[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Dysregulation of ribosome biogenesis causes human diseases, such as Diamond-Blackfan anemia, del (5q-) syndrome and bone marrow failure. However, the mechanisms of blood disorders in these diseases remain elusive. Through genetic mapping, molecular cloning and mechanism characterization of the zebrafish mutant cas002, we reveal a novel connection between ribosomal dysfunction and excessive autophagy in the regulation of hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPCs). cas002 carries a recessive lethal mutation in kri1l gene that encodes an essential component of rRNA small subunit processome. We show that Kri1l is required for normal ribosome biogenesis, expansion of definitive HSPCs and subsequent lineage differentiation. Through live imaging and biochemical studies, we find that loss of Kri1l causes the accumulation of misfolded proteins and excessive PERK activation-dependent autophagy in HSPCs. Blocking autophagy but not inhibiting apoptosis by Bcl2 overexpression can fully rescue hematopoietic defects, but not the lethality of kri1l(cas002) embryos. Treatment with autophagy inhibitors (3-MA and Baf A1) or PERK inhibitor (GSK2656157), or knockdown of beclin1 or perk can markedly restore HSPC proliferation and definitive hematopoietic cell differentiation. These results may provide leads for effective therapeutics that benefit patients with anemia or bone marrow failure caused by ribosome disorders.Cell Research advance online publication 3 July 2015; doi:10.1038/cr.2015.81.
Cell Research 07/2015; 25(8). DOI:10.1038/cr.2015.81 · 12.41 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Imbalance between T-helper 17 (Th17) cells and regulatory T (Treg) cells is causally linked to the development of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). In this study, we tested the hypothesis that electroacupuncture (EA) confers therapeutic benefits in RA through activation of vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP)-dependent signalling and restoration of the Th17/Treg cell balance.
A collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) model was induced in Sprague-Dawley rats by injection of bovine type II collagen in incomplete Freund's adjuvant on day 0 and day 7. Three days after the second injection, EA was given at acupuncture points GB39 and ST36 three times per week for 4 weeks. To block VIP signalling, [D-P-Cl-Phe(6)-Leu(17)]-VIP, a VIP receptor antagonist, was administered intraperitoneally 30 min before EA. Inflammatory and pathological responses in the joint were assessed. Synovial VIP receptor mRNA levels and Treg and Th17 cell frequencies in the spleen were determined.
EA significantly reduced the severity of CIA, as evidenced by reduced paw volumes, arthritis scores and inflammation scores. EA significantly increased mRNA expression of the VIP receptor VPAC1 and led to an elevation in CD4(+)FOXP3(+) Treg cell frequency and a reduction in CD4(+)IL17(+) Th17 cell frequency. Pre-injection of a VIP receptor antagonist significantly reversed EA-induced expansion of Treg cells, but did not alter the frequencies of Th17 cells.
EA exerts anti-inflammatory effects in a collagen-induced rat model of arthritis. These effects appear to be mediated through activation of VIP signalling and re-establishment of the Th17/Treg cell balance.
Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
Acupuncture in Medicine 05/2015; 33(4). DOI:10.1136/acupmed-2014-010732 · 1.50 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The small ubiquitin-related modifier (SUMO) participates in various cellular processes, including maintenance of genome integrity, nuclear transport, transcription and signal transduction. However, the biological function of sumoylation in hematopoiesis has not been fully explored. We show here that definitive hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPCs) are depleted in SUMO-deficient zebrafish embryos. Impairment of sumoylation attenuates HSPC generation and proliferation. The hyposumoylation triggered HSPC defects are CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein α (C/ebpα) dependent. Critically, a SUMO-C/ebpα fusion rescues the defective hematopoiesis in SUMO-deficient embryos, at least in part through restored runx1 expression. While C/ebpα-dependent transcription is involved in myeloid differentiation, our studies here reveal that C/ebpα sumoylation is essential for HSPC development during definitive hematopoiesis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: DNA methyltransferase 1 (Dnmt1) regulates expression of many critical genes through maintaining parental DNA methylation patterns on daughter DNA strands during mitosis. It is essential for embryonic development and diverse biological processes, including maintenance of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs). However, the precise molecular mechanism of how Dnmt1 is involved in HSPC maintenance remains unexplored.
