K. Iwasawa

Observatoire de Paris, Lutetia Parisorum, Île-de-France, France

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Publications (239)803.85 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: We present results from the deep XMM-Newton observations of the two brightest X-ray sources in the Chandra Deep Field South (CDFS), PID 203 (z=0.544) and PID 319 (z=0.742). The long exposure of 2.5 Ms over a 10 year period (net 4 yr with a 6 yr gap) makes it possible to obtain high quality X-ray spectra of these two Type I AGN with X-ray luminosity of 10^44 erg/s, typical luminosity for low-redshift PG quasars, track their X-ray variability both in flux and spectral shape. Both sources showed X-ray flux variability of ~10-20 per cent in rms which is similar in the soft (0.5-2 keV) and hard (2-7 keV) bands. PID 203, which has evidence for optical extinction, shows modest amount of absorption (nH~1e21cm^-2) in the X-ray spectrum. Fe K emission is strongly detected in both objects with EW~0.2 keV. The lines in both objects are moderately broad and exhibit marginal evidence for variability in shape and flux, indicating that the bulk of the line emission come from their accretion disks rather than distant tori.
    12/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: We present the hard-band ($2-10\,\mathrm{keV}$) X-ray luminosity function (HXLF) of $0.5-2\,\mathrm{keV}$ band selected AGN at high redshift. We have assembled a sample of 141 AGN at $3<z\lesssim5$ from X-ray surveys of different size and depth, in order to sample different regions in the $ L_X - z$ plane. The HXLF is fitted in the range $\mathrm{logL_X\sim43-45}$ with standard analytical evolutionary models through a maximum likelihood procedure. The evolution of the HXLF is well described by a pure density evolution, with the AGN space density declining by a factor of $\sim10$ from $z=3$ to 5. A luminosity-dependent density evolution model which, normally, best represents the HXLF evolution at lower redshift, is also consistent with the data, but a larger sample of low-luminosity ($\mathrm{logL_X}<44$), high-redshift AGN is necessary to constrain this model. We also estimated the intrinsic fraction of AGN obscured by a column density $\mathrm{logN_H}\geq23$ to be $0.54\pm0.05$, with no strong dependence on luminosity. This fraction is higher than the value in the Local Universe, suggesting an evolution of the luminous ($\mathrm{L_X>10^{44}\mathrm{erg\,s^{-1}}}$) obscured AGN fraction from $z=0$ to $z>3$.
    09/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The obscured accretion phase in BH growth is a key ingredient in many models linking the AGN activity with the evolution of their host galaxy. At present, a complete census of obscured AGN is still missing. The purpose of this work is to assess the reliability of the [NeV] emission line at 3426 A to pick up obscured AGN up to z~1 by assuming that [NeV] is a reliable proxy of the intrinsic AGN luminosity and using moderately deep X-ray data to characterize the amount of obscuration. A sample of 69 narrow-line (Type 2) AGN at z=0.65-1.20 were selected from the 20k-zCOSMOS Bright galaxy sample on the basis of the presence of the [NeV] emission. The X-ray properties of these galaxies were then derived using the Chandra-COSMOS coverage of the field; the X-ray-to-[NeV] flux ratio, coupled with X-ray spectral and stacking analyses, was then used to infer whether Compton-thin or Compton-thick absorption were present in these sources. Then the [NeV] luminosity function was computed to estimate the space density of Compton-thick (CT) AGN at z~0.8. Twenty-three sources were detected by Chandra, and their properties are consistent with moderate obscuration (on average, ~a few 10^{22} cm^-2). The X-ray properties of the remaining 46 X-ray undetected Type 2 AGN were derived using X-ray stacking analysis. Current data indicate that a fraction as high as ~40% of the present sample is likely to be CT. The space density of CT AGN with logL_2-10keV>43.5 at z=0.83 is (9.1+/-2.1) 10^{-6} Mpc^{-3}, in good agreement with both XRB model expectations and the previously measured space density for objects in a similar redshift and luminosity range. We regard our selection technique for CT AGN as clean but not complete, since even a mild extinction in the NLR can suppress [NeV] emission. Therefore, our estimate of their space density should be considered as a lower limit.
