders in the field of trauma-induced coagulopathy and other disciplines involved in the treatment of severely injured patients were assembled for a 2-day consensus conference in Philadelphia (USA). This panel included trauma/accident surgeons, general/abdominal surgeons, vascular surgeons, emergency/intensive care surgeons, hematologists, transfusion specialists, anesthesiologists, laboratory physicians, pathobiologists/pathophysiologists and the lay public. A total of nine questions regarding the impact of viscoelastic testing in the early treatment of trauma patients were developed prior to the conference by a panel consensus. Early use was defined as baseline viscoelastic test result thresholds obtained within the first minutes of hospital arrival, when conventional laboratory results are not yet available. The available data for each question were then reviewed in person using standardized presentations by the expert panel. A consensus summary document was then developed and reviewed by the panel in an open forum. Finally, a 2-round Delphi poll was administered to the panel of experts regarding viscoelastic thresholds for triggering the initiation of specific treatments including fibrinogen (concentrates), platelet concentrates, blood plasma products and prothrombin complex concentrates (PCC). This report summarizes the findings and recommendations of this consensus conference, which correspond to a S2k guideline according to the system of the Association of the Scientific Medical Societies in Germany (AWMF) and taking formal consensus findings including Delphi methods into consideration.
    Der Anaesthesist 07/2015; DOI:10.1007/s00101-015-0040-8 · 0.74 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Although beta-adrenergic receptor blockade may improve outcomes after traumatic brain injury (TBI), its early use is not routine. We hypothesize that judicious early low-dose propranolol after TBI (EPAT) will improve outcomes without altering bradycardia or hypotensive events. We conducted a prospective, observational study on all patients who presented with moderate-to-severe TBI from March 2010-August 2013. Ten initial patients did not receive propranolol (control). Subsequent patients received propranolol at 1-mg intravenous every 6 h starting within 12 h of intensive care unit (ICU) admission (EPAT) for a minimum of 48 h. Heart rate and blood pressure were recorded hourly for the first 72 h. Bradycardia and hypotensive events, mortality, and length of stay (LOS) were compared between cohorts to determine significant differences. Thirty-eight patients were enrolled; 10 control and 28 EPAT. The two cohorts were similar when compared by gender, emergency department (ED) systolic blood pressure, ED heart rate, and mortality. ED Glasgow coma scale was lower (4.2 versus 10.7, P < 0.01) and injury severity score higher in control. EPAT patients received a mean of 10 ± 14 doses of propranolol. Hypotensive events were similar between cohorts, whereas bradycardia events were higher in control (5.8 versus 1.6, P = 0.05). ICU LOS (15.4 versus 30.4 d, P = 0.02) and hospital LOS (10 versus 19.1 d, P = 0.05) were lower in EPAT. Mortality rates were similar between groups (10% versus 10.7%, P = 0.9). The administration of propranolol led to no recorded complications. Although bradycardia and hypotensive events occur early after TBI, low-dose intravenous propranolol does not increase their number or severity. Early use of propranolol after TBI appears to be safe and may be associated with decreased ICU and hospital LOS. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Journal of Surgical Research 06/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.jss.2015.06.045 · 2.12 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: There has been an increased interest in the use of viscoelastic testing to guide blood product replacement during the acute resuscitation of the injured patient. Currently, no uniformly accepted guidelines exist for how this technology should be integrated into clinical care. In September 2014, an international multidisciplinary group of leaders in the field of trauma coagulopathy and resuscitation was assembled for a 2-day consensus conference in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. This panel included trauma surgeons, hematologists, blood bank specialists, anesthesiologists, and the lay public. Nine questions regarding the impact of viscoelastic testing in the early resuscitation of trauma patients were developed before the conference by panel consensus. Early use was defined as baseline viscoelastic test result thresholds obtained within the first minutes of hospital arrival—when conventional laboratory results are not available. The available data for each question were then reviewed in person using standardized presentations by the expert panel. A consensus summary document was then developed and reviewed by the panel in an open forum. Finally, a two-round Delphi poll was administered to the panel of experts regarding viscoelastic thresholds for triggering the initiation of specific treatments including fibrinogen, platelets, plasma, and prothrombin complex concentrates. This report summarizes the findings and recommendations of this consensus conference.
    Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery 06/2015; 78(6):1220-1229. DOI:10.1097/TA.0000000000000657 · 1.97 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Multidetector computed tomographic angiography (MDCTA) has become the gold standard for the early assessment of lower extremity vascular injury. The objective of this study was to evaluate the predictive value of MDCTA documented vessel run-off to the foot on limb salvage rates after lower extremity vascular injury. All trauma patients undergoing lower extremity MDCTA for suspected vascular injury assessed at 2 high-volume Level I trauma centers between January 2009 and December 2012. Demographics, clinical data and outcomes (compartment syndrome requiring fasciotomy and limb salvage) were extracted. The predictive value of MDCTA vessel run-off was tested against an aggregate gold standard of operative intervention, clinical follow-up and all imaging obtained. During the 4-year study period, 398 patients sustained lower extremity trauma and were screened for inclusion into this study. Of those, 166 (41.7%) patients (72.9% at MHH and 27.1% at LAC+USC Medical Center) underwent initial evaluation with MDCTA, 86 (51.8%) had vascular injury below the knee identified by MDCTA. Among these, the average age was 38.0±15.8 years, 80.2% were men and 83.7% sustained a blunt injury mechanism. On admission, 8.1% were hypotensive and the median ISS was 10 (range 1-57). There was a direct correlation between the number of patent vessels to the foot and the need for operative intervention (86.4% with no patent vessels, 56.0% with 1 patent vessel, 33.3% with 2 and 0.0% with 3, p<0.001). When outcomes were analysed, the rates of fasciotomy for compartment syndrome decreased in a stepwise fashion as the number of patent vessels to the foot increased (63.6% with no patent vessels; 44.0% with 1; 21.2% with 2; and 0.0% with 3; p=0.003). No amputations occurred in patients with 2 or more patent vessels to the foot (68.2% for no patent vessel; 16.0% for 1; 0.0% for 2; and 0.0% for 3; p<0.001). In this multicenter evaluation of patients undergoing MDCTA for suspected below-the-knee vascular injury, there was a stepwise increase in the need for operative intervention, fasciotomy and amputation as the number of patent vessels to the foot decreased. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
    Injury 06/2015; 46(8). DOI:10.1016/j.injury.2015.06.001 · 2.46 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In surgery patients, low preoperative serum transthyretin (TTR) level is associated with greater rates of infection and mortality. However, the predictive value of TTR on surgical outcomes after major trauma has not yet been studied. Critically ill trauma patients who underwent surgery for trauma and had TTR preoperatively measured after admission to the surgical intensive care unit (ICU) at the LAC+USC Medical Center (01/2008-05/2014) were identified retrospectively. Univariable and multivariable regression analyses determined the significance of TTR on outcomes. We identified 348 patients. Univariable analysis indicated that patients with lower TTR had more infections (P < .001), higher mortality (P = .007), longer hospital stay (P < .001), longer ICU stay (P < .001), and increased ventilator days (P < .001). Even after adjusting for differences in patient characteristics, lower TTR level was associated with greater infectious complication rates (P = .001), greater mortality (P = .005), longer hospital stay (P = .013), longer ICU stay (P = .030), and increased ventilator days (P = .044). In critically ill trauma patients, low serum TTR level is associated with poorer clinical outcomes, and its prognostic utility warrants further study. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Surgery 05/2015; 158(2). DOI:10.1016/j.surg.2015.02.019 · 3.11 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The American Association for the Surgery of Trauma (AAST) recently established a grading system for uniform reporting of anatomic severity of several emergency general surgery (EGS) diseases. There are five grades of severity for each disease, ranging from I (lowest severity) to V (highest severity). However, the grading process requires manual chart review. We sought to evaluate whether International Classification of Diseases, 9th and 10th Revisions, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM, ICD-10-CM) codes might allow estimation of AAST grades for EGS diseases. The Patient Assessment and Outcomes Committee of the AAST reviewed all available ICD-9-CM and ICD-10-CM diagnosis codes relevant to 16 EGS diseases with available AAST grades. We then matched grades for each EGS disease with one or more ICD codes. We used the Official Coding Guidelines for ICD-9-CM and ICD-10-CM and the American Hospital Association's "Coding Clinic for ICD-9-CM" for coding guidance. The ICD codes did not allow for matching all five AAST grades of severity for each of the 16 diseases. With ICD-9-CM, six diseases mapped into four categories