An N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU)-based genetic screening was performed to identify putative mutants with defects in definitive HSPCs during hematopoiesis in zebrafish. The expression of hematopoietic markers was analyzed via whole mount in situ hybridization assay (WISH). Positional cloning approach was carried out to identify the gene responsible for the defective definitive hematopoiesis in the mutants. Analyses of the mechanism were conducted by morpholino-mediated gene knockdown, mRNA injection rescue assays, anti-phosphorylated histone H3 (pH3) immunostaining and TUNEL assay, quantitative real-time PCR, and bisulfite sequencing analysis.
A heritable mutant line with impaired HSPCs of definitive hematopoiesis was identified. Positional cloning demonstrated that a stop codon mutation was introduced in dnmt1 which resulted in a predicted truncated Dnmt1 lacking the DNA methylation catalytic domain. Molecular analysis revealed that expression of CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein alpha (C/ebpa) was upregulated, which correlated with hypomethylation of CpG islands in the regulation regions of cebpa gene in Dnmt1 deficient HSPCs. Overexpression of a transcriptional repressive SUMO-C/ebpa fusion protein could rescue hematological defects in the dnmt1 mutants. Finally, dnmt1 and cebpa double null embryos exhibited no obvious abnormal hematopoiesis indicated that the HSPC defects triggered by dnmt1 mutation were C/ebpa dependent.
Dnmt1 is required for HSPC maintenance via cebpa regulation during definitive hematopoiesis in zebrafish.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: PML/RARA is the oncoprotein driving acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL). It suppresses genes expression by recruitment of a number of transcriptional repressors, resulting in differentiation block and malignant transformation of hematopoietic cells. Here, we found that mice primary hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPCs), transduced by DNA-binding-defective PML/RARA mutants, were deficient in colony formation. Further experiments showed that DNA-binding-defective PML/RARA mutants could not repress the transcription of retinoic acid regulated genes. Intriguingly, there were no significant differences of the micro-speckled intracellular distribution between the mutants and wild-type PML/RARA. Some retinoic acid target genes regulated by PML/RARA are involved in not only differentiation block but also hematopoietic cell self-renewal. Altogether, our data demonstrate that direct DNA-binding is essential for PML/RARA to immortalize hematopoietic cells, while disruption of PML-nuclear body does not seem to be a prerequisite for hematopoietic cell transformation.
PLoS ONE 08/2014; 9(8):e104906. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0104906 · 3.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The relative genetic simplicity of leukaemias, the development of which likely relies on a limited number of initiating events has made them ideal for disease modelling, particularly in the mouse. Animal models provide incomparable insights into the mechanisms of leukaemia development and allow exploration of the molecular pillars of disease maintenance, an aspect often biased in cell lines or ex vivo systems. Several of these models, which faithfully recapitulate the characteristics of the human disease, have been used for pre-clinical purposes and have been instrumental in predicting therapy response in patients. We plea for a wider use of genetically defined animal models in the design of clinical trials, with a particular focus on reassessment of existing cancer or non-cancer drugs, alone or in combination.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In(OH)3 nanomaterials with different morphologies or hierarchical structures, such as nanoparticles, monodispersed hierarchical nanocubes and nanospheres, have been successfully synthesized via a ligand-assisted aqueous process. The shape and size of these as-prepared architectures can be tuned effectively by controlling the reaction conditions, such as the molar ratio of ligand/In3+ and different ligands. Further studies reveal that both Na3cit and urea are necessary for the formation of monodispersed hierarchical nanospheres and nanocubes. Furthermore, In2O3 nanoparticles and monodispersed hierarchical nanocubes and nanospheres with well-defined morphologies of the precursors can be also obtained by annealing the corresponding In(OH)3 samples. The gas sensing properties of the as-prepared In2O3 samples demonstrate that hierarchical In2O3 architectures exhibit a superior response to ethanol gas, and the hierarchical In2O3 nanocubes have excellent selectivity and sensitivity. Further more, XPS spectra and N2 adsorption-desorption isotherms achieve a deeper understanding of the effects of the final product morphologies on their gas sensing properties.