Keiko Hoshi

Showa Pharmaceutical University, Machida, Tōkyō, Japan

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Publications (16)41.65 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: 1-Methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) is well known as an exogenous dopaminergic neurotoxin that induces Parkinson's disease-like symptoms. In addition, 1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline (TIQ) derivatives have been investigated as endogenous MPTP mimetic compounds that structurally resemble selegiline, a commercially available drug for treating Parkinson's disease. In the present study, we examined the ability of 1,3-dimethyl-TIQ (1,3-diMeTIQ) and 1,3-dimethyl-N-propargyl-TIQ (1,3-diMe-N-proTIQ) to prevent MPTP-induced Parkinson's disease-like symptoms in mice and to prevent 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium ion (MPP+, an active metabolite of MPTP)-induced cytotoxicity in vitro, including its structural stereoselectivity. Repeated administration of MPTP induced bradykinesia, a symptom of behavioral abnormality; this was prevented by both 1,3-diMeTIQ and 1,3-diMe-N-proTIQ pretreatments. Pretreatment with 1,3-diMeTIQ did not prevent the MPTP-induced decrease in dopamine content in the striatum or the decrease in the number of tyrosine hydroxylase-positive cells in the substantia nigra. On the other hand, 1,3-diMe-N-proTIQ prevented these Parkinson's disease-like symptoms; in particular, the trans-isomer of this agent showed potent protective effects. However, the ability of the trans-1,3-diMe-N-proTIQ isomer to prevent MPP+-induced PC12 cell death was weaker than that of its cis-isomer. Thus, stereoisomers of 1,3-diMe-N-proTIQ exhibit different effects; cis-1,3-diMe-N-proTIQ inhibits MPP+-induced cytotoxicity while trans-1,3-diMe-N-proTIQ exhibits neuroprotective effects primarily through MPTP-related biological events in mice. These results also indicate the possibility of utilizing, at least in part, the stereoselective efficacy of 1,3-diMe-N-proTIQ against MPTP and/or MPP+-induced adverse states.
    Brain research 03/2010; 1321:133-42. · 2.46 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The concentration of antibiotics in cells must be determined for effective treatment of infectious diseases caused by obligate intracellular parasites, such as Chlamydia trachomatis and Legionella pneumophila. We confirmed the usefulness of high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), which is already commonly used in medical facilities, for the measurement of antibiotics in cells. The measurement was carried out using a post-column with tris(2,2 � -bipyridine) ruthenium (III) chemiluminescence detection. Clarithromycin (CAM) was used as the model antibiotic. The retention time of CAM on the column was 7.6 ± 0.4 min and the detection limit was 2.0 × 10 −3 ng on column. The linearity of the calibration curve was guaranteed until 2.0 ng on column. This level of performance is comparable to that of liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The system was able to monitor changes in the concentration of CAM in lymphocytes. These findings suggest that HPLC, a general-purpose, already widely used detection system, could also contribute to the development of effective individual antibiotic treatment regimens at a wide variety of medical facilities.
    Journal of Health Science - J HEALTH SCI. 01/2010; 56(1):14-19.
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    ABSTRACT: The Kv1.4 potassium channel is reported to exhibit higher cell surface expression than the Kv1.1 potassium channel when expressed as a homomer in cell lines. Kv1.4 also shows highly efficient trans-Golgi glycosylation whereas Kv1.1 is not glycosylated. The surface expression and glycosylation of Kv1.2 is intermediate between those of Kv1.1 and Kv1.4. Amino acid determinants controlling the surface expression of Kv1 channels were localized to the highly conserved pore region and both positive and negative determinants of Kv1.1 and Kv1.4 trafficking have been reported. In this study, we analyzed the effect of substituting amino acids in the pore region of Kv1.2 with the corresponding amino acid present in Kv1.1 or Kv1.4 on glycosylation and trafficking of Kv1.2. Mutations in the outer pore region of Kv1.2 of Arg(354) to Pro (corresponding to Kv1.4) and to Ala (corresponding to Kv1.1) enhanced and reduced, respectively, cell surface expression of Kv1.2. Mutations in a different outer pore region of Val(381) to Lys (Kv1.4) and Tyr (Kv1.1) both reduced the cell surface expression. In contrast, mutation in the deep pore region of Ser(371) to Thr (Kv1.4) markedly enhanced cell surface expression. These results suggest that the cell surface expression of Kv1.2 is regulated by specific amino acids in the pore region in a similar manner to Kv1.1 and Kv1.4, and that the cell surface expression of Kv1.2, a channel intermediate between Kv1.1 and Kv1.4, can be attributed to these specific residues.
