[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Neurogenesis, a process of generation of new neurons, is reported to be reduced in several neurodegenerative disorders including Alzheimer's disease (AD). Induction of neurogenesis by targeting endogenous neural stem cells (NSC) could be a promising therapeutic approach to such diseases by influencing the brain self-regenerative capacity. Curcumin, a neuroprotective agent, has poor brain bioavailability. Herein, we report that curcumin-encapsulated PLGA nanoparticles (Cur-PLGA-NPs) potently induce NSC proliferation and neuronal differentiation in vitro and in the hippocampus and subventricular zone of adult rats, as compared to uncoated bulk curcumin. Cur-PLGA-NPs induce neurogenesis by internalization into the hippocampal NSC. Cur-PLGA-NPs significantly increase expression of genes involved in cell proliferation (reelin, nestin, and Pax6) and neuronal differentiation (neurogenin, neuroD1, neuregulin, neuroligin, and Stat3). Curcumin nanoparticles increase neuronal differentiation by activating the Wnt/β-catenin pathway, involved in regulation of neurogenesis. These nanoparticles caused enhanced nuclear translocation of β-catenin, decreased GSK-3β levels, and increased promoter activity of the TCF/LEF and cyclin-D1. Pharmacological and siRNA-mediated genetic inhibition of the Wnt pathway blocked neurogenesis-stimulating effects of curcumin. These nanoparticles reverse learning and memory impairments in an amyloid beta induced rat model of AD-like phenotypes, by inducing neurogenesis. In silico molecular docking studies suggest that curcumin interacts with Wif-1, Dkk, and GSK-3β. These results suggest that curcumin nanoparticles induce adult neurogenesis through activation of the canonical Wnt/β-catenin pathway and may offer a therapeutic approach to treating neurodegenerative diseases such as AD, by enhancing a brain self-repair mechanism.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Immunotherapies with T-cell epitope peptides have shown a promising impact over allergic diseases as a potential therapeutic tool in in vitro and in vivo conditions. It is recognized as an effective treatment with long lasting clinical effects and subsequent reduction of the allergic inflammatory reactions. In this review, we have summarized the role of peptide based immunotherapy and emphasis has also been given to the recent advancement in pollen, cat, hymenoptera venom, and food allergy.
International Immunopharmacology 01/2014; · 2.42 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: I n most mammalian species including 15 humans, new neurons are generated 16 throughout life from neural stem cells 17 (NSC) by a process known as "neurogen-18 esis". 1À3 NSC are multipotent and self-19 renewing cells that have the ability to gen-20 erate all three types of cells in the brain. 21 Neurogenesis takes place mainly in the two 22 neurogenic brain regions the subventricular 23 zone (SVZ) of the lateral ventricle and the 24 subgranular zone (SGZ) of the hippocampus 25 dentate gyrus. 1 Neurogenesis involves 26 a balance between NSC proliferation, 27 migration, differentiation to neurons, inte-28 gration into the existing circuitry, and reg-29 ulation of both olfaction-and hippo-30 campus-dependent learning and memory 31 processes. 1,4 QJ;All these processes take 32 place within an appropriately regulated 33 sequence and time frame, and any defect * Address correspondence to (R. K. Chaturvedi) firstname.lastname@example.org; (K. C. Gupta) email@example.com. ABSTRACT Neurogenesis, a process of generation of new neurons, is reported to be reduced in several neurodegenerative disorders including Alzheimer's disease (AD). Induction of neurogenesis by targeting endogenous neural stem cells (NSC) could be a promising therapeutic approach to such diseases by influencing the brain self-regenerative capacity. Curcumin, a neuroprotective agent, has poor brain bioavailability. Herein, we report that curcumin-encapsulated PLGA nanoparticles (Cur-PLGA-NPs) potently induce NSC proliferation and neuronal differentiation in vitro and in the hippocampus and subventricular zone of adult rats, as compared to uncoated bulk curcumin. Cur-PLGA-NPs induce neurogenesis by internalization into the hippocampal NSC. Cur-PLGA-NPs significantly increase expression of genes involved in cell proliferation (reelin, nestin, and Pax6) and neuronal differentiation (neurogenin, neuroD1, neuregulin, neuroligin, and Stat3). Curcumin nanoparticles increase neuronal differentiation by activating the Wnt/β-catenin pathway, involved in regulation of neurogenesis. These nanoparticles caused enhanced nuclear translocation of β-catenin, decreased GSK-3β levels, and increased promoter activity of the TCF/LEF and cyclin-D1. Pharmacological and siRNA-mediated genetic inhibition of the Wnt pathway blocked neurogenesis-stimulating effects of curcumin. These nanoparticles reverse learning and memory impairments in an amyloid beta induced rat model of AD-like phenotypes, by inducing neurogenesis. In silico molecular docking studies suggest that curcumin interacts with Wif-1, Dkk, and GSK-3β. These results suggest that curcumin nanoparticles induce adult neurogenesis through activation of the canonical Wnt/β-catenin pathway and may offer a therapeutic approach to treating neurodegenerative diseases such as AD, by enhancing a brain self-repair mechanism.