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The regulation of hematopoiesis is generally evolutionarily conserved from zebrafish to mammals, including hematopoietic stem cell formation and blood cell lineage differentiation. In zebrafish, primitive granulocytes originate at two distinct regions, the anterior lateral plate mesoderm (A-LPM) and the intermediate cell mass (ICM). Few studies in the zebrafish have examined genes specifically required for the granulocytic lineage. In this study, we identified the responsible gene for a zebrafish mutant that has relatively normal hematopoiesis, except decreased expression of the granulocyte-specific gene mpx. Positional cloning revealed that phospholipase C gamma-1 (plcg1) was mutated. Deficiency of plcg1 function specifically affected development of granulocytes, especially the maturation process. These results suggested that plcg1 functioned specifically in zebrafish ICM granulopoiesis for the first time. Our studies suggest that specific pathways regulate the differentiation of the hematopoietic lineages.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To establish the model of hepatic fibrosis in mice infected with Schistosoma japonicum and observe the expression of transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-beta1) and connective tissue growing factor (CTGF) in mice model.
Thirty BALB/c mice were randomly assigned to control group and model group. Each mouse of model group was infected with (30 +/- 1) S. japonicum cercariae through the abdominal skin. Serum samples were collected at 4, 6, 8, 10, and 12 weeks after infection, and were analyzed for the levels of ALT and AST. Pathological changes and proliferation of hepatic collagen fibers in liver tissue were observed after HE staining and Masson staining. Immunohistochemistry and real-time PCR were used to detect the protein and mRNA expression of CTGF and TGF-pl.
6-12 weeks after infection, there was significant difference in ALT and AST between model group and control group (P43.05). At 12th week, ALT [(173.53 +/- 31.12) U/I] and AST [(301.00 +/- 34.87) U/LI in model group were higher than those in control group [(42.00 +/- 3.53) and 96.58 +/- 11.26) U/L] . In model group, egg granulomas formed in the liver, and the formation of hepatic fibrosis was significant in portal areas, and tbere was tree-like hepatic fibrosis around the portal vein branch. 8 weeks after infection, hepatic fibrosis area in mice of model group increased considerably, and there was significant difference in percentage of positive area of collagen between 12th week [(23.83 +/- 1.68) %] and control group [(1.23 +/- 0.14) %] (P < 0.05). 10 and 12 weeks after infection, the percentage of positive area of TGF-beta1 [(22.34 +/- 2.58)% and (25.82 +/- 3.01) %] and CTGF [(1 l.32 +/- 2.44)% and (14.51 +/- 2.05) %] was higher respectively than that of the control [(2.56 +/- 0.87)%, and (1.09 +/- 0.73)% (P < 0.05). 6, 8, 10, and 12 weeks after infection, both TGF-beta1 and CTGF mRNA increased gradually, higher than that in control group (P < 0.05). 10 weeks after infection, TGF-beta1 mRNA relative transcription level was the highest (0.0721 +/- 0.0187) and it was 0.0089 +/- 0.0037 in control group. CTGF mRNA relative transcription level reached the highest value (0.1136 +/- 0.0365) in 12 weeks after infection, while it was 0.0293 +/- 0.0184 in control group. CTGF mRNA expression was positively correlated with the duration of infection (r = 0.927, NO.05).
The area and cell types of TGFp1 positive expression is the same as that of CTGF in liver tissue of schistosome4nfected mice (BALE/c). CTGF mRNA expression is significantly related to the duration of infection, but it is not the case for TGF-pl.
