[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: IL-23 regulates myriad processes in the innate and adaptive immune systems, and is a critical mediator of the proinflammatory effects exerted by Th17 cells in many diseases. In this study, we investigated whether and how hepatitis B virus (HBV) causes liver damage directly through the IL-23 signaling pathway. In biopsied liver tissues from HBV-infected patients, expression of both IL-23 and IL-23R was remarkably elevated. In vivo observations also indicated that the main sources of IL-23 were myeloid dendritic cells (mDCs) and macrophages. Analysis of in vitro differentiated immature DCs and macrophages isolated from healthy donors revealed that the HBV surface antigen (HBsAg) efficiently induces IL-23 secretion in a mannose receptor (MR)-dependent manner. Culture with an endosomal acidification inhibitor and the dynamin inhibitor showed that, upon binding to the MR, the HBsAg is taken up by mDCs and macrophages through an endocytosis mechanism. In contrast, although the HBV core antigen (HBcAg) can also stimulate IL-23 secretion from mDCs, the process was MR- and endocytosis-independent. In addition, IL-23 was shown to be indispensible for HBsAg-stimulated differentiation of naïve CD4(+) T cells into Th17 cells, which were determined to be the primary source of IL-17 in HBV-infected livers. The cognate receptor, IL-17R, was found to exist on the hepatic stellate cells and mDCs, both of which might represent the potential target cells of IL-17 in hepatitis B disease. These data provide novel insights into a yet unrecognized mechanism of HBV-induced hepatitis, by which increases in IL-23 expression, through an MR/endocytosis-dependent or -independent manner, produce liver damage through the IL-23/IL-17 axis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Heat shock proteins (HSPs) have been successfully applied as biological adjuvants to enhance the immune response to a broad range of vaccines. The recently defined HSP110, in particular, exhibits strong protein binding affinity and is capable of enhancing the immunogenicity of protein antigens remarkably more than other HSP family members. In our previous study, we verified that murine (m)HSP110 significantly enhanced the immune response of a C57BL/6 mouse model to the H-2(d)-restricted human papillomavirus (HPV) E749-57 epitope. To investigate whether HSP110 could similarly enhance the immunogenicity of human epitope peptides, this study was designed to investigate the efficacy of the mHSP110 chaperone molecule as an immunoadjuvant of the human HLA-A2-restricted HPV16 E711-20 epitope vaccine using the HLA-A2 transgenic mouse model. Results showed that mHSP110 could efficiently form a noncovalently bound complex with the E711-20 epitope. The mHSP110-E711-20 complex induced epitope-specific splenocyte proliferation and E711-20-specific IFN-γ secretion. Importantly, cytotoxic T lymphocytes primed by the mHSP110-E711-20 complex exerted strong cytolytic effects on target T2 cells pulsed with the E711-20 peptide or TC-1 cells transfected with the HLA-A2 gene. In addition, the mHSP110-E711-20 complex elicited stronger ex vivo and in vivo anti-tumor responses than either emulsified complete Freund's adjuvant or HSP70-chaperoned E711-20 peptide. These collective data suggest that HSP110 may be a promising immunomodulator candidate for peptide-based human cancer vaccines, such as for the HLA-A2-restricted E711-20 epitope.
Clinical and vaccine Immunology: CVI 05/2013; · 2.60 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: It is well known that both heat shock protein (HSP) and Toll-like receptor (TLR)3 agonist polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid (poly(I:C)) are capable of promoting the antigen-specific immune responses. In the current study, we assessed whether the anti-tumor effects of the HPV16E7(49-57)-based vaccine can be elevated by combined applications of poly(I:C) and oxygen-regulated protein 150 (ORP150) in a mouse cervical cancer model. Methods: Recombinant mouse ORP150 and HPV E7(49-57) peptide were combined to passively form the ORP150-E7(49-57) complex under heat shock conditions. The effects of ORP150-E7(49-57) complex plus poly(I:C) adjuvant on lymphocyte proliferation and functional cytotoxic T cells were investigated by methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT), ELISPOT, and non-radioactive cytotoxicity assays. Finally, the complex's therapeutic anti-tumor effects with and without adjuvant therapy were observed in a tumor challenge experiment. Results: This combination vaccine approach significantly enhanced the proliferation of splenocytes and induced strong E7(49-57)-speciﬁc CTL responses. More importantly, the ORP150-E7(49-57) complex plus poly(I:C) vaccine format demonstrated more potent anti-tumor effects than ORP150-E7(49-57) complex alone or E7(49-57) plus poly(I:C) in TC-1 tumor-bearing mice. Conclusion: Both poly(I:C) and ORP150 chaperone can synergistically enhance the anti-tumor effects of the HPV16E7(49-57)-based vaccine in vitro and in vivo. This strategy provides a platform for the design of a tumor therapeutic vaccine capable of inducing an effective anti-tumor immune response.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Almost all melanoma cells express at least one member of the MAGE-A antigen family, making the cytotoxic T cells (CTLs) epitopes with cross-immunizing potential in this family attractive candidates for the broad spectrum of anti-melanoma immunotherapy. In this study, four highly homologous peptides (P264: FLWGPRALA, P264I9: FLWGPRALI, P264V9: FLWGPRALV, and P264H8: FLWGPRAHA) from the MAGE-A antigens were selected by homologous alignment. All four peptides showed high binding affinity and stability to HLA-A*02:01 molecules, and could prime CTL immune responses in human PBMCs and in HLA-A*02:01/K(b) transgenic mice. CTLs elicited by the four epitope peptides could cross-lyse tumor cells expressing the mutual target antigens, except MAGE-A11 which was not tested. However, CTLs induced by P264V9 and P264I9 showed the strongest target cell lysis capabilities, suggesting both peptides may represent the common CTL epitopes shared by the eight MAGE-A antigens, which could induce more potent and broad-spectrum antitumor responses in immunotherapy.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Regulatory T cells (Tregs) are required for proper maintenance of immunological self-tolerance and immune homeostasis. Folate receptor 4 (FR4) is expressed at high levels in transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β)-induced Tregs and natural Tregs. Moreover, antibody-mediated targeting of FR4 is sufficient to mediate Treg depletion.