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recently, polyethylenimines (PEIs) have emerged as efficient vectors for nucleic acids delivery. However, inherent cytotoxicity has limited their in vivo applications. To address this concern as well as to incorporate hydrophobic domains for improving interactions with the lipid bilayers in the cell membranes, we have tethered varying amounts of amphiphilic pyridoxyl moieties onto bPEI to generate a small series of pyridoxyl-PEI (PyP) polymers. Spectroscopic characterization confirms the formation of PyP polymers, which subsequently form stable complexes with pDNA in nanometric range with positive surface charge. The projected modification not only accounts for a decrease in the density of 1° amines but also allows formation of relatively loose complexes with pDNA (cf. bPEI). Alleviation of the cytotoxicity, efficient interaction with cell membranes and easy disassembly of the pDNA complexes have led to the remarkable enhancement in the transfection efficiency of PyP/pDNA complexes in mammalian cells with one of the formulations, PyP-3/pDNA complex, showing transfection in ∼68% cells compared to ∼16% cells by Lipofectamine/pDNA complex. Further, the efficacy of PyP-3 vector has been established by delivering GFP-specific siRNA resulting in ∼88% suppression of the target gene expression. These results demonstrate the efficacy of the projected carriers that can be used in future gene therapy applications.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: For some instances of Parkinson's disease (PD), current evidence in the literature is consistent with reactive oxygen species being involved in the etiology of the disease. The management of PD is still challenging owing to its ambiguous etiology and lack of permanent cure. Since nicotine offers neuroprotection against 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine-induced Parkinsonism, the neuroprotective efficacy of nicotine-encapsulated poly lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) nanoparticles and the underlying mechanism of improved efficacy, if any, over bulk nicotine were assessed in this study. The selected indicators of oxidative stress, dopaminergic neurodegeneration and apoptosis were measured both in in vitro and rodent models of Parkinsonism in the presence or absence of nanotized or bulk nicotine. The levels of dopamine and its metabolites were measured in the striatum, nicotine and its metabolite in the nigrostriatal tissues while the immunoreactivities of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), metallothionein-III (MT-III), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and microglial activation were checked in the substantia nigra of controls and treated mice. GST A4-4, heme oxygenase (HO)-1, tumor suppressor protein 53 (p53), caspase-3, lipid peroxidation (LPO) and nitrite levels were measured in the nigrostriatal tissues. Nicotine-encapsulated PLGA nanoparticles improved endurance of TH-immunoreactive neurons, number of fiber outgrowth and increased the mRNA expressions of TH, neuronal cell adhesion molecule and growth associated protein-43 over bulk against 1-methyl-4-phenyl pyridinium ion-induced degeneration in in vitro model. MPTP reduced TH-immunoreactivity and levels of dopamine and its metabolites and increased the microglial activation, expressions of GSTA4-4, iNOS, MT-III, HO-1, p53 and caspase-3 and levels of nitrite and LPO. While both bulk nicotine and nicotine-encapsulated PLGA nanoparticles modulated the changes towards controls; the modulations were more pronounced in nicotine-encapsulated PLGA nanoparticles-treated Parkinsonian mice. The levels of nicotine and cotinine were elevated in nicotine-encapsulated PLGA nanoparticles-treated PD mice brain as compared with bulk. The results obtained from the study demonstrate that nanotization of nicotine improves neuroprotective efficacy by enhancing its bio-availability and subsequent modulation in the indicators of oxidative stress and apoptosis.