    09/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Heavily obscured, Compton Thick (CT, NH>10^24 cm-2) AGN may represent an important phase in AGN/galaxy co-evolution and are expected to provide a significant contribution to the cosmic X-ray background (CXB) at its peak. Through direct X-ray spectra analysis, we selected 39 heavily obscured AGN (NH>3x10^23 cm-2) in the 2 deg^2 XMM-COSMOS survey. Thanks to deeper Chandra data available in the field, we can define 10 of these sources as bona-fide CT, spanning a large range of redshift and luminosity, and estimate the efficiency of our selection to be of the order of 80%. We collected the multi-wavelength information available for these sources, to study the distribution of BH mass (MBH), Eddington ratio (lambda_Edd), stellar mass (M*), specific star formation rate (sSFR) in comparison with a sample of unobscured AGN. We find that highly obscured sources tend to have significantly smaller MBH and higher lambda_Edd with respect to unobscured sources. The sSFR of highly obscured sources is consistent with the one observed for main sequence star forming galaxies, at all redshift. We also present and briefly discuss optical spectra, broad band spectral energy distribution (SED) and morphology for the sample of 10 CT AGN. Both the optical spectra and SED agree with the classification as highly obscured sources: all the available optical spectra are dominated by the stellar component of the host galaxy, and an highly obscured torus component is needed in the SED of all the CT sources. Exploiting the high resolution Hubble images, we show that these highly obscured sources have a significantly larger merger fraction with respect to other X-ray selected samples of AGN. Finally we discuss the implications of our findings in the context of AGN/galaxy co-evolutionary models, and compare our results with the predictions of CXB synthesis models.
    09/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The Great Observatories All-Sky LIRG Survey (GOALS) is a comprehensive, multiwavelength study of luminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs) in the local universe. Here we present the results of a multi-component, spectral decomposition analysis of the low resolution mid-IR Spitzer IRS spectra from 5-38um of 244 LIRG nuclei. The detailed fits and high quality spectra allow for characterization of the individual PAH features, warm molecular hydrogen emission, and optical depths for silicate dust grains and water ices. We find that starbursting LIRGs, which make up the majority of GOALS, are very consistent in their MIR properties (i.e. tau_9.7um, tau_ice, neon line and PAH feature ratios). However, as their PAH EQW decreases, usually an indicator of an increasingly dominant AGN, LIRGs cover a larger spread in these MIR parameters. The contribution from PAHs to the total L(IR) in LIRGs varies from 2-29% and LIRGs prior to their first encounter show higher L(PAH)/L(IR) ratios on average. We observe a correlation between the strength of the starburst (IR8) and the PAH fraction at 8um but not with the 7.7 to 11.3 PAH ratio, suggesting the fractional PDR emission, and not the overall grain properties, is associated with the rise in IR8 for galaxies off the starburst main sequence. We detect crystalline silicate features in 6% of the sample but only in the most obscured sources (s_9.7um < -1.24). Ice absorption features are observed in 11% (56%) of GOALS LIRGs (ULIRGs). Most GOALS LIRGs have L(H2)/L(PAH) ratios elevated above those observed for normal star-forming galaxies and exhibit a trend for increasing L(H2)/L(PAH) ratio with increasing L(H2). While star formation appears to be the dominant process responsible for exciting the H2 in most of the GOALS galaxies, a subset of LIRGs (10%) show excess H2 emission that is inconsistent with PDR models and may be excited by shocks or AGN-induced outflows.
