K. C. Freeman

Australian National University, Canberra, Australian Capital Territory, Australia

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Publications (506)1583.11 Total impact

  • Source
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    ABSTRACT: The center of our disk galaxy, the Milky Way, is dominated by a boxy/peanut-shaped bulge. Numerous studies of the bulge based on stellar photometry have concluded that the bulge stars are exclusively old. The perceived lack of young stars in the bulge strongly constrains its likely formation scenarios, providing evidence that the bulge is a unique population that formed early and separately from the disk. However, recent studies of individual bulge stars using the microlensing technique have reported that they span a range of ages, emphasizing that the bulge may not be a monolithic structure. In this letter we demonstrate that the presence of young stars that are located predominantly near the plane is expected for a bulge that has formed from the disk via dynamical instabilities. Using an N-body+SPH simulation of a disk galaxy forming out of gas cooling inside a dark matter halo and forming stars, we find a qualitative agreement between our model and the observations of young metal-rich stars in the bulge. We are also able to partially resolve the apparent contradiction in the literature between results that argue for a purely old bulge population and those which show a population comprised of a range in ages; the key is where to look.
    01/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: By selecting in the RAVE-DR4 survey the stars located between 1 and 2 kpc above the Galactic plane, we question the consistency of the simplest three-component model (thin disc, thick disc, halo) for the Milky Way. We confirm that the metallicity and azimuthal velocity distribution functions of the thick disc are not Gaussian. In particular, we find that the thick disc has an extended metallicity tail going at least down to [M/H]=-2 dex, contributing roughly at 3% of the entire thick disc population and having a shorter scale-length compared to the canonical thick disc. The mean azimuthal velocity of these metal-poor stars allows us to estimate the correlation between the metallicity and the orbital velocity, which is an important constraint on the formation mechanisms of the Galactic thick disc. Given our simple approach, we find dVphi/d[M/H] ~ 50 km/s/dex, which is in a very good agreement with previous literature values. We complete the study with a brief discussion on the implications of the formation scenarios for the thick disc, and suggest that given the above mentioned characteristics, a thick disc mainly formed by radial migration mechanisms seems unlikely.
    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 10/2013; 436(4). · 5.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: RAVE, the unbiased magnitude limited survey of southern sky stars, contained 456,676 medium-resolution spectra at the time of our analysis. Spectra cover the Ca II infrared triplet (IRT) range, which is a known indicator of chromospheric activity. Our previous work classified all spectra using locally linear embedding. It identified 53,347 cases with a suggested emission component in calcium lines. Here, we use a spectral subtraction technique to measure the properties of this emission. Synthetic templates are replaced by the observed spectra of non-active stars to bypass the difficult computations of non-local thermal equilibrium profiles of the line cores and stellar parameter dependence. We derive both the equivalent width of the excess emission for each calcium line on a 5 Å wide interval and their sum EWIRT for ~44,000 candidate active dwarf stars with signal-to-noise ratio >20, with no cuts on the basis of the source of their emission flux. From these, ~14,000 show a detectable chromospheric flux with at least a 2σ confidence level. Our set of active stars vastly enlarges previously known samples. Atmospheric parameters and, in some cases, radial velocities of active stars derived from automatic pipelines suffer from systematic shifts due to their shallower calcium lines. We re-estimate the effective temperature, metallicity, and radial velocities for candidate active stars. The overall distribution of activity levels shows a bimodal shape, with the first peak coinciding with non-active stars and the second with the pre-main-sequence cases. The catalog will be made publicly available with the next RAVE public data releases.
    The Astrophysical Journal 10/2013; 776(2):127-. · 6.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Non-axisymmetries in the Galactic potential (spiral arms and bar) induce kinematic groups such as the Hercules stream. Assuming that Hercules is caused by the effects of the Outer Lindblad Resonance of the Galactic bar, we model analytically its properties as a function of position in the Galaxy and its dependence on the bar's pattern speed and orientation. Using data from the RAVE survey we find that the azimuthal velocity of the Hercules structure decreases as a function of Galactocentric radius, in a manner consistent with our analytical model. This allows us to obtain new estimates of the parameters of the Milky Way's bar. The combined likelihood function of the bar's pattern speed and angle has its maximum for a pattern speed of Omega_b=(1.89 +- 0.08) x Omega_0 where Omega_0 is the local circular frequency. Assuming a Solar radius of 8.05 kpc and a local circular velocity of 238 km/s, this corresponds to Omega_b=56 +- 2 km/s/kpc. On the other hand, the bar's orientation phi_b cannot be constrained with the available data. In fact, the likelihood function shows that a tight correlation exists between the pattern speed and the orientation, implying that a better description of our best fit results is given by the linear relation Omega_b/Omega_0=1.905 + 0.0044[phi_b(deg)-47.7], with standard deviation of 0.02. For example, for an angle of phi_b=30deg the pattern speed is 54.0+-0.5km/s/kpc. These results are not very sensitive to the other Galactic parameters such as the circular velocity curve or the peculiar motion of the Sun, and are robust to biases in distance.