Free radical biology & medicine 08/2013; · 5.42 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A series of electrostatically crosslinked nanoparticles, N-(2-hydroxyethyl)-polyethylenimine-PEG600 (HePP), was prepared by allowing N-(2-hydroxyethyl)-polyethylenimine (HeP) to interact with polyethyleneglycol (600) dicarboxylic acid (HOOC-PEG600-COOH, PEG600dc), they were then evaluated for their capability to transfect cells in vitro and in vivo. DLS studies revealed the size of the HePP nanoparticles in the range 106-170 nm, which efficiently condensed nucleic acids and provided sufficient protection against nuclease degradation. HePP-pDNA complexes exhibited a considerably higher transfection efficiency and cell viability in various mammalian cell lines, with HePP-3-pDNA displaying the highest gene expression, which outperformed HeP and the commercially available transfection reagent, Lipofectamine™. Also, HePP-3 mediated sequential delivery of GFP specific siRNA resulted in ∼76% suppression of the target gene. Intravenous administration of HePP-3-pDNA complex to mice, followed by monitoring of the reporter gene analysis post 7d, revealed the highest gene expression occurred in the spleen. Together, these results advocate the potential of HePP nanoparticles as efficient vectors for gene delivery in vitro and in vivo.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Branched polyethylenimine was conjugated with hydrophobic pyridoxal phosphate (PLP) in the side chain via reaction with primary amines to obtain amphiphilic phosphopyridoxyl-polyethylenimine (PPyP) polymers. These polymeric amphiphiles with defined degree of hydrophobicity self-assembled into nanostructures, which were characterized by DLS and evaluated for their capability to condense nucleic acids and carry them into the cells. pDNA condensation further compacted the size of the self-assembled nanostructures from 421-559 nm to 134-210 nm with zeta potential from +20-32 mV to +18-28 mV. Conjugation of PLP with bPEI not only reduced the density of primary amines (i.e. charge density) but also improved the cell viability of the modified polymers considerably and weakened the binding of pDNA with these polymers. Efficient unpackaging of pDNA complexes inside the cells led to several folds enhancement in the transfection efficiency with one of the formulations, PPyP-3/pDNA complex, among the series, exhibited ~4.9 - 8.2 folds higher gene delivery activity than pDNA complexes of bPEI and LipofectamineTM in HeLa and MCF-7 cells. Flow cytometry analysis revealed very high percentage of transfected cells by PPyP/pDNA complexes compared to pDNA complexes of bPEI and LipofectamineTM. Further, GFP-specific siRNA delivery using PPyP-3 as a vector resulted in ~84% knockdown of the target gene expression (cf. ~54% by LipofectamineTM/pDNA/siRNA complex). Moreover, PPyP-3/pDNA complex displayed ~6.7 folds higher transfection efficiency than bPEI/pDNA complex in human peripheral blood dendritic cells. Intravenous administration of PPyP-3/pGL3 complex showed the highest gene expression in spleen tissues advocating the potential of these vectors in future gene delivery applications.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Conjugation through primary amines is one of the most commonly used methods to modify cationic vectors for efficient gene delivery. Here, dimethyl suberimidate, a commercially available homobifunctional reagent bearing imidoesters at the termini, has been used to crosslink branched polyethylenimine (bPEI) into its nanoparticles (crosslinked PEI nanoparticles, CLP NPs) specifically through primary amines without altering the total charge on the resulting NPs for interaction with biomolecules and cell membranes. By varying the degree of crosslinking, a small series of CLP NPs was prepared and evaluated for their capability to deliver nucleic acids in vitro and in vivo. Physico-chemical characterization revealed the size of the NPs in the range of 152 to 210 nm with zeta potential +35 to +38 mV. The plasmid DNA binding ability of these nanoparticles was examined by mobility shift assay, where the pDNA migration was found to be completely retarded by these NPs at an N/P ratio of 4 (cf. bPEI at N/P 3). In various mammalian cells, CLP/pDNA nanoplexes were not only found to be non-toxic but also exhibited significantly enhanced gene expression with one of the formulations, the CLP3/pDNA nanoplex, displaying the highest transfection efficiency, outperforming native bPEI and the selected commercial transfection reagents both in the presence and absence of serum. Further, the versatility of the vector, CLP3, was demonstrated by sequential delivery of GFP-specific siRNA to HEK293 cells, which resulted in 79% suppression of the target gene. Intracellular localization studies showed a significant population of the dual labeled nanoplex (CLP3/pDNA) in the nucleus in just 60 min of incubation. Luciferase reporter gene analysis in Balb/c mice post-intravenous administration of the CLP3/pDNA nanoplex showed the highest gene expression in their spleen. The study suggests that CLP NPs could be used as efficient gene delivery vectors for future gene therapy applications.