    The Astrophysical Journal 06/2014; 790(2). · 6.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present our initial results on the CO rotational spectral line energy distribution (SLED) of the J to J–1 transitions from J = 4 up to 13 from Herschel SPIRE spectroscopic observations of 65 luminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs) in the Great Observatories All-Sky LIRG Survey. The observed SLEDs change on average from one peaking at J ≤ 4 to a broad distribution peaking around J ~ 6 to 7 as the IRAS 60-to-100 μm color, C(60/100), increases. However, the ratios of a CO line luminosity to the total infrared luminosity, L IR, show the smallest variation for J around 6 or 7. This suggests that, for most LIRGs, ongoing star formation (SF) is also responsible for a warm gas component that emits CO lines primarily in the mid-J regime (5 J 10). As a result, the logarithmic ratios of the CO line luminosity summed over CO (5–4), (6–5), (7–6), (8–7) and (10–9) transitions to L IR, log R midCO, remain largely independent of C(60/100), and show a mean value of –4.13 () and a sample standard deviation of only 0.10 for the SF-dominated galaxies. Including additional galaxies from the literature, we show, albeit with a small number of cases, the possibility that galaxies, which bear powerful interstellar shocks unrelated to the current SF, and galaxies, in which an energetic active galactic nucleus contributes significantly to the bolometric luminosity, have their R midCO higher and lower than , respectively.
    The Astrophysical Journal Letters 05/2014; 787(2):L23. · 6.35 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: MWC 656 (=HD 215227) was recently discovered to be the first binary system composed of a Be star and a black hole (BH). We observed it with XMM-Newton, and detected a faint X-ray source compatible with the position of the optical star, thus proving it to be the first Be/BH X-ray binary. The spectrum analysis requires a model fit with two components, a blackbody plus a power law, with keV and a photon index Γ = 1.0 ± 0.8, respectively. The non-thermal component dominates above 0.8 keV. The obtained total flux is F(0.3- erg cm–2 s–1. At a distance of 2.6 ± 0.6 kpc the total flux translates into a luminosity L X = (3.7 ± 1.7) × 1031 erg s–1. Considering the estimated range of BH masses to be 3.8-6.9 M ☉, this luminosity represents (6.7 ± 4.4) × 10–8L Edd, which is typical of stellar-mass BHs in quiescence. We discuss the origin of the two spectral components: the thermal component is associated with the hot wind of the Be star, whereas the power-law component is associated with emission from the vicinity of the BH. We also find that the position of MWC 656 in the radio versus X-ray luminosity diagram may be consistent with the radio/X-ray correlation observed in BH low-mass X-ray binaries. This suggests that this correlation might also be valid for BH high-mass X-ray binaries (HMXBs) with X-ray luminosities down to ~10–8L Edd. MWC 656 will allow the accretion processes and the accretion/ejection coupling at very low luminosities for BH HMXBs to be studied.
    The Astrophysical Journal Letters 04/2014; 786(2):L11. · 6.35 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: There are a number of very high energy sources in the Galaxy that remain unidentified. Multi-wavelength and variability studies, and catalogue searches, are powerful tools to identify the physical counterpart, given the uncertainty in the source location and extension. This work carries out a thorough multi-wavelength study of the unidentified, very high energy source HESS J1858+020 and its environs. Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope observations at 610 MHz and 1.4 GHz have been done to obtain a deep, low-frequency radio image of the region surrounding HESS J1858+020. Archival radio, infrared, and X-ray data have been analysed as well. This observational information, combined with molecular data, catalogue sources, and a nearby Fermi gamma-ray detection of unidentified origin, are combined to explore possible counterparts to the very high energy source. We provide with a deep radio image of a supernova remnant that might be related to the GeV and TeV emission in the region. We confirm the presence of an H II region next to the supernova remnant and coincident with molecular emission. A potential region of star formation is also identified. We identify several radio and X-ray sources in the surroundings. Some of these sources are known planetary nebulae, whereas others may be non-thermal extended emitters and embedded young stellar objects. Three old, background Galactic pulsars also neighbour HESS J1858+020 along the line of sight. The region surrounding HESS J1858+020 is rich in molecular structures and non-thermal objects that may potentially be linked to this unidentified very high energy source. In particular, a supernova remnant interacting with nearby molecular clouds may be a good candidate, but a star forming region, or a non-thermal radio source of yet unclear nature, may also be behind the gamma-ray source. Further observational studies are needed.
