[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ohmic-assisted hydrodistillation (OAHD) is a new method proposed for extraction of essential oils in which ohmic heating technology is combined with distillation. In this study, different frequencies (25, 50 and 100 Hz) as well as high and low intensity OAHD (220 and 380 Volt) were applied on aerial parts of Mentha piperita L. and the results were compared with those of the conventional hydrodistillation (HD). The results showed that high and low intensity OAHD methods had the extraction times of 13.54 and 19.71 min, respectively, while this value was about one hour for HD. Scanning electron micrographs of mint showed a sudden eruption of essential Oil glands for all OAHDs samples. GC-MS analysis did not indicate any noticeable changes in the compounds of all extracted essential oils. The results of this study showed that higher applied voltage can speed up OAHD and confirmed this emerging technology as a green technology (considering fossil fuels as the main source of electrical energy).
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ohmic and microwave assisted hydrodistillation (OAHD and MAHD, respectively) are advanced hydrodistillation (HD) techniques utilizing ohmic and microwave heating processes for extraction of essential oils. OAHD and MAHD of essential oils from the aerial parts of peppermint were studied and the results were compared with those of the traditional HD. The results showed that OAHD and MAHD methods require less than half an hour for extraction process while HD require about one hour. Scanning electron microscopy of mint leaves undergone OAHD and MAHD provided evidences as to a sudden rupture of essential oil glands. GC-MS analysis did not indicate any noticeable changes in the compounds of the essential oils obtained by novel studied methods in comparison with HD. The results introduced OAHD as the greenest technique in terms of energy consumption. MAHD was superior in terms of rate of essential oils accumulation and also extraction duration parameter.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hydrodistillation (HD) and steamdistillation (SD) are known to be the most prevalent methods
of essential oils extraction. Despite many studies on extraction methods, there is no report on
comparison of SD and HD and their extracted essential oils. In this study, SD was used for
extraction of essential oils from Mentha piperita L. (peppermint), which is one of the medicinal
plants of high consumption, and the results were compared with those of the HD. The results
showed that although extraction with HD started sooner, both methods had the extraction time
of about 1 hour. Scanning electron micrographs of mint leaves showed significant changes
of glands after extraction in both methods. The required energy for extraction and kinetic
parameters as well as quality of extracted essential oils where compared by physical constants
and GC-MS analysis. The results of this study revealed that both HD and SD can be used as
qualitative reference methods of extraction due to similarity of properties of extracted essential
International Food Research Journal 01/2015; 22(1):283-288.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Sulfonamides are heat stable antibacterial drugs and residues of them in milk, increase the risk of human exposure and may cause food-borne illness. In this study, Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles (Fe3O4 MNPs) have been successfully used for extraction of sulfadiazine (SDZ) and sulfathiazole (STZ), from milk samples. The effect of magnetic adsorbents amount, volume of extracted milk and sample pH were investigated and optimized. The experimental results showed that suggested method possessed suitable analytical performance. Linearity was obtained over a concentration range of 0.25, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0 and 4 MRL, with regression coefficients ranging from 0.9985 to 0.9978 for SDZ and STZ. The limits of detection (LOD) and quantification (LOQ), for two analytes, were 10 and 30 ng mL-1, respectively. The proposed method was used to the analysis of different milk samples, and excellent recoveries in the range of 92.9 – 102.4% were obtained. These results indicated that the proposed method can be broadly used in monitoring of low concentrations of drugs in milk samples and open fascinating perspectives in future studies.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A functional polycation nanonetwork was developed for delivery of water soluble chemotherapeutic agents. The complexes of polyethyleneimine grafted methoxy polyethylene glycol (PEI-g-mPEG) and Zn(2+) were utilized as the micellar template for cross-linking with dithiodipropionic acid, followed by an acidic pH dialysis to remove the metal ion from the micellar template. The synthesis method was optimized according to pH, the molar ratio of Zn(2+), and the cross-link ratio. The atomic force microscopy showed soft, discrete, and uniform nano-networks. They were sensitive to the simulated reductive environment as determined by Ellman's assay. They showed few positive ζ potential and an average hydrodynamic diameter of 162±10 nm, which decreased to 49±11 nm upon dehydration. The ionic character of the nano-networks allowed the achievement of a higher-loading capacity of methotrexate (MTX), approximately 57% weight per weight, depending on the cross-link and the drug feed ratios. The nano-networks actively loaded with MTX presented some suitable properties, such as the hydrodynamic size of 117±16 nm, polydispersity index of 0.22, and a prolonged swelling-controlled release profile over 24 hours that boosted following reductive activation of the nanonetwork biodegradation. Unlike the PEI ionomer, the nano-networks provided an acceptable cytotoxicity profile. The drug-loaded nano-networks exhibited more specific cytotoxicity against human hepatocellular carcinoma cells if compared to free MTX at concentrations above 1 μM. The enhanced antitumor activity in vitro might be attributed to endocytic entry of MTX-loaded nano-networks that was found in the epifluorescence microscopy experiment for the fluorophore-labeled nano-networks.