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Doxorubicin (DOX) is a well-known anticancer drug used for the treatment of a wide variety of cancers. However, undesired toxicity of DOX limits its uses. To address the issue of minimizing toxicity of DOX by making it targeted towards cancer cells, DOX was entrapped in self-assembled 6-O-(3-hexadecyloxy-2-hydroxypropyl)-hyaluronic acid (HDHA) nanoparticles. We hypothesized that by encapsulating the drug in biodegradable nanoparticles, its therapeutic efficacy would improve, if targeted against cancer cells. We synthesized cell receptor targeted, DOX loaded HDHA nanoparticles (NPs) and non-targeted DOX loaded O-hexadecylated dextran (HDD) nanoparticles (NPs) and characterized them for their entrapment efficiency, percent yield, drug load, surface morphology, particle size and in vitro drug release. The anticancer efficacy of DOX loaded HDHA-NPs was evaluated by measuring the changes in tumor volumes, tumor weights, and mean survival rate of Swiss albino mice grafted with Ehrlich's ascites carcinoma (EAC) cells. For this, the animals were given HDHA-DOX-NPs (1.5 mg/kg b.wt.) intravenously and a green tea polyphenol, Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) (20 mg/kg b.wt.), orally through gavage. The targeted NP dose with EGCG significantly increased mean survival time of the animals and enhanced the therapeutic efficacy of the drug compared to the non-targeted NPs and free DOX. Further, we showed that these NPs (HDD and HDHA) were more active in the presence of EGCG than DOX alone in inducing apoptosis in EAC cells as evident by an increase in sub-G1 cells (percent), Annexin V positive cells and chromatin condensation along with the reduction in mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP). The study demonstrates that DOX loaded HDHA-NPs along with EGCG significantly inhibit the growth of EAC cells with ∼38-fold dose advantage compared to DOX alone and thus opens a new dimension in cancer chemotherapy.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The efficiency of genetic transformation technology to generate stable transgenics depends upon the successful delivery of plasmid DNA in embryonic cells. The available gene vectors facilitate efficient plasmid DNA delivery to the cellular milieu but are exposed to nuclease degradation. Recent in vitro studies suggest encapsulation of plasmid DNA with nanomaterial(s) for better protection against nucleases. Therefore, in this study, we tested if complexing of free plasmid DNA with linear polyethylenimine (LPEI, 25 kDa) based nanoparticle (LPN) enhances the efficiency of transformation (transgenesis) by using Drosophila based germ-line transformation technology. Here, we show that the LPN-DNA complex not only enhances the efficiency of this transgenic technology at a DNA concentration of 0.04 μg/μl but also reduces the DNA quantity required to generate transgenics by ten folds. This approach has potential applications for other types of transgenesis and nucleic acid injection methods in Drosophila as well as other popular genetic model systems.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In spite of proficient results of several phytochemicals in preclinical settings, the conversion rate from bench to bedside is not very encouraging. Many reasons are attributed to this limited success, including inefficient systemic delivery and bioavailability under in vivo conditions. To achieve improved efficacy, polyphenolic constituents of black (theaflavin [TF]) and green (epigallocatechin-3-gallate [EGCG]) tea in poly(lactide-co-glycolide) nanoparticles (PLGA-NPs) were entrapped with entrapment efficacy of ~18% and 26%, respectively. Further, their preventive potential against 7,12-dimethylbenzanthracene (DMBA)-induced DNA damage in mouse skin using DNA alkaline unwinding assay was evaluated. Pretreatment (topically) of mouse skin with either TF or EGCG (100 μg/mouse) doses exhibits protection of 45.34% and 28.32%, respectively, against DMBA-induced DNA damage. However, pretreatment with TF-loaded PLGA-NPs protects against DNA damage 64.41% by 1/20th dose of bulk, 71.79% by 1/10th dose of bulk, and 72.46% by 1/5th dose of bulk. Similarly, 51.28% (1/20th of bulk), 57.63% (1/10th of bulk), and 63.14% (1/5th of bulk) prevention was noted using EGCG-loaded PLGA-NP doses. These results showed that tea polyphenol-loaded PLGA-NPs have ~30-fold dose-advantage than bulk TF or EGCG doses. Additionally, TF- or EGCG-loaded PLGA-NPs showed significant potential for induction of DNA repair genes (XRCC1, XRCC3, and ERCC3) and suppression of DNA damage responsive genes (p53, p21, MDM2, GADD45α, and COX-2) as compared with respective bulk TF or EGCG doses. Taken together, TF- or EGCG-loaded PLGA-NPs showed a superior ability to prevent DMBA-induced DNA damage at much lower concentrations, thus opening a new dimension in chemoprevention research.