    Astronomy and Astrophysics 12/2013; · 5.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We report ALMA Cycle 0 observations at 1.3mm of LESS J033229.4-275619 (XID403), an Ultraluminous Infrared Galaxy at $z=4.75$ in the Chandra Deep Field South hosting a Compton-thick QSO. The source is not resolved in our data at a resolution of $\sim$0.75 arcsec, placing an upper-limit of 2.5 kpc to the half-light radius of the continuum emission from heated-dust. After deconvolving for the beam size, however, we found a $\sim3\sigma$ indication of an intrinsic source size of $0.27\pm0.08$ arcsec (Gaussian FWHM), which would correspond to $r_{half}\sim0.9\pm0.3$ kpc. We build the far-IR SED of XID403 by combining datapoints from both ALMA and Herschel and fit it with a modified blackbody spectrum. For the first time, we measure the dust temperature $T_d=58.5\pm5.3$ K in this system, which is comparable to what has been observed in other high-z submillimeter galaxies. The measured star formation rate is SFR=$1020\pm150$ $M_{\odot}$ yr$^{-1}$, in agreement with previous estimates at lower S/N. Based on the measured SFR and source size, we constrain the SFR surface density to be $\Sigma_{SFR}>26\;M_{\odot}$yr$^{-1}$kpc$^{-2}$ ($\sim200\;M_{\odot}$yr$^{-1}$kpc$^{-2}$ for $r_{half}\sim0.9$ kpc). The compactness of this starburst is comparable to what has been observed in other local and high-z starburst galaxies. If the gas mass measured from previous [CII] and CO(2-1) observations at low resolution is confined within the same dust region, assuming $r_{half}\sim0.9\pm0.3$ kpc, this would produce a column density of $N_H\sim0.3-1.1\times10^{24}$cm$^{-2}$ towards the central SMBH, similar to the column density of $\approx1.4\times10^{24}$cm$^{-2}$ measured from the X-rays. Then, in principle, if both gas and dust were confined on sub-kpc scales, this would be sufficient to produce the observed X-ray column density without any need of a pc-scale absorber [abridged].
    Astronomy and Astrophysics 12/2013; 562. · 5.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We study the incidence of nuclear obscuration on a complete sample of 1310 AGN selected on the basis of their rest-frame 2-10 keV X-ray flux from the XMM-COSMOS survey, in the redshift range 0.3<z<3.5. We classify the AGN as obscured or un-obscured on the basis of either the optical spectral properties and the overall SED or the shape of the X-ray spectrum. The two classifications agree in about 70% of the objects, and the remaining 30% can be further subdivided into two distinct classes: at low luminosities X-ray un-obscured AGN do not always show signs of broad lines or blue/UV continuum emission in their optical spectra, most likely due to galaxy dilution effects; at high luminosities broad line AGN may have absorbed X-ray spectra, which hints at an increased incidence of small-scale (sub-parsec) dust-free obscuration. We confirm that the fraction of obscured AGN is a decreasing function of the intrinsic X-ray luminosity, while the incidence of absorption shows significant evolution only for the most luminous AGN, which appear to be more commonly obscured at higher redshift. We find no significant difference between the mean stellar masses and star formation rates of obscured and un-obscured AGN hosts. We conclude that the physical state of the medium responsible for obscuration in AGN is complex, and mainly determined by the radiation environment (nuclear luminosity) in a small region enclosed within the gravitational sphere of influence of the central black hole, but is largely insensitive to the wider scale galactic conditions.