    09/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: RAVE, the unbiased magnitude limited survey of the southern sky stars, contained 456,676 medium-resolution spectra at the time of our analysis. Spectra cover the CaII IRT range which is a known indicator of chromospheric activity. Our previous work (Matijevi\v{c} et al. 2012) classified all spectra using locally linear embedding. It identified 53,347 cases with a suggested emission component in calcium lines. Here we use a spectral subtraction technique to measure the properties of this emission. Synthetic templates are replaced by the observed spectra of non-active stars to bypass the difficult computations of non-LTE profiles of the line cores and stellar parameter dependence. We derive both the equivalent width of the excess emission for each calcium line on a 5\AA\ wide interval and their sum EW_IRT for ~44,000 candidate active dwarf stars with S/N>20 and with no respect to the source of their emission flux. From these ~14,000 show a detectable chromospheric flux with at least 2\sigma\ confidence level. Our set of active stars vastly enlarges previously known samples. Atmospheric parameters and in some cases radial velocities of active stars derived from automatic pipeline suffer from systematic shifts due to their shallower calcium lines. We re-estimate the effective temperature, metallicity and radial velocities for candidate active stars. The overall distribution of activity levels shows a bimodal shape, with the first peak coinciding with non-active stars and the second with the pre main-sequence cases. The catalogue will be publicly available with the next RAVE public data releases.
    09/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: We present the stellar atmospheric parameters (effective temperature, surface gravity, overall metallicity), radial velocities, individual abundances and distances determined for 425 561 stars, which constitute the fourth public data release of the RAdial Velocity Experiment (RAVE). The stellar atmospheric parameters are computed using a new pipeline, based on the algorithms of MATISSE and DEGAS. The spectral degeneracies and the 2MASS photometric information are now better taken into consideration, improving the parameter determination compared to the previous RAVE data releases. The individual abundances for six elements (magnesium, aluminum, silicon, titanium, iron and nickel) are also given, based on a special-purpose pipeline which is also improved compared to that available for the RAVE DR3 and Chemical DR1 data releases. Together with photometric information and proper motions, these data can be retrieved from the RAVE collaboration website and the Vizier database.
    09/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: Context. Galactic open clusters (OCs) mainly belong to the young stellar population in the Milky Way disk, but are there groups and complexes of OCs that possibly define an additional level in hierarchical star formation? Current compilations are too incomplete to address this question, especially regarding radial velocities (RVs) and metallicities ($[M/H]$). Aims. Here we provide and discuss newly obtained RV and $[M/H]$ data, which will enable us to reinvestigate potential groupings of open clusters and associations. Methods.We extracted additional RVs and $[M/H]$ from the RAdial Velocity Experiment (RAVE) via a cross-match with the Catalogue of Stars in Open Cluster Areas (CSOCA). For the identified OCs in RAVE we derived RV and $[M/H]$ from a cleaned working sample and compared the results with previous findings. Results. Although our RAVE sample does not show the same accuracy as the entire survey, we were able to derive reliable RV for 110 Galactic open clusters. For 37 OCs we publish RV for the first time. Moreover, we determined $[M/H]$ for 81 open clusters, extending the number of OCs with $[M/H]$ by 69.