International Journal of Nanomedicine 06/2014; 9:2833-48. DOI:10.2147/IJN.S61614 · 4.38 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Apple leather is made by dehydration of cooked fruit into leathery sheets. Mould growth and patulin production can occur in damaged apples or when fallen fruit is collected for apple leather processing. A survey was conducted to determine levels and dietary intake of patulin from apple leather marketed in Iran. Patulin was detected in all samples at concentrations ranging from <10 to 2559 µg/kg. Mean patulin concentration was 620 µg/kg and 91.4% of the samples had levels higher than 50 µg/kg. Estimated daily intake (EDI) of patulin for adults and children considering the mean concentration of patulin obtained in this study (620 µg/kg) were higher than the provisional maximum tolerable daily intake (PMTDI) of 0.4 µg/kg bw/day for patulin that has been established by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives. This indicated the need for stricter control and improvement in processing techniques to reduce the incidence of patulin in apple leather.
Food Additives and Contaminants: Part B Surveillance 06/2014; 7(2):106-109. DOI:10.1080/19393210.2013.855825 · 0.91 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: β-site amyloid precursor protein cleaving enzyme (BACE-1) is a validated target for Alzheimer therapy due to its distinctive role in pathogenesis of AD. In the present contribution, a series of new 3,5-bis-N-(aryl/heteroaryl) carbamoyl-4-aryl-1,4-dihydropyridine structures were synthesized as BACE-1 inhibitors (6a-6n). In vitro BACE-1 inhibitory activities were determined by enzymatic fluorescence resonance energy transfer assay. Synthesized dihydropyridine (DHP) analogues exhibited weak to good inhibitory activities while 6i, 6n and 6a were found to be the most potent molecules with 83.76, 79.45 and 72.47 % BACE-1 inhibition at 10 μM, respectively. Structure binding/activity relationship elucidations revealed that superior BACE-1 inhibitory activities were observed for DHP derivatives bearing fused/non-fused thiazole groups and particularly 3,5-bis-N-(6-ethoxy-2-benzothiazolyl) moiety. Binding maps showed that enhanced activity may be attributed to the additional H-bond and hydrophobic interactions with S2-S3 subpockets of BACE-1.
Archives of Pharmacal Research 04/2014; 38(4). DOI:10.1007/s12272-014-0401-x · 1.75 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In the extraction process of essential oils (EOs), one of the major problems of traditional methods is long extraction times. Ohmic-assisted hydrodistillation (OAHD) is a specific hydrodistillation (HD) technique utilizing ohmic heating to generate heat faster and in a different form from traditional methods. OAHD was applied as a novel technology for the isolation of EO from the aerial parts of Myrtus communis L. (myrtle) and the results were compared with those of the conventional HD. The results showed that OAHD method had an extraction time of 26.11 minutes while this value was more than 1 hour for HD for approximately the same amount of EO recovery (0.7% v/w). Gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS) analysis did not indicate any noticeable changes in the constitutes of the EO obtained by OAHD in comparison with HD and the major compound of EOs was 1,8-cineol. The proposed method required considerably less energy per mL of EO extraction and the results of this study revealed the innovative OAHD as an environmentally friendly technology.
Journal of Essential Oil Research 08/2013; 25(4):257-266. DOI:10.1080/10412905.2013.775676 · 0.82 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The chemical composition of the essential oil from the leaves of carrot (Daucus carota L. subsp. sativus (Hoffman.) Arcang. (Apiaceae) from Iran was analyzed by GC-FID and GC-MS. The oil yield obtained by hydrodistillation was 0.2 % (v/w). Ninety-one compounds, accounting for 97.1 % of the oil, were identified. The main class of the compounds was found to be monoterpenes (30.0 %), sesquiterpenes (27.8 %) and phenyl propanes (26.4 %). The major constituents were trans-anethole (23.5 %) and myrcene (14.5 %).