    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 11/2013; 437(4). · 5.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In the recent years massive protostars have been suggested to be high-energy emitters. Among the best candidates is IRAS 16547-4247, a protostar that presents a powerful outflow with clear signatures of interaction with its environment. This source has been revealed to be a potential high-energy source because it displays non-thermal radio emission of synchrotron origin, which is evidence of relativistic particles. To improve our understanding of IRAS 16547-4247 as a high-energy source, we analyzed XMM-Newton archival data and found that IRAS 16547-4247 is a hard X-ray source. We discuss these results in the context of a refined one-zone model and previous radio observations. From our study we find that it may be difficult to explain the X-ray emission as non-thermal radiation coming from the interaction region, but it might be produced by thermal Bremsstrahlung (plus photo-electric absorption) by a fast shock at the jet end. In the high-energy range, the source might be detectable by the present generation of Cherenkov telescopes, and may eventually be detected by Fermi in the GeV range.
    Astronomy and Astrophysics 09/2013; · 5.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: There is X-ray, optical, and mid-infrared imaging and spectroscopic evidence that the late-stage ultraluminous infrared galaxy merger Mrk 273 hosts a powerful active galactic nucleus (AGN). However, the exact location of the AGN and the nature of the nuclei have been difficult to determine due to dust obscuration and the limited wavelength coverage of available high-resolution data. Here we present near-infrared integral-field spectra and images of the nuclear region of Mrk 273 taken with OSIRIS and NIRC2 on the Keck II Telescope with laser guide star adaptive optics. We observe three spatially resolved components, and analyze the local molecular and ionized gas emission lines and their kinematics. We confirm the presence of the hard X-ray AGN in the southwest nucleus. In the north nucleus, we find a strongly rotating gas disk whose kinematics indicate a central black hole of mass 1.04 +/- 0.1 x 10^9 Msun. The H2 emission line shows an increase in velocity dispersion along the minor axis in both directions, and an increased flux with negative velocities in the southeast direction; this provides direct evidence for a collimated molecular outflow along the axis of rotation of the disk. The third spatially distinct component appears to the southeast, 640 and 750 pc from the north and southwest nuclei, respectively. This component is faint in continuum emission but shows several strong emission line features, including [Si vi] 1.964 {\mu}m which traces an extended coronal-line region. The geometry of the [Si vi] emission combined with shock models and energy arguments suggest that [Si vi] in the southeast component must be at least partly ionized by the SW AGN or a putative AGN in the northern disk, either through photoionization or through shock-heating from strong AGN- and circumnuclear starburst-driven outflows. This lends support to a scenario in which Mrk 273 may be a dual AGN system.
    The Astrophysical Journal 07/2013; 775(2). · 6.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present the first results of a survey of the [CII]158um emission line in 241 luminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs) comprising the Great Observatories All-sky Survey (GOALS) sample, obtained with the PACS instrument on board Herschel. The [CII] luminosities of the LIRGs in GOALS range from ~10^7 to 2x10^9 Lsun. We find that LIRGs show a tight correlation of [CII]/FIR with far-IR flux density ratios, with a strong negative trend spanning from ~10^-2 to 10^-4, as the average temperature of dust increases. We find correlations between the [CII]/FIR ratio and the strength of the 9.7um silicate absorption feature as well as with the luminosity surface density of the mid-IR emitting region (Sigma_MIR), suggesting that warmer, more compact starbursts have substantially smaller [CII]/FIR ratios. Pure star-forming (SF) LIRGs have a mean [CII]/FIR ~ 4x10^-3, while galaxies with low 6.2um PAH equivalent widths (EWs), indicative of the presence of active galactic nuclei (AGN), span the full range in [CII]/FIR. However, we show that even when only pure SF galaxies are considered, the [CII]/FIR ratio drops by an order of magnitude, from 10^-2 to 10^-3, with Sigma_MIR and Sigma_IR, implying that the [CII] luminosity is not a good indicator of the star formation rate (SFR) for most LIRGs, for it does not scale linearly with the warm dust emission. Moreover, even in LIRGs in which we detect an AGN in the mid-IR, the majority (2/3) of galaxies show [CII]/FIR >= 10^-3 typical of high 6.2um PAH EW sources, suggesting that most AGNs do not contribute significantly to the far-IR emission. We provide an empirical relation between the [CII]/FIR and the specific SFR (SSFR) for SF LIRGs. Finally, we present predictions for the starburst size based on the observed [CII] and far-IR luminosities which should be useful for comparing with results from future surveys of high-redshift galaxies with ALMA and CCAT.