    09/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: Diffuse interstellar bands are usually observed in spectra of hot stars, where interstellar lines are rarely blended with stellar ones. The need for hot stars is a strong limitation in the number of sightlines we can observe and the distribution of sightlines in the Galaxy, as hot stars are rare and concentrated in the Galactic plane. We are introducing a new method, where interstellar lines can be observed in spectra of cool stars in large spectroscopic surveys. The method is completely automated and does not require prior knowledge of the stellar parameters. If known, the stellar parameters only reduce the computational time and are not involved in the extraction of the interstellar spectrum. The main step in extracting interstellar lines is a construction of the stellar spectrum, which is in our method done by finding other observed spectra that lack interstellar features and are otherwise very similar to the spectrum in question. Such spectra are then combined into a single stellar spectrum template, which matches the stellar component in an observed spectrum. We demonstrate the performance of this new method on a sample of 482,430 spectra observed in RAVE survey. However, many spectra have to be combined (48 on average) in order to achieve a S/N ratio high enough to measure the DIB's profile, hence limiting the spatial information about the ISM. Only one strong interstellar line is included in the RAVE spectral range, a diffuse interstellar band at 8620 \AA. We compare its equivalent width with extinction maps and with Bayesian reddening, calculated for individual stars, and provide a linear relation between the equivalent width and reddening. Separately from the introduced method, we calculate equivalent widths of the diffuse interstellar band in spectra of hot stars with known extinction and compare all three linear relations with each other and with relations from the literature.
    The Astrophysical Journal 09/2013; 778(2). · 6.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We investigate the diffuse light in the outer regions of the nearby elliptical galaxy M87 in the Virgo cluster, using planetary nebulas (PNs) as tracers. The surveyed areas (0.43 squared degrees) cover M87 up to a radial distance of 150 kpc, in the ransition region between galaxy halo and intracluster light (ICL). All PNs are identified through the on-off band technique using automatic selection criteria based on the distribution of the detected sources in the colour-magnitude diagram and the properties of their point-spread function. We extract a catalogue of 688 objects down to m_5007=28.4, with an estimated residual contamination from foreground stars and background Lyalpha galaxies, which amounts to ~35% of the sample. This is one of the largest extragalactic PN samples in number of candidates, magnitude depth, and radial extent, which allows us to carry out an unprecedented photometric study of the PN population in the outer regions of M87. We find that the logarithmic density profile of the PN distribution is shallower than the surface brightness profile at large radii. This behaviour is consistent with the superposition of two components associated with the halo of M87 and with the ICL, which have different luminosity specific PN numbers, the ICL contributing three times more PNs per unit light. Because of the depth of this survey we are also able to study the shape of the PN luminosity function (PNLF) in the outer regions of M87. We find a slope for the PNLF that is steeper at fainter magnitudes than the standard analytical PNLF formula and adopt a generalised model that treats the slope as a free parameter. Comparing the PNLF of M87 and the M31 bulge, both normalised by the sampled luminosity, the M87 PNLF contains fewer bright PNs and has a steeper slope towards fainter magnitudes.
    Astronomy and Astrophysics 08/2013; · 5.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present the kinematic results from our ARGOS spectroscopic survey of the Galactic bulge of the Milky Way. Our aim is to understand the formation of the Galactic bulge. We examine the kinematics of about 17 400 stars in the bulge located within 3.5 kpc of the Galactic Centre, identified from the 28 000 star ARGOS survey. We aim to determine if the formation of the bulge has been internally driven from disc instabilities as suggested by its boxy shape, or if mergers have played a significant role as expected from lambda cold dark matter simulations. From our velocity measurements across latitudes b = -5°, - 7.5° and -10° we find the bulge to be a cylindrically rotating system that transitions smoothly out into the disc. From observations of 3 fields at b = +10, the kinematics of the bulge show North-South symmetry about the major axis. Within the bulge, we find a kinematically distinct metal-poor population ([Fe/H] < -1.0) that is not rotating cylindrically. The 5 per cent of our stars with [Fe/H] < -1.0 are a slowly rotating spheroidal population, which we believe are stars of the metal-weak thick disc and halo which presently lie in the inner Galaxy. The kinematics of the two bulge components that we identified in ARGOS Paper III (mean [Fe/H] ≈ -0.25 and [Fe/H] ≈ +0.15, respectively) demonstrate that they are likely to share a common formation origin and are distinct from the more metal-poor populations of the thick disc and halo which are co-located inside the bulge. We do not exclude an underlying merger generated bulge component but our results favour bulge formation from instabilities in the early thin disc.