International Journal of Nanomedicine 01/2013; 8:1451-1462. · 3.46 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Introduction: Branched and linear polyethylenimines (PEIs) are cationic polymers that have been used to deliver nucleic acids both in vitro and in vivo. Owing to the high cationic charge, the branched polymers exhibit high transfection efficiency, and particularly PEI of molecular weight 25 kDa is considered as a gold standard in gene delivery. These polymers have been extensively studied and modified with different ligands so as to achieve the targeted delivery. Areas covered: The application of PEI in vivo promises to take the polymer-based vector to the next level wherein it can undergo clinical trials and subsequently could be used for delivery of therapeutics in humans. This review focuses on the various recent developments that have been made in the field of PEI-based delivery vectors for delivery of therapeutics in vivo. Expert opinion: The efficacy of PEI-based delivery vectors in vivo is significantly high and animal studies demonstrate that such systems have a potential in humans. However, we feel that though PEI is a promising vector, further studies involving PEI in animal models are needed so as to get a detailed toxicity profile of these vectors. Also, it is imperative that the vector reaches the specific organ causing little or no undesirable effects to other organs.
Expert Opinion on Drug Delivery 12/2012; · 4.87 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Synthetic chemical vectors have recently provided a versatile and robust platform for the safe and efficient delivery of exogenous genes. Here, for the first time, a small series of N-butyltriphenylphosphonium bromide-grafted-linear polyethylenimine (BTP-g-lP) polymers (N–P hybrid polymers) have been evaluated for their ability to deliver genes into mammalian cell lines, viz., MCF-7 and A549 cells. Biophysical characterization revealed that the projected polymers efficiently interacted with plasmid DNA, and the resulting complexes displayed hydrodynamic diameters in the range of 249–307 nm with relatively higher zeta potential values of +31 to +34 mV (cf. lPEI, +26 mV). The tethering of lipophilic and cationic triphenylphosphonium moieties to linear PEI (lPEI) addressed several limitations associated with lPEI, such as solubility, the stability of the pDNA complexes and the timely release of pDNA for nuclear localization as assessed by protection and release assays. Also, the lipophilic interactions between cellular membranes and the pDNA complexes mediated the efficient cellular uptake and internalization of the pDNA complexes, resulting in significantly higher transfection efficiency in these cell lines, outperforming the GenePORTER 2™, Lipofectamine™ and Superfect™ used in the study for comparison purposes. Confocal studies using dual-labeled TMR-BTP-g-lP3/YOYO-1-pDNA complex in MCF-7 cells confirmed that the complex behaved more or less like native lPEI, as the substitution of the phosphonium moiety was too small to affect the intracellular trafficking. Furthermore, the versatility of the BTP-g-lP3 vector was established by GFP specific siRNA delivery, which resulted in 79% suppression of targeted gene expression (cf. Lipofectamine™, 55%). Altogether, the study demonstrates the potential of these hybrid polymers for the efficient delivery of nucleic acids for future gene therapy applications.