    The Astrophysical Journal 07/2013; 774(1). · 6.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The Chandra Deep Field is the region of the sky with the highest concentration of X-ray data available: 4 Ms of Chandra and 3 Ms of XMM-Newton data, allowing excellent quality spectra to be extracted even for faint sources. We took advantage of this to compile a sample of heavily obscured active galactic nuclei (AGN) using X-ray spectroscopy. We selected our sample among the 176 brightest XMM-Newton sources, searching for either flat X-ray spectra (Γ < 1.4 at the 90% confidence level) suggestive of a reflection dominated continuum or an absorption turn-over suggestive of a column density higher than ≈ 1024 cm-2. We found a sample of nine heavily-obscured sources satisfying the above criteria. Four of these show statistically significant FeKα lines with large equivalent widths (three out of four have equivalent widths consistent with 1 keV) suggesting that these are the most certain Compton-thick AGN candidates. Two of these sources are transmission dominated while the other two are most probably reflection dominated Compton-thick AGN. Although this sample of four sources is by no means statistically complete, it represents the best example of Compton-thick sources found at moderate-to-high redshift with three sources at z = 1.2-1.5 and one source at z = 3.7. Using Spitzer and Herschel observations, we estimate with good accuracy the X-ray to mid-IR (12 μm) luminosity ratio of our sources. These are well below the average AGN relation, independently suggesting that these four sources are heavily obscured.
    Astronomy and Astrophysics 07/2013; · 5.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Nuclear obscuration plays a key role in the initial phases of AGN growth, yet not many highly obscured active galactic nuclei (AGN) are currently known beyond the local Universe, and their search is an active topic of research. The XMM-Newton survey in the Chandra Deep Field South (XMM-CDFS) aims at detecting and studying the spectral properties of a significant number of obscured and Compton-thick (NH ≳ 1024 cm-2) AGN. The large effective area of XMM-Newton in the 2-10 and 5-10 keV bands, coupled with a 3.45 Ms nominal exposure time (2.82 and 2.45 Ms after light curve cleaning for MOS and PN, respectively), allows us to build clean samples in both bands, and makes the XMM-CDFS the deepest XMM-Newton survey currently published in the 5-10 keV band. The large multi-wavelength and spectroscopic coverage of the CDFS area allows for an immediate and abundant scientific return. In this paper, we present the data reduction of the XMM-CDFS observations, the method for source detection in the 2-10 and 5-10 keV bands, and the resulting catalogues. A number of 339 and 137 sources are listed in the above bands with flux limits of 6.6 × 10-16 and 9.5 × 10-16 erg s-1 cm-2, respectively. The flux limits at 50% of the maximum sky coverage are 1.8 × 10-15 and 4.0 × 10-15 erg s-1 cm-2, respectively. The catalogues have been cross-correlated with the Chandra ones: 315 and 130 identifications have been found with a likelihood-ratio method, respectively. A number of 15 new sources, previously undetected by Chandra, is found; 5 of them lie in the 4 Ms area. Redshifts, either spectroscopic or photometric, are available for ~ 95% of the sources. The number counts in both bands are presented and compared to other works. The survey coverage has been calculated with the help of two extensive sets of simulations, one set per band. The simulations have been produced with a newly-developed simulator, written with the aim of the most careful reproduction of the background spatial properties. For this reason, we present a detailed decomposition of the XMM-Newton background into its components: cosmic, particle, and residual soft protons.The three components have different spatial distributions. The importance of these three components depends on the band and on the camera; the particle background is the most important one (80-90% of the background counts), followed by the soft protons (4-20%). Based on observations obtained with XMM-Newton, an ESA science mission with instruments and contributions directly funded by ESA Member States and NASA.The catalogue is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/555/A42