    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 07/2013; 432(3):2092-2103. · 5.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The stellar kinematics of the spheroids and discs of S0 galaxies contain clues to their formation histories. Unfortunately, it is difficult to disentangle the two components and to recover their stellar kinematics in the faint outer parts of the galaxies using conventional absorption line spectroscopy. This paper therefore presents the stellar kinematics of six S0 galaxies derived from observations of planetary nebulae, obtained using the Planetary Nebula Spectrograph. To separate the kinematics of the two components, we use a maximum-likelihood method that combines the discrete kinematic data with a photometric component decomposition. The results of this analysis reveal that: the discs of S0 galaxies are rotationally supported; however, the amount of random motion in these discs is systematically higher than in comparable spiral galaxies; and the S0s lie around one magnitude below the Tully-Fisher relation for spiral galaxies, while their spheroids lie nearly one magnitude above the Faber-Jackson relation for ellipticals. All of these findings are consistent with a scenario in which spirals are converted into S0s through a process of mild harassment or `pestering,' with their discs somewhat heated and their spheroid somewhat enhanced by the conversion process. In such a scenario, one might expect the properties of S0s to depend on environment. We do not see such an effect in this fairly small sample, although any differences would be diluted by the fact that the current location does not necessarily reflect the environment in which the transformation occurred. Similar observations of larger samples probing a broader range of environments, coupled with more detailed modelling of the transformation process to match the wide range of parameters that we have shown can now be measured, should take us from these first steps to the definitive answer as to how S0 galaxies form.
    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 06/2013; 432(2):1010-1020. · 5.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Context. The origins of S0 galaxies remain obscure, with various mechanisms proposed for their formation, likely depending on environment. These mechanisms would imprint different signatures in the galaxies' stellar kinematics out to large radii, offering a method for distinguishing between them. Aims: We aim to study a sample of six S0 galaxies from a range of environments, and use planetary nebulae (PNe) as tracers of their stellar populations out to very large radii, to determine their kinematics in order to understand their origins. Methods: Using a special-purpose instrument, the Planetary Nebula Spectrograph, we observe and extract PNe catalogues for these six systems. Results: We show that the PNe have the same spatial distribution as the starlight, that the numbers of them are consistent with what would be expected in a comparable old stellar population in elliptical galaxies, and that their kinematics join smoothly onto those derived at smaller radii from conventional spectroscopy. Conclusions: The high-quality kinematic observations presented here form an excellent set for studying the detailed kinematics of S0 galaxies, in order to unravel their formation histories. We find that PNe are good tracers of stellar kinematics in these systems. We show that the recovered kinematics are largely dominated by rotational motion, although with significant random velocities in most cases. Full Tables 3-7 are available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/549/A115
    Astronomy and Astrophysics 03/2013; · 5.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The shape of the dark matter halo of a galaxy offers valuable clues on the physical nature of dark matter. In this series of papers, we model the structure and kinematics of the baryons in edge-on galaxies. The flaring of the HI disk provides a measure of the vertical force field of that disk. In a similar way, the rotation curve provides a measure of the horizontal force field. As the galaxies are at rest, the combination of these two provides all the required ingredients for full hydrostatic models. We use these models to analyze their potential wells as generated by the dark matter halo and its shape. In this first paper, we explain this project in more detail and present the HI observations of our sample of 8 edge-on galaxies. We also argue that self-absorption of the HI has a significant effect in these galaxies.
    03/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: The RAVE survey, combined with proper motions and distance estimates, can be used to study in detail stellar kinematics in the extended solar neighbourhood (solar suburb). Using the red clump, we examine the mean velocity components in 3D between an R of 6 and 10 kpc and a Z of -2 to 2 kpc, concentrating on North-South differences. Simple parametric fits to the R, Z trends for VPHI and the velocity dispersions are presented. We confirm the recently discovered gradient in mean Galactocentric radial velocity, VR, finding that the gradient is more marked below the plane, with a Z gradient also present. The vertical velocity, VZ, also shows clear structure, with indications of a rarefaction-compression pattern, suggestive of wave-like behaviour. We perform a rigorous error analysis, tracing sources of both systematic and random errors. We confirm the North-South differences in VR and VZ along the line-of-sight, with the VR estimated independent of the proper motions. The complex three-dimensional structure of velocity space presents challenges for future modelling of the Galactic disk, with the Galactic bar, spiral arms and excitation of wave-like structures all probably playing a role.