Zhongguo ji sheng chong xue yu ji sheng chong bing za zhi = Chinese journal of parasitology & parasitic diseases 02/2012; 30(1):20-6.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) is a widely studied peptide hormone, distributes in multiple systems of the human body and plays a variety of biological effects in many diseases. In recent years, there have been abundant researches about the regulative effect of acupuncture on changes of VIP activities. The authors of the present paper make a review about its research progress in recent ten years from (1) effect of acupuncture on VIP functional activities of the gastrointestinal tract; (2) involvement of VIP in electroacupuncture (EA) induced improvement of gastric mucosal and cerebral blood flow (3) effect of EA on functions of VIP being as a neurotransmitter; (4) effect of EA on VIP-involved immune regulation function. Moreover, the authors also make a prospect on the correlation between the effect of acupuncture and VIP. Currently, the mechanism of VIP underlying the efficacy of acupuncture still remains unknown, and needs further investigation.
Zhen ci yan jiu = Acupuncture research / [Zhongguo yi xue ke xue yuan Yi xue qing bao yan jiu suo bian ji] 12/2011; 36(6):453-6.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) is a hematological malignancy driven by the PML/RARA oncogene. The prognosis for patients with APL was revolutionized by two treatments: retinoic acid (RA) and As(2)O(3) (arsenic trioxide). These were both shown a posteriori to target PML/RARA, explaining their exquisite specificity for APL. Arsenic, as a single agent, cures up to 70% of patients, whereas APL patients treated with the combination of RA and As(2)O(3) reach a stunning 90% cure rate. Recent physiopathological models highlight the key role of RA- and As(2)O(3)-triggered PML/RARA degradation, and the molecular mechanisms underlying As(2)O(3)-induced PML/RARA degradation have been recently clarified. As discussed below, arsenic binding, oxidation, sumoylation on PML nuclear bodies, and RNF4-mediated ubiquitination all contribute to the As(2)O(3)-triggered catabolism of PML/RARA.
Trends in Molecular Medicine 11/2011; 18(1):36-42. DOI:10.1016/j.molmed.2011.10.001 · 9.45 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hematopoiesis is evolutionarily conserved from zebrafish to mammals, and this includes both primitive and definitive waves during embryogenesis. Primitive hematopoiesis is dominated by erythropoiesis with limited myelopoiesis. Protein sumoylation, a ubiquitination-like posttranslational protein modification, is implicated in a variety of biochemical processes, most notably in transcriptional repression. We show here that the loss of 6 small ubiquitin-related modifier (SUMO) paralogs triggers a sharp up-regulation of the myeloid-specific marker mpo and down-regulation of the erythroid-specific marker gata1 in myelo-erythroid progenitor cells (MPCs) in the intermediate cell mass (ICM) during primitive hematopoiesis. Accordingly, in transgenic zebrafish lines, hyposumoylation expands myelopoiesis at the expense of erythropoiesis. A SUMO-CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein α (SUMO-C/ebpα) fusion restores the normal myelopoiesis/erythropoiesis balance, suggesting that sumoylation status of C/ebpα contributes to myelo-erythroid lineage determination. Our results therefore implicate sumoylation in early lineage determination and reveal the possible molecular mechanism underlying the puzzling biased primitive hematopoiesis in vertebrates.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Assembled ZnQ2·2H2O microstructures, such as microsheet, sandwich-like structure and hexangular microflake, have been successfully prepared in CTAB microemulsion system through the stacking of ZnQ2·2H2O molecules and oriented aggregation of ZnQ2·2H2O original building blocks. Controlled experiments demonstrated that the morphologies of building block and final product could be readily tuned by reaction parameters, and a formation mechanism, involving re-precipitation, growth and oriented aggregation process, has been proposed on the basis of time-dependent experimental results. The obtained products were carefully characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), transmission electron microscope (TEM), field-emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM), FT-IR spectrum, UV–vis spectrum and photoluminescence (PL) spectrum. The surface photovoltage (SPV) of the obtained ZnQ2·2H2O microstructures was investigated by means of surface photovoltage spectroscopy (SPS) and field-induced surface photovoltage spectroscopy (FISPS). The SPS and FISPS revealed that the photogenerated charges of ZnQ2·2H2O could be separated distinctly and ZnQ2·2H2O possessed p-type semiconductor characteristics, respectively. Furthermore, UV–vis and PL spectra evidenced the optical properties of ZnQ2·2H2O were sensitive to its microstructure or morphology.