    Astronomy and Astrophysics 07/2013; · 5.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A crucial challenge in astrophysics over the coming decades will be to understand the origins of supermassive black holes (SMBHs) that lie at the centres of most, if not all, galaxies. The processes responsible for the initial formation of these SMBHs and their early growth via accretion - when they are seen as Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) - remain unknown. To address this challenge, we must identify low luminosity and obscured z>6 AGNs, which represent the bulk of early SMBH growth. Sensitive X-ray observations are a unique signpost of accretion activity, uncontaminated by star formation processes, which prevent reliable AGN identification at other wavelengths (e.g. optical, infrared). The Athena+ Wide Field Imager will enable X-ray surveys to be carried out two orders of magnitude faster than with Chandra or XMM-Newton, opening a new discovery space and identifying over 400 z>6 AGN, including obscured sources. Athena+ will also play a fundamental role to enhance the scientific return of future multiwavelength facilities that will probe the physical conditions within the host galaxies of early SMBHs, which is vital for understanding how SMBHs form, what fuels their subsequent growth, and to assess their impact on the early Universe. Follow-up of samples of z>6 galaxies with the Athena+ X-ray Integral Field Unit could also reveal the presence of highly obscured AGNs, thanks to the detection of strong iron lines. Thus, Athena+ will enable the first quantitative measurements of the extent and distribution of SMBH accretion in the early Universe.
    06/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: This White Paper, submitted to the recent ESA call for science themes to define its future large missions, advocates the need for a transformational leap in our understanding of two key questions in astrophysics: 1) How does ordinary matter assemble into the large scale structures that we see today? 2) How do black holes grow and shape the Universe? Hot gas in clusters, groups and the intergalactic medium dominates the baryonic content of the local Universe. To understand the astrophysical processes responsible for the formation and assembly of these large structures, it is necessary to measure their physical properties and evolution. This requires spatially resolved X-ray spectroscopy with a factor 10 increase in both telescope throughput and spatial resolving power compared to currently planned facilities. Feedback from supermassive black holes is an essential ingredient in this process and in most galaxy evolution models, but it is not well understood. X-ray observations can uniquely reveal the mechanisms launching winds close to black holes and determine the coupling of the energy and matter flows on larger scales. Due to the effects of feedback, a complete understanding of galaxy evolution requires knowledge of the obscured growth of supermassive black holes through cosmic time, out to the redshifts where the first galaxies form. X-ray emission is the most reliable way to reveal accreting black holes, but deep survey speed must improve by a factor ~100 over current facilities to perform a full census into the early Universe. The Advanced Telescope for High Energy Astrophysics (Athena+) mission provides the necessary performance (e.g. angular resolution, spectral resolution, survey grasp) to address these questions and revolutionize our understanding of the Hot and Energetic Universe. These capabilities will also provide a powerful observatory to be used in all areas of astrophysics.
    06/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: Most of the action in Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) occurs within a few tens of gravitational radii from the supermassive black hole, where matter in the accretion disk may lose up to almost half of its energy with a copious production of X-rays, emitted via Comptonization of the disk photons by hot electrons in a corona and partly reflected by the accretion disk. Thanks to its large effective area and excellent energy resolution, Athena+ contributions in the understanding of the physics of accretion in AGN will be fundamental - and unique - in many respects. It will allow us to map the disk-corona system - which is crucial to understand the mechanism of energy extraction and the relation of the corona with winds and jets - by studying the time lags between reflected and primary photons. These lags have been recently discovered by XMM-Newton, but only Athena+ will have the sensitivity required to fully exploit this technique. Athena+ will also be able e.g. to determine robustly the spin of the black hole in nearby sources (and to extend these measurements beyond the local Universe), to establish the nature of the soft X-ray components, and to map the circumnuclear matter within the AGN inner parsec with unprecedented details.