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ohmic-assisted hydrodistillation (OAHD) is an advanced hydrodistillation (HD) technique utilizing ohmic heating process and could be considered as a novel method for the extraction of essential oils. One of the major problems with traditional methods is long extraction time. OAHD of essential oils from the aerial parts of Thymus vulgaris L. (common thyme) was studied and the results were compared with those of the conventional HD. The results showed that OAHD method had the extraction time of 24.75 min while this value was about 1 h for HD. Scanning electron micrographs of thyme leaves showed a sudden eruption of essential oil glands and their surrounding area for OAHD samples. GC–MS analysis did not indicate any noticeable changes in the compounds of the essential oils obtained by OAHD in comparison with HD. Results of this study introduced OAHD as a green technology because of less energy required per ml of essential oil extraction.Industrial relevanceThe quality and quantity of essential oils extracted from herbs and other raw materials are affected by the extraction method. In this research ohmic-assisted hydrodistillation (OAHD) was used as an advanced and novel hydrodistillation (HD) technique and compared with traditional hydrodistillation in extraction of essential oils from the aerial parts of Thymus vulgaris L. (common thyme). OAHD method was quicker, more economical and environmentally friendly than hydrodistillation method. The results of this study introduced OAHD as a green technology.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ohmic-assisted hydrodistillation (OAHD) is a combination of ohmic heating and distillation, and could be considered as a novel method for the extraction of essential oils. Major problems with traditional methods are long extraction time and lower purity of the extract. In this study, OAHD was applied as an economic and green technology for the extraction of essential oils from Zataria multiflora Boiss. (Shirazi thyme) aerial parts and the results were compared to those obtained from hydrodistillation (HD) as a conventional method. The results showed that OAHD method had the extraction time of 32.21 ± 2.59 min while this value was about 57.21 ± 2.33 min for hydrodistillation (HD). Scanning electron micrographs of thyme leaves showed a sudden eruption of essential oil glands and their surrounding area for OAHD samples. GC–MS analysis indicated that both methods of OAHD and HD can extract the same compounds.
International Journal of Food Science & Technology 12/2011; 46(12). DOI:10.1111/j.1365-2621.2011.02792.x · 1.35 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hyperhomocysteinemia is a hypothesis for the association of homocysteine with cerebrovascular diseases, neurodegenerative diseases and depression of mood. Thus, we examined whether oral betaine can act as a preventive agent in ethanol-induced hyperhomocysteinemia on the monoaminergic system. A total of 32 New Zealand White rabbits were divided into four groups (n=8) among which is the control group (C). The ethanol group (E) was administered ethanol at a dosage of 4 g/kg daily. The betaine group (B) received betaine at a dosage 1.5% (w/w) of the diet daily, and the betaine and ethanol group (B and E) was administered with the betaine group diet; after one hour the rabbits received ethanol at a dosage of 4 g/kg daily. Blood samples were taken in the morning of the day before beginning treatment (0.0 day) and on the 30th, 60th and 90th day of the treatment. Serum folate and vitamin B12 levels were determined using a radioimmunoassay, total plasma homocysteine (tHcy) level was determined by homocysteine EIA kit, and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) of plasma was measured with HPLC-ECD. There was a significant negative correlation between 5-HIAA and tHcy in the E group (r=-0.473, P=0.02), and compared to the E group the concentrations of 5-HIAA in the B and E group increased considerably (p<0.05). In contrast to the E group, significantly high concentrations of 5-HIAA were observed in the B and C groups. While the serum concentrations of vitamin B12 showed no significant difference in the B and E group on the 90th day compared to the control group, the serum concentrations of folate on the 90th day differed significantly (p<0.05). However, no significant difference was observed between tHcy and gender. Overall, oral pretreatment with betaine significantly prevented ethanol-induced hyperhomocysteinemia, subsequently increasing 5-HIAA in the plasma as well as vitamin B12 and folate in the serum. Thus, betaine may be recommended as a pretreatment method for depressive patients with alcoholism.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Essential oil composition of Otostegia persica Boiss. (Lamiaceae) from Iran was obtained by hydrodistallation and analyzed by GC and GC/MS techniques. Forty-four components representing 89.3% of the total oil were identified. The main components of the oil were dillapiole (43.1%), trans-verbenol (9.6%) and hexadecanoic acid (5.7%).