Journal of Materials Chemistry 11/2012; 22(48):25427-25436. · 5.97 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: Tea catechin epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) and other polyphenols, such as theaflavins (TFs), are increasingly proving useful as chemopreventives in a number of human cancers. They can also affect normal cells. The polyphenols in tea are known to have antioxidant properties that can quench free radical species, and pro-oxidant activities that appear to be responsible for the induction of apoptosis in tumor cells. The bioavailability of these natural compounds is an important factor that determines their efficacy. Nanoparticle (NP)-mediated delivery techniques of EGCG and TFs have been found to improve their bioavailability to a level that could benefit their effectiveness as chemopreventives. Aim: The present study was conducted to compare the effects of TFs and EGCG, when used in the bulk form and in the polymer (poly[lactic-co-glycolic acid])-based NP form, in oxaliplatin- and satraplatin-treated lymphocytes as surrogate cells from colorectal cancer patients and healthy volunteers. Materials & methods: NPs were examined for their size distribution, surface morphology, entrapment efficiency and release profile. Lymphocytes were treated in the Comet assay with oxaliplatin and satraplatin, washed and treated with bulk or NP forms of tea phenols, washed and then treated with hydrogen peroxide to determine single-strand breaks after cross-linking. Results: The results of DNA damage measurements by the Comet assay revealed opposite trends in bulk and NP forms of TFs, as well as EGCG. Both the compounds in the bulk form produced statistically significant concentration-dependent reductions in DNA damage in oxaliplatin- or satraplatin-treated lymphocytes. In contrast, when used in the NP form both TFs and EGCG, although initially causing a reduction, produced a concentration-dependent statistically significant increase in DNA damage in the lymphocytes. Discussion: These observations support the notion that TFs and EGCG act as both antioxidants and pro-oxidants, depending on the form in which they are administered under the conditions of investigation. Original submitted 8 November 2011; Revised submitted 9 July 2012.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Controlling the self-assembling of building blocks as nanoscale entities is a requisite for the generation of bio-inspired vehicles for nanomedicines. A wide spectrum of functional peptides has been incorporated to different types of nanoparticles for the delivery of conventional drugs and nucleic acids, enabling receptor-specific cell binding and internalization, endosomal escape, cytosolic trafficking, nuclear targeting and DNA condensation. However, the development of architectonic tags to induce the self-assembling of functionalized monomers has been essentially neglected. We have examined here the nanoscale architectonic capabilities of arginine-rich cationic peptides, that when displayed on His-tagged proteins, promote their self-assembling as monodisperse, protein-only nanoparticles. The scrutiny of the cross-molecular interactivity cooperatively conferred by poly-arginines and poly-histidines has identified regulatable electrostatic interactions between building blocks that can also be engineered to encapsulate cargo DNA. The combined use of cationic peptides and poly-histidine tags offers an unusually versatile approach for the tailored design and biofabrication of protein-based nano-therapeutics, beyond the more limited spectrum of possibilities so far offered by self-assembling amyloidogenic peptides.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A small library of polyethylenimine (PEI) nanoparticles (NPs), wherein PEI was crosslinked with piperazinyl linkers, viz., piperazine-N,N′-dibutyric acid and piperazine-N,N′-dipropanal, yielding piperazine-N,N′-dibutyramide-PEI (PBAP) and piperazine-N,N′-dipropyl-PEI (PPP) nanoparticles, was designed and synthesized. The NPs were in the size range 103–216 nm. DNA complexes of all the NPs had low toxicity and exhibited significant enhancement in transfection efficiency compared to parent PEI and commercial transfection agents. Importantly, the transfection activity of NP/DNA complexes was preserved in the presence of serum. Amongst all the formulations, the PBAP4/DNA complex exhibited the highest transfection efficiency in all the cell lines tested. Also, PBAP4 NPs efficiently protected the complexed DNA against DNase in vitro. Intravenous delivery of PBAP4/DNA complex to male Balb/c mice showed the highest gene expression in spleen cells. The results indicate that PBAP nanoparticles may be used for tissue-specific gene delivery in vivo.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In this study, a DNA aptamer was used to bio-capture Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium from surface water collected from highly endemic zone prior to culture-free detection through Molecular-Beacon based real-time PCR assay targeting invA gene. The assay could detect S. Typhimurium cells (1 CFU/PCR or 100 CFU/ml) selectively captured by serovar specific DNA aptamer. The observations indicate that all the water samples (n=40) collected from the river Gomti were contaminated by S. Typhimurium (31400-1 × 10(7) CFU/100 ml). The pre-analytical step in the form of serovar specific DNA aptamer based bio-capture of the bacterial cell was found to enhance the sensitivity of the florescent probe based real-time PCR assay during detection of S. Typhimurium in environmental samples exhibiting natural PCR inhibitors and high background bacterial flora. The assay could be used for the regular monitoring of surface waters for forecasting and management of non-typhoidal Salmonellosis in south Asia.
Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety 04/2012; 78:320-6. · 2.20 Impact Factor