    Journal of Neurochemistry 12/2009; 112(4):913-23. · 3.97 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We performed a combined neurochemical and behavioral study to determine the effects of 1-benzyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline (1-BnTIQ) on the extracellular dopamine concentrations in the striatum. Single dose administration of 1-BnTIQ (20, 40, and 80 mg/kg i.p.) increased striatal dopamine extracellular levels in a dose-dependent manner when an in vivo microdialysis technique was used to assess dopamine levels in the striatum of rats. Enhancement of striatal dopamine levels by systemic administration of a single dose of 1-BnTIQ was suppressed by perfusion of tetrodotoxin and a calcium ion-free solution into the striatum. This 1-BnTIQ-induced increase in extracellular dopamine concentration was also inhibited by pre-treatment with a dopamine uptake inhibitor, GBR12909 (1-(2-[bis(4-Fluorophenyl)-4-(3-phenylpropyl)piperazine dihydrochloride). Local application of 1-BnTIQ into the striatum via a dialysis probe failed to enhance the extracellular concentration of dopamine. However, microinjection of 1-BnTIQ into the substantia nigra pars compacta increased the extracellular dopamine levels in the striatum. Locomotor activity was increased by systemic administration of a single dose of 1-BnTIQ in a dose-dependent manner. This 1-BnTIQ-induced locomotor activity was attenuated by pre-treatment with SCH23390 (R(+)-7-Chloro-8-hydroxy-3-methyl-1-phenyl-2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-1H-3-benzazepine hydrochlodride) and raclopride, D(1) and D(2) dopaminergic receptor antagonists, respectively. Moreover, 1-BnTIQ induced ipsilateral rotational behavior in 6-hydroxydopamine-lesioned rats. These results suggest that systemic administration of a single dose of 1-BnTIQ increases striatal extracellular dopamine concentration through activation of dopaminergic nigra striatal neurons via the dopamine transporter.
    Neuroscience 04/2009; 160(4):820-8. · 3.12 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: It is known that psychostimulants stimulate dopamine transmission in the nucleus accumbens. In the present study, we examined the effects of systemically administered beta-phenylethylamine (beta-PEA), a psychomotor-stimulating trace amine, on dopamine concentrations in the nucleus accumbens and prefrontal cortex in freely moving rats, using an in vivo microdialysis technique. Intraperitoneal administration of beta-PEA (12.5 and 25 mg/kg) significantly increased extracellular dopamine levels in the nucleus accumbens shell. The observed increase in the dopamine concentration in nucleus accumbens shell dialysate after intraperitoneal administration of 25 mg/kg beta-PEA was inhibited by pre-treatment with a dopamine uptake inhibitor, GBR12909 (10 mg/kg, i.p.). In contrast, beta-PEA (25 mg/kg, i.p.) did not affect dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens core. Although a high dose of beta-PEA (50 mg/kg) significantly increased dopamine levels in the nucleus accumbens core, the dopamine increasing effect of beta-PEA was more potent in the nucleus accumbens shell. Systemic administration of 12.5 and 25 mg/kg beta-PEA also increased extracellular dopamine levels in the prefrontal cortex of rats. However, systemic 25 mg/kg beta-PEA-induced increases in extracellular dopamine levels were not blocked by GBR12909 within the prefrontal cortex. These results suggest that beta-PEA has a greater effect in the shell than in the core and low-dose beta-PEA stimulates dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens shell through uptake by a dopamine transporter. Similarly, beta-PEA increased extracellular dopamine levels in the prefrontal cortex. Thus, beta-PEA may increase extracellular dopamine concentrations in the mesocorticolimbic pathway.