of severity (instead of five), another six diseases into three categories of severity, and four diseases into only two categories of severity. With ICD-10-CM, five diseases mapped into four categories of severity, seven diseases into three categories, and four diseases into two categories. Two diseases mapped into discontinuous categories of grades (two in ICD-9-CM and one in ICD-10-CM). Although resolution is limited, ICD-9-CM and ICD-10-CM diagnosis codes might have some utility in roughly approximating the severity of the AAST grades in the absence of more precise information. These ICD mappings should be validated and refined before widespread use to characterize EGS disease severity. In the long-term, it may be desirable to develop alternatives to ICD-9-CM and ICD-10-CM codes for routine collection of disease severity characteristics.
    05/2015; 78(5):1059-1065. DOI:10.1097/TA.0000000000000608
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    ABSTRACT: There is no consensus on the optimal management of pediatric patients with suspected trauma brain injury and a normal head CT. This study characterizes the clinical outcomes of patients with a normal initial CT scan of the head. A retrospective chart review of pediatric blunt trauma patients who underwent head CT for closed head injury at two trauma centers was performed. Charts were reviewed for demographics, neurologic function, CT findings, and complications. 631 blunt pediatric trauma patients underwent a head CT. 63% had a negative CT, 7% had a non-displaced skull fracture, and 31% had an intracranial hemorrhage and/or displaced skull fracture. For patients without intracranial injury, the mean age was 8years, mean ISS was 5, and 92% had a GCS of 13-15 on arrival. All patients with an initial GCS of 13-15 and no intracranial injury were eventually discharged to home with a normal neurologic exam and no patient required craniotomy. Not admitting those children with an initial GCS of 13-15, normal CT scan, and no other injuries would have saved 1.8±1.5 hospital days per patient. Pediatric patients who have sustained head trauma, have a negative CT scan, and present with a GCS 13-15 can safely be discharged home without admission. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.
    Journal of Pediatric Surgery 04/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.jpedsurg.2015.03.067 · 1.31 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The practice of transfusing ones' own shed whole blood has obvious benefits such as reducing the need for allogeneic transfusions and decreasing the need for other fluids that are typically used for resuscitation in trauma. It is not widely adopted in the trauma setting because of the concern of worsening coagulopathy and the inflammatory process. The aim of this study was to assess outcomes in trauma patients receiving whole blood autotransfusion (AT) from hemothorax. This is a multi-institutional retrospective study of all trauma patients who received autologous whole blood transfusion from hemothorax from two Level I trauma centers. Patients who received AT were matched to patients who did not receive AT (No-AT) using propensity score matching in a 1:1 ratio for admission age, sex, mechanism, type of injury, Injury Severity Score (ISS), Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score, systolic blood pressure, heart rate, hemoglobin, international normalized ratio (INR), prothrombin time, partial prothrombin time, and lactate. AT was defined as transfusion of autologous blood from patient's hemothorax, which was collected from the chest tubes and anticoagulated with citrate phosphorous dextrose. Outcome measures were in-hospital complications, 24-hour INR, and mortality. In-hospital complications were defined as adult respiratory distress syndrome, sepsis, disseminated intravascular coagulation, renal insufficiency, and transfusion-related acute lung injury. A total of 272 patients (AT, 136; No-AT, 136) were included. There was no difference in admission age (p = 0.6), ISS (p = 0.56), head Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) score (p = 0.42), systolic blood pressure (p = 0.88), and INR (p = 0.62) between the two groups. There was no significant difference in in-hospital complications (p = 0.61), mortality (p = 0.51), and 24-hour postadmission INR (0.31) between the AT and No-AT groups. Patients who received AT had significantly lower packed red blood cell (p = 0.01) and platelet requirements (p = 0.01). Cost of transfusions (p = 0.01) was significantly lower in the AT group compared with the No-AT group. The autologous transfusion of the patient's shed blood collected through chest tubes for hemothorax was found to be safe without complications in this study. It also reduced the need for allogeneic transfusions and decreased hospital costs. This study demonstrates safety data that would help in designing larger prospective multicenter studies to determine whether this practice is truly safe and effective. Epidemiologic/prognostic study, level III.