    06/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: X-ray sources were detected in the 3Ms XMM-Newton observations of the Chandra Deep Field South. Source detection was done in two steps, first using the PWXDetect software, and then using emldetect. Sources detected by both programs are presented in the main tables, while sources only detected by PWXDetect are presented in the supplementary tables. The 2-10 and 5-10keV bands were analyzed separately. (7 data files).
    VizieR Online Data Catalog. 06/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: X-ray spectroscopy of active galactic nuclei (AGN) offers the opportunity to directly probe the inner regions of the accretion disk. We present the results of our analysis of average AGN XMM-Newton X-ray spectra in the Chandra Deep Field South observation (XMM CDFS). We computed the average spectrum of a sample of 54 AGN with spectroscopic redshifts and signal-to-noise ratio S/N > 15 in the 2-12 keV rest-frame band in at least one EPIC camera. We have taken the effects of combining spectra from sources at different redshifts and both EPIC cameras into account, as well as their spectral resolution; we checked our results using thorough simulations. We explored the Fe line components of distant AGN focusing on the narrow core which arises from regions far from the central engine and on the putative relativistic component (from the accretion disk). The average spectrum shows a highly significant Fe feature. Our model-independent estimates of the equivalent width (EW) suggest a higher EW in a broader range. The line, modelled as an unresolved Gaussian, is significant at 6.8 sigma and has an EW=95 eV (full sample). The current data can be fitted equally well adding a relativistic profile to the narrow component (in the full sample, EW=140 eV and 67 eV respectively for the relativistic and narrow lines). Thanks to the high quality of the XMM CDFS spectra and to the detailed modelling of the continuum and instrumental effects, we have shown that the most distant AGN exhibit a highly significant Fe emission feature. It can be modelled both with narrow and broad lines. We found tantalising evidence for reflection by material both very close and far away from the central engine. The EW of both features are similar to those observed in individual nearby AGN, hence they must be a widespread characteristic of AGN, since otherwise the average values would be smaller than observed.
    Astronomy and Astrophysics 04/2013; · 5.08 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

5k Citations
803.85 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2014
    • Observatoire de Paris
      Lutetia Parisorum, Île-de-France, France
  • 2011–2014
    • University of Virginia
      • Department of Astronomy
      Charlottesville, Virginia, United States
    • University of Barcelona
      Barcino, Catalonia, Spain
  • 2013
    • Foundation for Research and Technology - Hellas
      Megalokastro, Crete, Greece
    • National Radio Astronomy Observatory
      Charlottesville, Virginia, United States
  • 2005–2013
    • California Institute of Technology
      • • Department of Astronomy
      • • Infrared Processing and Analysis Center
      • • Spitzer Science Center
      Pasadena, California, United States
  • 1997–2011
    • University of Cambridge
      • Institute of Astronomy
      Cambridge, England, United Kingdom
  • 2008–2010
    • The Astronomical Observatory of Brera
      Merate, Lombardy, Italy
  • 2006–2008
    • Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics
      Arching, Bavaria, Germany
  • 1999–2002
    • Cancer Research UK Cambridge Institute
      Cambridge, England, United Kingdom
    • University of Colorado
      Denver, Colorado, United States
  • 2000
    • University of Leicester
      • Department of Physics and Astronomy
      Leicester, ENG, United Kingdom
  • 1992–1999
    • Columbia University
      • Columbia Astrophysics Laboratory
      New York City, New York, United States
  • 1993–1997
    • Nagoya University
      Nagoya, Aichi, Japan
    • Tohoku University
      Japan
  • 1996
    • Kyoto University
      • Department of Physics II
      Kyoto, Kyoto-fu, Japan