    Brain research 04/2009; 1269:40-6. · 2.46 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Miller-Fisher syndrome (MFS), which is known to be associated with anti-GQ1b antibodies and to cause ataxia, is a variant of an acute inflammatory neuropathy. However, the pathogenic role of anti-GQ1b antibodies remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the effects of mouse IgM anti-GQ1b monoclonal antibody (IgM anti-GQ1b mAb) on the spontaneous muscle action potential of a rat spinal cord-muscle co-culture system and on the voltage-dependent calcium channel (VDCC) current in cerebellar granule cells and Purkinje cells using the whole-cell patch clamp technique. The frequency of spontaneous muscle action potential of the innervated muscle cells was transiently increased by IgM anti-GQ1b mAb and then was blocked completely, which was the same finding as reported previously. Moreover, the cerebellar granule cell VDCC current was decreased by 30.76+/-7.60% by 5 microg/mL IgM anti-GQ1b mAb, whereas IgM anti-GQ1b mAb did not affect the VDCC current in cerebellar Purkinje cells. In immunocytochemistry, IgM anti-GQ1b mAb stained the whole cell surface of cerebellar granule cells, but not that of Purkinje cells. Therefore, the clinical symptoms of Miller-Fisher syndrome, such as cerebellar-like ataxia, may be explained by the inhibitory effects of anti-GQ1b antibodies on VDCC current in cerebellar granule cells.
    Experimental Neurology 04/2009; 219(1):74-80. · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To investigate the pathophysiological mechanisms of immune-mediated peripheral neuropathies, we studied the effects of sera from patients with Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) on the Cav2.1 voltage-dependent calcium channel (VDCC) current in Purkinje cells. Using the whole-cell recording technique, Cav2.1 VDCC current was measured in cerebellar Purkinje cells in the presence of serum from GBS patients with acute motor axonal neuropathy (AMAN) or acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (AIDP). The AMAN patient sera significantly inhibited the Cav2.1 VDCC current compared with healthy volunteer sera, and this inhibition was fully reversible by washing out the AMAN serum. Similarly, IgG purified from AMAN sera also inhibited the Cav2.1 VDCC current. However, the activation and inactivation kinetics of the Cav2.1 VDCC currents were not affected by serum from an AMAN patient. Moreover, the VDCC current of Purkinje cells was also inhibited by IgG anti-GM1 monoclonal antibody (anti-GM1 mAb). In an immunocytochemical study using double fluorescence staining, Purkinje cells were stained by monoclonal IgG anti-GM1 mAb. In contrast, AIDP patient and healthy volunteer sera did not affect the Cav2.1 VDCC current. These results suggest that in some case of GBS, particularly of AMAN patients with IgG anti-GM1 mAb, muscle weakness may be induced by dysfunction of Cav2.1 VDCC functioning at the motor nerve terminals.
    Neurochemical Research 06/2008; 34(1):149-57. · 2.13 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We investigated the expression and localization of Kv1 channels in dorsal spinal roots (DRs) and ventral spinal roots (VRs) in rats. Among Kv1.1-1.6 tested by RT-PCR, mRNAs of Kv1.1, 1.2, and 1.5 were moderately expressed, those of Kv1.3 and Kv1.6 were weakly expressed, and that of Kv1.4 was hardly expressed at all in both DRs and VRs, whereas all six mRNAs were detected in spinal cord. Western blotting revealed that the major immunoreactive proteins were Kv1.1 and Kv1.2 in both DRs and VRs. Quantitative analysis indicated that levels of Kv1.1 and Kv1.2 protein were significantly higher in DRs than VRs. Immunohistochemical examination showed that Kv1.1 and Kv1.2 were colocalized in juxtaparanodal regions of axons in both DRs and VRs. Finally, immunoprecipitation experiments revealed that Kv1.1 and Kv1.2 were coassembled. These findings indicate that Kv1 subtypes in DRs and VRs are somewhat different from those in spinal cord, and that the numbers of Kv1.1 and Kv1.2 channels are higher in DRs than VRs.
    Experimental Neurology 04/2008; 210(1):51-8. · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Human parvovirus B19 is a clinically important pathogen in both children and adults. In adults, it frequently causes acute and chronic arthritis, which may be related to persistent infection. The effect of the capsid of human parvovirus B19 on monocytes, which are thought to be responsible for the first line of defense against parvoviral infection, is not well understood. In this study, we investigated changes in mRNA expression levels of several immunoregulatory cytokines in monocytic cells after treatment with the B19 capsid. When human monocytic cell line THP-1 cells were treated with the B19 capsid, the expression of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) mRNA was suppressed independently of transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) mRNA. In contrast, the level of mRNA for interleukin-1 alpha (IL-1alpha) remained unchanged, and that for interleukin-1 beta (IL-1beta) was slightly increased after the capsid treatment. Flow cytometry demonstrated that THP-1 cells treated with B19 capsid showed no differences in surface expression of CD11a, CD16 and CD33, as compared with control cells. These findings that B19 capsid antigen did not promote positive responses for production of TNF-alpha and IL-1alpha may provide insight into the mechanisms of persistent infection of human parvovirus B19 and the systemic viral spread via bloodstream.
    Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin 12/2007; 30(11):2027-30. · 1.85 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Prolonged exposure to nitrous oxide (N2O) results in development of acute tolerance to its antinociceptive effect. Cross-tolerance to N2O-induced antinociception is also observed in morphine-tolerant animals. Despite increasing evidence of tolerance development to N2O-induced antinociception, the details of the mechanisms that underlie this tolerance remain unknown. The present study was conducted to investigate the involvement of brain protein kinase C (PKC) isoform in these two types of tolerance to N2O-induced antinociception in mice. Prolonged exposure (41 min in total, including 30 min pre-exposure and 11 min of antinociceptive testing) to 70% N2O produced a reduction in N2O-induced antinociception, indicating development of acute tolerance. The prolonged exposure to 70% N2O caused an activation of PKCgamma isoform in the brain, but not the PKCepsilon isoform. Pretreatment with a PKCgamma-antisense oligonucleotide but not the corresponding mismatch oligonucleotide (i.c.v.) prevented the development of acute tolerance to N2O-induced antinociception. Chronic morphine treatment (10 mg/kg, s.c., b.i.d. for 5 days) resulted in development of tolerance to morphine-induced antinociception and cross-tolerance to N2O-induced antinociception. The development of tolerance to morphine and cross-tolerance to N2O were both inhibited by pretreatment with PKC inhibitor, chelerythrine (1 nmol, i.c.v.). Morphine-tolerant mice showed an activation of PKC within the brain, which was suppressed by pretreatment with chelerythrine (1 nmol, i.c.v.). Thus, activation of brain PKC, in particular, the PKCgamma isoform, appears to play an important role in the development of both acute tolerance and cross-tolerance to N2O-induced antinociception in mice.
    Neuroscience 09/2007; 148(2):541-7. · 3.12 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We investigated the effects of IgG anti-GalNAc-GD1a antibodies, produced by immunizing rabbits with GalNAc-GD1a, on the voltage-dependent calcium channel (VDCCs) currents in nerve growth factor (NGF)-differentiated PC12 pheochromocytoma cells. VDCCs currents in NGF-differentiated PC12 cells were recorded using the whole-cell patch-clamp technique. Immunized rabbit serum that had a high titer of anti-GalNAc-GD1a antibodies inhibited the VDCCs currents in the NGF-differentiated PC12 cells (36.0+/-9.6% reduction). The inhibitory effect of this serum was reversed to some degree within 3-4 min by washing with bath solution. Similarly, application of purified IgG from rabbit serum immunized with GalNAc-GD1a significantly inhibited the VDCCs currents in PC12 cells (30.6+/-2.5% reduction), and this inhibition was recovered by washing with bath solution. Furthermore, the inhibitory effect was also observed in the GalNAc-GD1a affinity column binding fraction (reduction of 31.1+/-9.85%), while the GalNAc-GD1a affinity column pass-through fraction attenuated the inhibitory effect on VDCCs currents. Normal rabbit serum and normal rabbit IgG did not affect the VDCCs currents in the PC12 cells. In an immunocytochemical study using fluorescence staining, the PC12 cells were stained using GalNAc-GD1a binding fraction. These results indicate that anti-GalNAc-GD1a antibodies inhibit the VDCCs currents in NGF-differentiated PC12 cells.
    Experimental Neurology 04/2007; 204(1):380-6. · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We performed an electrophysiological study demonstrating inhibition of spontaneous muscle action potentials within a coculture of rat muscle and spinal cord by exposure to serum, as well as purified IgG, from patients with the acute motor axonal neuropathy (AMAN) variant of Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS). However, exposure to serum from two patients with the acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (AIDP) form of GBS had no effect. Using a whole-cell recording technique, we then investigated the effects of serum and purified IgG from patients with GBS on voltage-dependent calcium channel (VDCC) currents in nerve growth factor-differentiated PC12 cells. Serum from patients with GBS (AMAN) inhibited VDCC currents in PC12 cells, which was fully reversible by washing with the bath solution. Similarly, purified IgG from the serum of two patients with GBS (AMAN) also inhibited VDCC currents in PC12 cells. In contrast, sera from patients with AIDP and healthy volunteers did not affect VDCC currents in PC12 cells. These results suggest that muscle weakness in some patients with GBS might be induced by inhibition of Ca2+ channel currents within motor nerve terminals.