    04/2015; 78(4):729-34. DOI:10.1097/TA.0000000000000599
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    ABSTRACT: The Pragmatic, Randomized Optimal Platelets and Plasma Ratios (PROPPR) trial was a randomized clinical trial comparing survival after transfusion of two different blood component ratios for emergency resuscitation of traumatic massive hemorrhage. Transfusion services supporting the study were expected to provide thawed plasma, platelets, and red blood cells within 10 minutes of request. At the 12 Level 1 trauma centers participating in PROPPR, blood components transfused and delivery times were tabulated, with a focus on universal donor (UD) plasma management. The adequacy of site plans was assessed by comparing the bedside blood availability times to study goals and the new American College of Surgeons guidelines. Eleven of 12 sites were able to consistently deliver 6 units of thawed UD plasma to their trauma-receiving unit within 10 minutes and 12 units in 20 minutes. Three sites used blood group A plasma instead of AB for massive transfusion without complications. Approximately 4700 units of plasma were given to the 680 patients enrolled in the trial. No site experienced shortages of AB plasma that limited enrollment. Two of 12 sites reported wastage of thawed AB plasma approaching 25% of AB plasma prepared. Delivering UD plasma to massively hemorrhaging patients was accomplished consistently and rapidly and without excessive wastage in high-volume trauma centers. The American College of Surgeons Trauma Quality Improvement Program guidelines for massive transfusion protocol UD plasma availability are practicable in large academic trauma centers. Use of group A plasma in trauma resuscitation needs further study. © 2015 AABB.
    Transfusion 03/2015; 55(6). DOI:10.1111/trf.13098 · 3.57 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The optimal timing of same-admission laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) for acute cholecystitis (AC) in elderly patients, especially those with significant comorbidities, is not clear. This is a National Surgical Quality Improvement Program study, which included patients older than 65 years undergoing LC for AC. Patients with choledocholithiasis were excluded. Patients were divided into two subgroups as follows: no significant comorbidities (American Society of Anesthesiologists [ASA] score ≤ 2) and significant comorbidities (ASA score > 2). Patients undergoing LC within 24 hours of admission (early LC) were compared with patients undergoing LC later than 24 hours after admission (delayed LC), using univariable and multivariable regression analyses. A total of 4,011 patients were included in the study. Early LC was performed in 38.0% and delayed LC in 62.0% of the patients. Regression analysis identified early LC as an independent predictor for shorter anesthesia time and postoperative length of stay, overall and in the subgroup with an ASA score greater than 2. Early, within 24 hours of admission, LC for AC in patients older than 65 years with significant comorbidities is associated with shorter postoperative stay and no increase in postoperative complications or conversion to open cholecystectomy. Level II.
    Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery 03/2015; 78(4). DOI:10.1097/TA.0000000000000577 · 1.97 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Patients with paraplegia or quadriplegia presenting with abdominal surgical emergencies pose major clinical challenges. Difficulties in prompt diagnosis and treatment may influence patient outcomes. This is an American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program study of patients undergoing an emergent abdominal operation. Patients were stratified into paraplegic (PARA), quadriplegic (QUAD), and control (CONT). PARA and QUAD groups were matched with controls by 1:2 ratio. Regression models were used to analyze the effect of paraplegia and quadriplegia on outcome. A total of 76,766 patients underwent emergent abdominal operations: 274 PARA, 132 QUAD, and 76,356 CONT patients. Lower gastrointestinal operations were the most common procedures in PARA and QUAD groups; appendectomy was the most common in the CONT group. After cohort matching, patients with cord paralysis were significantly more likely to present with severe sepsis, have "infected" wounds at operation, and have increased rates of postoperative sepsis and need for reoperation. Patients with paraplegia or quadriplegia with acute abdominal surgical emergencies are more likely to present late and have a significantly higher incidence of postoperative septic complications and longer hospital stay. Early surgical consultation and aggressive evaluation and postoperative management are warranted in these populations. Evidence study, level III.
    Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery 03/2015; 78(4). DOI:10.1097/TA.0000000000000575 · 1.97 Impact Factor
  • The American surgeon 03/2015; 81(3). · 0.92 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Unlike the cervical spine (C-spine), where National Emergency X-Radiography Utilization Study (NEXUS) and the Canadian C-spine Rules can be used, evidence-based thoracolumbar spine (TL-spine) clearance guidelines do not exist. The aim of this study was to develop a clinical decision rule for evaluating the TL-spine after injury. Adult (≥15 years) blunt trauma patients were prospectively enrolled at 13 US trauma centers (January 2012 to January 2014). Exclusion criteria included the following: C-spine injury with neurologic deficit, preexisting paraplegia/tetraplegia, and unevaluable examination. Remaining evaluable patients underwent TL-spine imaging and were followed up to discharge. The primary end point was a clinically significant TL-spine injury requiring TL-spine orthoses or surgical stabilization. Regression techniques were used to develop a clinical decision rule. Decision rule performance in identifying clinically significant fractures was tested. Of 12,479 patients screened, 3,065 (24.6%) met inclusion criteria (mean [SD] age, 43.5 [19.8] years [range, 15-103 years]; male sex, 66.3%; mean [SD] Injury Severity Score [ISS], 8.8 [7.5]). The majority underwent computed tomography (93.3%), 6.3% only plain films, and 0.2% magnetic resonance imaging exclusively. TL-spine injury was identified in 499 patients (16.3%), of which 264 (8.6%) were clinically significant (29.2% surgery, 70.8% TL-spine orthosis). The majority was AO Type A1 282 (56.5%), followed by 67 (13.4%) A3, 43 (8.6%) B2, and 32 (6.4%) A4 injuries. The predictive ability of clinical examination (pain, midline tenderness, deformity, neurologic deficit), age, and mechanism was examined; positive clinical examination finding resulted in a sensitivity of 78.4% and a specificity of 72.9%. Addition of age of 60 years or older and high-risk mechanism (fall, crush, motor vehicle crash with ejection/rollover, unenclosed vehicle crash, auto vs. pedestrian) increased sensitivity to 98.9% with specificity of 29.0% for clinically significant injuries and 100.0% sensitivity and 27.3% specificity for injuries requiring surgery. Clinical examination alone is insufficient for determining the need for imaging in evaluable patients at risk of TL-spine injury. Addition of age and high-risk mechanism results in a clinical decision-making rule with a sensitivity of 98.9% for clinically significant injuries. Diagnostic test, level III.
    Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery 03/2015; 78(3):459-67. DOI:10.1097/TA.0000000000000560 · 1.97 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The standard practice of irrigation and debridement (I&D) of open fractures within 6 hours of injury remains controversial. To prospectively evaluate the effect of the time from injury to the initial I&D on infectious complications. A total of 315 patients who were admitted to a level 1 trauma center with open extremity fractures from September 22, 2008, through June 21, 2011, were enrolled in a prospective observational study and followed up for 1 year after discharge (mean [SD] age, 33.9 [16.3] years; 79% were male; and 78.4% were due to blunt trauma). Demographics, mechanism of injury, time to I&D, operative intervention, and incidence of local infectious complications were documented. Patients were stratified into 4 groups based on the time of I&D (<6 hours, 7-12 hours, 13-18 hours, and 19-24 hours after injury). Univariate and multivariable analysis were used to determine the effect of time to I&D on outcomes. Development of local infectious complications at early (<30 days) or late (>30 days and <1 year) intervals from admission. The most frequently injured site was the lower extremity (70.2%), and 47.9% of all injuries were Gustilo classification type III. There was no difference in fracture location, degree of contamination, or antibiotic use between groups. All patients underwent I&D within 24 hours. Overall, 14 patients (4.4%) developed early wound infections, while 10 (3.2%) developed late wound infections (after 30 days). The infection rate was not statistically different on univariate (<6 hours, 4.7%; 7-12 hours, 7.5%; 13-18 hours, 3.1%; and 19-24 hours, 3.6%; P = .65) or multivariable analysis (<6-hour group [reference], P = .65; 7- to 12-hour group adjusted odds ratio [AOR] [95% CI], 2.1 [0.4-10.2], P = .37; 13- to 18-hour group AOR [95% CI], 0.8 [0.1-4.5], P = .81; 19- to 24-hour group AOR [95% CI], 1.1 [0.2-6.2], P = .90). Time to I&D did not affect the rate of nonunion, hardware failure, length of stay, or mortality. In this prospective analysis, time to I&D did not affect the development of local infectious complications provided it was performed within 24 hours of arrival.
    02/2015; 150(4). DOI:10.1001/jamasurg.2014.2022
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    ABSTRACT: Severely injured patients experiencing hemorrhagic shock often require massive transfusion. Earlier transfusion with higher blood product ratios (plasma, platelets, and red blood cells), defined as damage control resuscitation, has been associated with improved outcomes; however, there have been no large multicenter clinical trials. To determine the effectiveness and safety of transfusing patients with severe trauma and major bleeding using plasma, platelets, and red blood cells in a 1:1:1 ratio compared with a 1:1:2 ratio. Pragmatic, phase 3, multisite, randomized clinical trial of 680 severely injured patients who arrived at 1 of 12 level I trauma centers in North America directly from the scene and were predicted to require massive transfusion between August 2012 and December 2013. Blood product ratios of 1:1:1 (338 patients) vs 1:1:2 (342 patients) during active resuscitation in addition to all local standard-of-care interventions (uncontrolled). Primary outcomes were 24-hour and 30-day all-cause mortality. Prespecified ancillary outcomes included time to hemostasis, blood product volumes transfused, complications, incidence of surgical procedures, and functional status. No significant differences were detected in mortality at 24 hours (12.7% in 1:1:1 group vs 17.0% in 1:1:2 group; difference, -4.2% [95% CI, -9.6% to 1.1%]; P = .12) or at 30 days (22.4% vs 26.1%, respectively; difference, -3.7% [95% CI, -10.2% to 2.7%]; P = .26). Exsanguination, which was the predominant cause of death within the first 24 hours, was significantly decreased in the 1:1:1 group (9.2% vs 14.6% in 1:1:2 group; difference, -5.4% [95% CI, -10.4% to -0.5%]; P = .03). More patients in the 1:1:1 group achieved hemostasis than in the 1:1:2 group (86% vs 78%, respectively; P = .006). Despite the 1:1:1 group receiving more plasma (median of 7 U vs 5 U, P < .001) and platelets (12 U vs 6 U, P < .001) and similar amounts of red blood cells (9 U) over the first 24 hours, no differences between the 2 groups were found for the 23 prespecified complications, including acute respiratory distress syndrome, multiple organ failure, venous thromboembolism, sepsis, and transfusion-related complications. Among patients with severe trauma and major bleeding, early administration of plasma, platelets, and red blood cells in a 1:1:1 ratio compared with a 1:1:2 ratio did not result in significant differences in mortality at 24 hours or at 30 days. However, more patients in the 1:1:1 group achieved hemostasis and fewer experienced death due to exsanguination by 24 hours. Even though there was an increased use of plasma and platelets transfused in the 1:1:1 group, no other safety differences were identified between the 2 groups. clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT01545232.