Journal of Essential Oil Research 11/2010; 22(6):609-610. DOI:10.1080/10412905.2010.9700412 · 0.82 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Betaine has been shown to protect the body by increasing S-adenosyl methionine levels in experimental animals. Therefore, we investigated the preventive effect of betaine on ethanol-induced
hyperhomocysteinemia in a rabbit animal model. A total of 32 New Zealand white rabbits were divided into four equal groups
(control, ethanol, betaine, and betaine and ethanol) with different dietary regimens and were followed up for 3months. The
day before the beginning, the 30th, 60th, and 90th days of the treatment, blood samples were collected from the marginal ear
vein. Plasma total homocysteine was determined by an Axis® Homocysteine EIA kit, and a SimulTRAC-SNB Radioassay kit ([57Co]/folate [125I]) was used to determine folate and vitamin B12 in the serum. Ethanol-induced hyperhomocysteinemia was manifested by a decrease in the levels of vitamin B12 and folate with a concomitant increase in the level of total homocysteine (tHcy) for the ethanol group only. While vitamin
B12 showed no significant difference in the betaine and ethanol group on the 90th day compared to the control group, the concentration
of folate differed significantly (p < 0.05). There was a significant difference only on the 90th day between the ethanol and the other groups for tHcy (p < 0.05); however, no significant difference was observed between tHcy and gender. Taken together, the present study indicates
that the protective effect of betaine is related to the ability to promote the betaine homocysteine methyl transferase pathway
by providing the methyl group and subsequently increase B12 and folate. Therefore, this investigation recommends the use of the beneficial properties of betaine as a pretreatment method
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The essential oils of Phlomis aucheri and Phlomis elliptica have been investigated by GC and GC/MS. Thirty-nine compounds of Ph. aucheri and fifty-eight of Ph. elliptica representing 91.2% and 90.1% of the oil samples were identified, respectively. Caryophyllene-type compounds comprised 63.8% of the oil of Ph. aucheri and the main constituents of this oil were caryophyllene oxide (33.5%), β-caryophyllene (27.0%) and β-selinene (10.2%), while for Ph. elliptica, the dominant structures were aliphatic hydrocarbons with hexadecanoic acid (19.1%), linoleic acid (10.2%) and β-selinene (9.9%) as the predominant compounds.
Journal of Essential Oil Research 07/2010; 22(4):314-317. DOI:10.1080/10412905.2010.9700334 · 0.82 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The essential oil of Tanacetum macrophyllum growing wild in Turkey was obtained by hydrodistillation, and antimicrobial activity of the essential oil was tested against six bacteria and two yeasts including Candida albicans and Aspergillus niger by disc diffusion method. Further the oil of this plant was analyzed by GC and GC/MS technique. Best effect of the oil was against pseudomonas earuginosa. Twenty-eight components, representing 95.6% of the total oil, were identified. The main component of the oil was β-eudesmol (89.5%). The antioxidant activity of the essential oil was measured by the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay.
Journal of Essential Oil Research 03/2010; 22(2):186-188. DOI:10.1080/10412905.2010.9700299 · 0.82 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The essential oil of Salvia macrosiphon Boiss use as a folk medicine. The effect of Exogenous application of salicylic acid (0 , 200 , 4oo mgL -1) in early flowering stage on components of essential oils of Salvia was evaluated. Its essential oil was analyzed by GC and GC/MS .The SA application increased Linalool from 20.02% (0 mgL -1) to 41.37% (400 mgL -1) , Hexyl isobutanat from 3.17%(0 mgL -1) to 5.6% (400 mgL -1) and decrease δ -cadinen from 5.63% (0 mgL -1) to 3.86% (400 mgL -1) . Some compounds such as Franesol, δ –Amorphene, Caryophyllene oxide, Hexyl octanoate, Beta Eudesmol and α-Bisabolol only detected in control treatment. α – Pinene and 1,8-Cineol only detected in plants treated with SA.The yield of essential oil was 0.23% in (0 mgL-1) and 0.48% (400 mgL-1). The results suggest that SA application manipulated essential oil.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The essential oil of Otostegia michauxii Briq. growing wild in the Fars province of Iran was obtained by hydrodistallation and analyzed by GC and GC/MS techniques. Forty-five components representing 97.9% of the total oil were identified. The main components of the oil were dillapiole (23.9%), 2-methylbenzofuran (12.9%) and α-pinene (8.1%).
Journal of Essential Oil Research 01/2010; 22(1):1-2. DOI:10.1080/10412905.2010.9700252 · 0.82 Impact Factor