    European Neurology 01/2007; 57(1):11-18. · 1.50 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Exposure of mice to the anesthetic gas nitrous oxide (N(2)O) produces a marked antinociceptive effect. Protein kinase C is a key regulatory enzyme that may be targeted by general anesthetics. However, a relationship between N(2)O-induced antinociception and protein kinase C has yet to be established. The present study was conducted to identify whether protein kinase C might influence N(2)O-induced antinociception in mice. Regular exposure (11 min) to N(2)O produced concentration-dependent antinociception in mice, as determined using the abdominal constriction test. N(2)O-induced antinociception was attenuated by i.c.v. pretreatment with phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate, a protein kinase C activator. This phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate antagonism of N(2)O-induced antinociception was reversed by i.c.v. pretreatment with calphostin C, a protein kinase C inhibitor. Long-term exposure (41 min in total, including 30 min prior to, and 11 min of analgesic testing) to 70% N(2)O produced reduced analgesic effects, compared with regular exposure to 70% N(2)O, thus indicating acute tolerance to N(2)O-induced antinociception. However, mice pretreated with calphostin C, chelerythrine, which is another protein kinase C inhibitor, and phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate, did not develop acute tolerance. Regarding activation of protein kinase C, regular exposure to 70% N(2)O did not increase protein kinase C within the membrane fraction of brain tissue, as determined by immunoblot analysis, but long-term exposure to 70% N(2)O did. The i.c.v. pretreatment with calphostin C and phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate prevented the increase in protein kinase C observed with long-term exposure to 70% N(2)O. These results suggest that brain protein kinase C negatively regulates the antinociceptive effect of N(2)O, and that activation of brain protein kinase C is related to the development of acute tolerance to N(2)O-induced antinociception in mice.
    Neuroscience 07/2006; 140(1):227-33. · 3.12 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Voltage-gated K(+) channels contain six membrane spanning segments and a pore-forming domain. We used site-directed mutation to examine the role of specific amino acids in the extracellular region of the pore in Kv1.2. When expressed in CHO cells, a K(+) current was not observed for mutants S356A, S360A, T383A and T384A. However, coexpression of the Kvbeta2 subunit and the S360A mutant resulted in a robust peak current. Immunocytochemistry for Kv1.2 showed staining throughout the cytoplasm in cells coexpressing the beta2 and S360A, whereas only the perinuclear region was stained in cells expressing the S360A mutant. Western blotting revealed that the major immunoreactive protein in wild-type- and mutant-expressing cells is 60-kDa, but 87-kDa bands were also detected in cells expressing wild-type Kv1.2 and cells coexpressing beta2and S360A. These results suggest that amino acids in the pore region help regulate ion permeability or cellular trafficking by affecting glycosylation of Kv1.2.
    Neurochemical Research 06/2006; 31(5):589-96. · 2.13 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Using an in vivo intra-striatal microdialysis technique, we examined the effects of systemically administered beta-phenylethylamine (beta-PEA), a psychomotor stimulating trace amine, on striatal acetylcholine release in freely moving rats. Infusion of N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA; 10(-5) M) significantly increased acetylcholine release. In addition, locally applied amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisozasole-4-propionic acid (AMPA; 10(-5) M) significantly increased acetylcholine release in the striatum. Intra-striatal application of 6-cyano-7-nitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione (CNQX; 10(-5) M), an AMPA-type glutamatergic receptor antagonist, had little effect on acetylcholine release, while application of MK-801 (10(-5) M, 10(-6) M), an NMDA-type glutamatergic receptor antagonist, significantly reduced acetylcholine release. Acetylcholine within striatal perfusate was significantly increased by intraperitoneal administration of beta-PEA in a dose-dependent manner. This increase in acetylcholine release was completely blocked by application of CNQX (10(-5) M) through the microdialysis probe into the striatum. However, increased acetylcholine response to systemic beta-PEA was unaltered by addition of MK-801 to the perfusion medium. These results suggest a regulatory function of beta-PEA, mediated by AMPA-type glutamatergic receptors, on the release of acetylcholine in the rat striatum.
    Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin 10/2005; 28(9):1626-9. · 1.85 Impact Factor
  • Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin - BIOL PHARM BULL. 01/2005; 28(9):1626-1629.