    JAMA The Journal of the American Medical Association 02/2015; 313(5):471-82. DOI:10.1001/jama.2015.12 · 30.39 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: There is a need for a prospective registry designed to capture trauma-specific, in-hospital, and long-term outcomes related to vascular injury. The American Association for the Surgery of Trauma PROspective Vascular Injury Treatment (PROOVIT) registry was used to collect demographic, diagnostic, treatment, and outcome data on vascular injuries. A total of 542 injuries from 14 centers (13 American College of Surgeons-verified Level I and 1 American College of Surgeons-verified Level II) have been captured since February 2013. The majority of patients are male (70.5%), with an Injury Severity Score (ISS) of 15 or greater among 32.1%. Penetrating mechanisms account for 36.5%. Arterial injuries to the head/neck (26.7%), thorax (10.4%), abdomen/pelvis (7.8%), upper extremity (18.4%), and lower extremity (26.0%) were identified, along with 98 major venous injuries. Hard signs of vascular injury, including hypotension (systolic blood pressure < 90 mm Hg, 11.8%), were noted in 28.6%. Prehospital tourniquet use for extremity injuries occurred in 20.2% (47 of 233). Diagnostic modalities included exploration (28.8%), computed tomographic angiography (38.9%), duplex ultrasound (3.1%), and angiography (10.7%). Arterial injuries included transection (24.3%), occlusion (17.3%), partial transection/flow limiting defect (24.5%), pseudoaneurysm (9.0%), and other injuries including intimal defects (22.7%). Nonoperative management was undertaken in 276 (50.9%), with failure in 4.0%. Definitive endovascular and open repair were used in 40 (7.4%) and 126 (23.2%) patients, respectively. Damage-control maneuvers were used in 57 (10.5%), including ligation (31, 5.7%) and shunting (14, 2.6%). Reintervention of initial repair was required in 42 (7.7%). Amputation was performed in 7.7% of extremity vascular injuries, and overall hospital mortality was 12.7%. Follow-up ranging from 1 month to 7 months is available for 48 patients via a variety of modalities, with reintervention required in 1 patient. The PROOVIT registry provides a contemporary picture of the management of vascular injury. This resource promises to provide needed information required to answer questions about optimal diagnosis and management of these patients-including much needed long-term outcome data. Epidemiologic study, level V.
    Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery 02/2015; 78(2):215-223. DOI:10.1097/TA.0000000000000520 · 1.97 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

4k Citations
811.98 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2011–2015
    • Keck School of Medicine USC
      Los Ángeles, California, United States
    • Los Angeles Biomedical Research Institute at Harbor-UCLA Medical Center
      Torrance, California, United States
  • 2008–2015
    • University of Southern California
      • Department of Surgery
      Los Ángeles, California, United States
    • University of California, Los Angeles
      • Department of Surgery
      Los Ángeles, California, United States
    • The University of Arizona
      • Department of Surgery
      Tucson, AZ, United States
    • Cedars-Sinai Medical Center
      • Department of Surgery
      Los Ángeles, California, United States
  • 2014
    • Fraunhofer Institute for Production Technology IPT
      Aachen, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany
  • 2012
    • University of Maryland, Baltimore
      Baltimore, Maryland, United States
  • 2010–2011
    • University of Southern Mississippi
      HBG, Mississippi, United States
  • 2008–2009
    • City University Los Angeles
      Los Ángeles, California, United States
  • 2007–2008
    • University of Miami
      • Department of Surgery
      كورال غيبلز، فلوريدا, Florida, United States
  • 2006
    • University of Toronto
      • Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre
      Toronto, Ontario, Canada
  • 2005
    • The University of Western Ontario
      London, Ontario, Canada
  • 2001
    • London Health Sciences Centre
      London, Ontario, Canada