    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 02/2013; 436(1). · 5.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We describe the motivation, field locations and stellar selection for the Abundances and Radial velocity Galactic Origins Survey (ARGOS) spectroscopic survey of 28 000 stars in the bulge and inner disc of the Milky Way galaxy across latitudes of b = -5° to -10°. The primary goal of this survey is to constrain the formation processes of the bulge and establish whether it is predominantly a merger or instability remnant. From the spectra (R = 11 000), we have measured radial velocities and determined stellar parameters, including metallicities and [α/Fe] ratios. Distances were estimated from the derived stellar parameters and about 14 000 stars are red giants within 3.5 kpc of the Galactic Centre. In this paper, we present the observations and analysis methods. Subsequent papers (III and IV) will discuss the stellar metallicity distribution and kinematics of the Galactic bulge and inner disc, and the implications for the formation of the bulge.
    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 02/2013; 428(4):3660-3670. · 5.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present the metallicity results from the ARGOS spectroscopic survey of the Galactic bulge. Our aim is to understand the formation of the Galactic bulge: did it form via mergers, as expected from Lambda CDM theory, or from disk instabilities, as suggested by its boxy/peanut shape, or both? We have obtained spectra for 28,000 stars at a spectral resolution of R = 11,000. From these spectra, we have determined stellar parameters and distances to an accuracy of < 1.5 kpc. The stars in the inner Galaxy span a large range in [Fe/H], -2.8 < [Fe/H] < +0.6. From the spatial distribution of the red clump stars as a function of [Fe/H] (Ness et al. 2012a), we propose that the stars with [Fe/H] > -0.5 are part of the boxy/peanut bar/bulge. We associate the lower metallicity stars ([Fe/H] < -0.5) with the thick disk, which may be puffed up in the inner region, and with the inner regions of the metal-weak thick disk and inner halo. For the bulge stars with [Fe/H] > -0.5, we find two discrete populations; (i) stars with [Fe/H] ~ -0.25 which provide a roughly constant fraction of the stars in the latitude interval b = -5 deg to -10 deg, and (ii) a kinematically colder, more metal-rich population with mean [Fe/H] ~ +0.15 which is more prominent closer to the plane. The changing ratio of these components with latitude appears as a vertical abundance gradient of the bulge. We attribute both of these bulge components to instability-driven bar/bulge formation from the thin disk. We do not exclude a weak underlying classical merger-generated bulge component, but see no obvious kinematic association of any of our bulge stars with such a classical bulge component. [abridged]
    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 12/2012; 430(2). · 5.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The origins of S0 galaxies remain obscure, with various mechanisms proposed for their formation, likely depending on environment. These mechanisms would imprint different signatures in the galaxies' stellar kinematics out to large radii, offering a method for distinguishing between them. We aim to study a sample of six S0 galaxies from a range of environments, and use planetary nebulae (PNe) as tracers of their stellar populations out to very large radii, to determine their kinematics in order to understand their origins. Using a special-purpose instrument, the Planetary Nebula Spectrograph, we observe and extract PNe catalogues for these six systems. We show that the PNe have the same spatial distribution as the starlight, that the numbers of them are consistent with what would be expected in a comparable old stellar population in elliptical galaxies, and that their kinematics join smoothly onto those derived at smaller radii from conventional spectroscopy. The high-quality kinematic observations presented here form an excellent set for studying the detailed kinematics of S0 galaxies, in order to unravel their formation histories. We find that PNe are good tracers of stellar kinematics in these systems. We show that the recovered kinematics are largely dominated by rotational motion, although with significant random velocities in most cases. (5 data files).
    VizieR Online Data Catalog. 11/2012;
  • M. Ness, K. Freeman, E. Athanassoula
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    ABSTRACT: The bulge of the Milky Way is an important signature of formation of our Galaxy. From our observational survey we report on the kinematics and metallicity of about 28,000 stars across the bulge and out into the thick disk. Our results demonstrate that the likely origin of formation of the Galactic Bulge is internal dynamical processes, rather than mergers. We present our preliminary results for chemodynamical N-body simulations which test some of our key observational findings.