Solid State Sciences 08/2010; 12(8):1314–1322. DOI:10.1016/j.solidstatesciences.2010.04.032 · 1.84 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Three-dimensional (3D) hierarchical Bi2WO6 microspheres were successfully synthesized by a simple inorganic salt-assisted hydrothermal process. Morphology modulation of the obtained products could be easily realized by tuning the concentration of the nitrate. It is worthy to note that the obtained hierarchical Bi2WO6 microspheres exhibit powerful visible-light-photocatalytic activity for the degradation of Rhodamine-B (RhB) under 300 W Xe lamp light irradiation. A possible salt-assisted formation mechanism was proposed on the basis of the experimental results. Furthermore, this work might represent a novel synthesis strategy for other photocatalysts with desired photocatalytic activity.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To observe the effects of acupuncture on synovial pathology, synovial mast cell degranulation and tryptase expression and to investigate the relationship between the functions of mast cells and effects of acupuncture on early adjuvant arthritis in rats.
Forty-six male Wistar rats were randomly divided into normal control group (n=16), untreated group (n=15) and acupuncture group (n=15). Adjuvant arthritis was induced by injection of 0.1 mL Freund's complete adjuvant in right hind limb footpad. Normal control group and untreated group received no acupuncture treatment, while rats in the acupuncture group were treated with sterilized disposable stainless steel needles inserted perpendicularly as deep as 2 to 3 mm at Xuanzhong (GB39), 6 mm at Shenshu (BL23) and 7 mm at Zusanli (ST36) for eight times (15 min each time) every two days. Setting the modeling day as the 0 day of the experiment, the body weight and paw volume of the rats were measured every three days from the 0 day. In the end, synovial tissues of the right hind ankles were sampled and made into paraffin sections. Then they were firstly stained with hematoxylin-eosin for observing synovial pathology to evaluate the effects of acupuncture on adjuvant arthritis, then stained with toluidine blue for observing the number and degranulation ratio of synovial mast cells and finally detected by immunohistochemical staining method to investigate the expression of tryptase in synovium.
Compared with the untreated group, the body weight of rats in the acupuncture group was increased significantly (P<0.05), while the paw volume decreased obviously (P<0.01). Hematoxylin-eosin staining showed that acupuncture significantly inhibited inflammatory cell infiltration, synovial cell hyperplasia, and synovial fibroplasia in synovium of rats with adjuvant arthritis as compared with the untreated group (P<0.05). Toluidine blue staining showed that acupuncture could significantly diminish the numbers of total and degranulated mast cells in rats with adjuvant arthritis (P<0.01), which were significantly higher in the untreated group than in the normal control group (P<0.01). Showing by immunohistochemical staining, the expression of tryptase in synovium in the acupuncture group was decreased as compared with the untreated group (P<0.01). Analyzed by Spearman's bivariate correlation, the number of mast cells and degranulation ratio of mast cells were positively correlated with the pathological scores (r=0.837, P<0.01; r=0.634, P<0.01).
Acupuncture can improve pathological condition of inflammatory synovium in rats with early adjuvant arthritis by inhibiting the function of synovial mast cells, which may play an important underlying role in the immunoregulation of acupuncture on adjuvant arthritis.
Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine 07/2010; 8(7):670-7.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) is characterized by a specific t(15;17) chromosomal translocation that yields the PML/RARA fusion gene. Clinically, besides chemotherapy, two drugs induce clinical remissions: retinoic acid (RA) and arsenic trioxide (As). Both agents directly target PML/RARA-mediated transcriptional repression and protein stability, inducing to various extent promyelocyte differentiation and clinical remission of APL patients. RA targets the RARA moiety of the fusion, whereas arsenic targets its PML part. PML/RARA expression in the mouse is sufficient to initiate APL. The RA-As association, which synergizes for PML/RARA degradation but not for differentiation, rapidly clears leukemia initiating cells (LIC), resulting in APL eradication in murine APL models, but also in several APL clinical trials. Cyclic AMP triggered PML/RARA phosphorylation also enhances RA-induced APL regression, PML/RARA degradation, and LIC clearance, raising new options for therapy-resistant patients. Although differentiation has a major role in debulking of the tumor, PML/RARA degradation seems to be the primary basis for APL eradication by the RA-As association. Oncoprotein degradation could be a general therapeutic strategy that may be extended beyond APL.
Clinical Cancer Research 10/2009; 15(20):6321-6. DOI:10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-09-0209 · 8.72 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Small ubiquitin-related modifier (SUMO) conjugation to a variety of proteins regulates diverse cellular processes, including transcription, cell cycle regulation and maintenance of genome integrity. To investigate in vivo biological function of SUMO paralogs, we inactivated them in the early development of zebrafish. While zebrafish embryos deficient for all three SUMO paralogs, as Ubc9-deficient ones, displayed severe defects, loss of individual SUMO paralog was compatible with a normal development. SUMO-deficient embryos can be rescued by a single human or zebrafish SUMO. While key structural basic lysine residues and N-terminal unstructured stretch of SUMO are critical for in vivo rescue, the consensus K11 sumoylation site of SUMO2 is dispensable, implying that chain formation on this potential site is unessential for normal development. Inactivation of all three SUMOs triggered p53-dependent apoptosis and further inactivation of p53 restored normal zebrafish development. Interestingly, we also demonstrate that the dominant negative truncated form of p53, Delta113p53, significantly blunts SUMO depletion-induced p53 activity in vivo. Taken together, our results suggest that SUMO paralogs are indispensable, but redundant, in the early development of zebrafish.
Cell Research 09/2009; 20(2):185-96. DOI:10.1038/cr.2009.101 · 12.41 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cubic-like CeO2 nanocrystals were successfully synthesized through an improved-toluene solvothermal process using hexadecylamine (HAD) as a capping agent and CeCl3·7H2O as a precursor at 180 °C for 24 h. These nanocubes are about 10 nm in size, and have a tendency to assemble into 2D superstructure. The obtained samples were characterized by means of X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). It was found that the water content, the concentration of ligand and kinds of aliphatic amine played important roles in the formation of the novel morphology. A possible formation mechanism was proposed based on the controlling reaction parameters. The electrochemical and photocatalytic properties of the as-synthesized samples exhibited the size/shape-dependent properties and potential applications.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Nearly monodisperse YVO(4) architectures with persimmon-like, cube-like and nanoparticle shapes have been synthesised on a large scale by means of a complexing-agent-assisted solution route. The shape and size of these as-prepared architectures can be tuned effectively by controlling the reaction conditions, such as reaction time, the molar ratio of complexing agent/Y(3+) and different complexing agents. As a typical morphology, the growth process of monodisperse nanopersimmons has been examined. To extend this method, other LnVO(4) (Ln=Ce, Gd, Dy, Er) complexes with well-defined shape and dimensionality can also be achieved by adjusting different rare earth precursors. Further studies reveal that the morphology of the as-synthesised lanthanide orthovanadate is determined mainly by the interaction between rare earth ion and the complexing agent. Ultraviolet (UV) absorption and photoluminescence spectra show that the optical properties of YVO(4) nanopersimmons are relevant to their size and shape. This work sheds some light on the design of well-defined complex nanostructures, and explores the potential applications of the as-synthesised architectures.
Chemistry - A European Journal 01/2009; 15(5):1233 - 1240. DOI:10.1002/chem.200801724 · 5.73 Impact Factor