    08/2012;
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    ABSTRACT: The Hyades supercluster is a kinematically defined group of stars, which are located across the Galactic disk. Advocated by Eggen in the 1970's as part of the Hyades open cluster, recent simulations suggest the Hyades supercluster is a dynamical stream caused by spiral density waves. We present high resolution elemental abundances of probable supercluster members. We recover supercluster stars that share a similar chemical signature as the Hyades open cluster. Our results support the Hyades supercluster being at least partly the debris of an originally large star-forming event.
    08/2012;
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    ABSTRACT: We present detailed elemental abundances of 12 subgiants in the open cluster IC 4756 including Na, Al, Mg, Si, Ca, Ti, Cr, Ni, Fe, Zn and Ba. We measure the cluster to have [Fe/H] = -0.01 +/- 0.10. Most of the measured star-to-star [X/H] abundance variation is below sigma < 0.03, as expected from a coeval stellar population preserving natal abundance patterns, supporting the use of elemental abundances as a probe to reconstruct dispersed clusters. We find discrepancies between Cr I and Cr II abundances as well as between Ti I and Ti II abundances, where the ionized abundances are larger by about 0.2 dex. This follows other such studies which demonstrate the effects of overionization in cool stars. IC 4756 are supersolar in Mg, Si, Na and Al, but are solar in the other elements. The fact that IC 4756 is supersolar in some alpha-elements (Mg, Si) but solar in the others (Ca, Ti) suggests that the production of alpha-elements is not simply one dimensional and could be exploited for chemical tagging.
    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 07/2012; 427(1). · 5.52 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

3k Citations
1,583.11 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1989–2013
    • Australian National University
      • • Research School of Astronomy & Astrophysics
      • • Mount Stromlo Observatory
      Canberra, Australian Capital Territory, Australia
  • 2009–2011
    • University of Concepción
      • Departamento de Física
      Ciudad de Concepcion, Biobío, Chile
    • Ghent University
      • Department of Physics and Astronomy
      Gand, Flanders, Belgium
  • 2000–2009
    • ANU College
      Canberra, Australian Capital Territory, Australia
    • University of Michigan
      • Department of Astronomy
      Ann Arbor, Michigan, United States
    • University of Cambridge
      • Institute of Astronomy
      Cambridge, England, United Kingdom
  • 1998–2009
    • University of Washington Seattle
      • Department of Astronomy
      Seattle, WA, United States
    • Astronomical Society of Australia
      Canberra, Australian Capital Territory, Australia
    • WSU West
      Seattle, Washington, United States
  • 2008
    • National University (California)
      San Diego, California, United States
    • Space Research Institute
      Moskva, Moscow, Russia
  • 2002–2008
    • The Astronomical Observatory of Brera
      Merate, Lombardy, Italy
    • University of Colorado at Boulder
      • Center for Astrophysics and Space Astronomy
      Boulder, CO, United States
  • 2007
    • Macquarie University
      • Department of Physics and Astronomy
      Sydney, New South Wales, Australia
  • 2003–2007
    • University of Nottingham
      • School of Physics and Astronomy
      Nottigham, England, United Kingdom
    • Max Planck Institute for Astrophysics
      Arching, Bavaria, Germany
    • Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey
      • Department Physics and Astronomy
      New Brunswick, New Jersey, United States
    • Pontifical Catholic University of Chile
      • Instituto de Astrofísica
      Santiago, Region Metropolitana de Santiago, Chile
  • 2006
    • University of California, San Diego
      • Department of Physics
      San Diego, CA, United States
    • Swinburne University of Technology
      • Centre for Astrophysics and Supercomputing
      Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
  • 2001–2006
    • University of Santiago, Chile
      CiudadSantiago, Santiago, Chile
  • 2005
    • Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias
      San Cristóbal de La Laguna, Canary Islands, Spain
  • 2001–2002
    • Johns Hopkins University
      • Department of Physics and Astronomy
      Baltimore, Maryland, United States
  • 1995–2002
    • Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory
      Livermore, California, United States
    • University of Wisconsin, Madison
      • Department of Astronomy
      Mississippi, United States
    • University of California, Davis
      • Department of Physics
      Davis, CA, United States
  • 1999
    • McMaster University
      • Department of Physics and Astronomy
      Hamilton, Ontario, Canada
    • University of Notre Dame
      • Department of Physics
      Washington, D. C., DC, United States
  • 1997–1998
    • Massachusetts Institute of Technology
      Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States
  • 1994
    • University of Padova
      Padua, Veneto, Italy