In this study, we describe a novel FR4 transcript variant, FR4D3, in which exon 3 is deleted. The mRNA of FR4D3 encodes a FR4 variant truncated by 189 bp. FR4D3 was found to be predominantly expressed in CD4(+)CD25(+) Treg cells. Overexpression of FR4D3 in CD4(+)CD25(+) Treg cells in vitro stimulated proliferation, which may modulate the ability of these cells to bind and incorporate folic acid.
Our results suggested that high levels of FR4D3 may be critical to support the substantial proliferative capacity of Treg cells.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is an age-related, progressive and irreversible neurodegenerative disease that results in the loss of selected neurons throughout the basal forebrain, amygdala, hippocampus, and cortical area as well as progressive deficits of cognition and memory. The subgranular zone (SGZ) of the hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG) is one of the regions where adult neurogenesis occurs in mammals, including humans and non-human primates. The new granule cells, which are the primary excitatory neurons in the DG, contribute to the processes of learning and memory. The changes in neurogenesis observed during the initial stages and progression of AD suggest that the modulation of the new production of neurons at neurogenic sites may exert profound effects on hippocampal function. Bone morphogenetic protein-4 (BMP4) and its antagonist Noggin contribute to the modulation of neurogenesis in the adult hippocampus, thereby affecting hippocampal function. This review focuses on the role of BMP4 and Noggin in the control of the stem and precursor cells in the adult hippocampus during AD and their potential as a possible therapeutic strategy for AD sufferers. It is helpful to extend the understanding of the control of stem cells in the normal and diseased hippocampus.
Ageing research reviews 06/2012; 12(1):157-164. · 5.62 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The retinoid-related orphan nuclear receptor gamma (ROR γ) plays critical roles in regulation of development, immunity and metabolism. As transcription factor usually forms a protein complex to function, thus capturing and dissecting of the ROR γ protein complex will be helpful for exploring the mechanisms underlying those functions. After construction of the recombinant tandem affinity purification (TAP) plasmid, pMSCVpuro ROR γ-CTAP(SG), the nuclear localization of ROR γ-CTAP(SG) fusion protein was verified. Following isolation of ROR γ protein complex by TAP strategy, seven candidate interacting proteins were identified. Finally, the heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) and receptor-interacting protein 140 (RIP140) were confirmed to interplay with ROR γ by co-immunoprecipitation. Interference of HSP90 or/and RIP140 genes resulted in dramatically decreased expression of CYP2C8 gene, the ROR γ target gene. Data from this study demonstrate that HSP90 and RIP140 proteins interact with ROR γ protein in a complex format and function as co-activators in the ROR γ-mediated regulatory processes of HepG2 cells.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) is a multifunctional neuropeptide with demonstrated immunosuppressive and neuroprotective activities. It has been shown to inhibit Amyloid beta (Aβ)-induced neurodegeneration by indirectly suppressing the production and release of a variety of inflammatory and neurotoxic factors by activated microglia. We demonstrated that VIP markedly increased microglial phagocytosis of fibrillar Aβ42 and that this enhanced phagocytotic activity depended on activation of the Protein kinase C (PKC) signaling pathway. In addition, VIP suppressed the release of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and nitric oxide (NO) from microglia activated by combined treatment with fibrillar Aβ42 and low dose interferon-γ (IFN-γ). We utilized an adenovirus-mediated gene delivery method to overexpress VIP constitutively in the hippocampus of APPswPS1 transgenic mice. The Aβ load was significantly reduced in the hippocampus of this animal model of Alzheimer's disease, possibly due to the accumulation and activation of cd11b-immunoactive microglial cells. The modulation of microglial activation, phagocytosis, and secretion by VIP is a promising therapeutic option for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD).
PLoS ONE 01/2012; 7(2):e29790. · 3.53 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: CD4⁺ T cells serve as master regulators of the adaptive immune response to HBV. However, CD4⁺ T-cell subsets are heterogeneous, and it remains unknown how the antiviral agents affect the different CD4⁺ T cell subtypes. To this end, the expressions of signature transcription factors and cytokines of CD4⁺ T-cell subtypes were examined in hepatitis B patients before and after treatment with telbivudine. Results showed that, upon the rapid HBV copy decrease induced by telbivudine treatment, the frequencies and related cytokines of Th17 and Treg cells were dramatically decreased, while those for Th2 cells were dramatically increased. No obvious changes were observed in Th1 cell frequencies; although, IFN-γ expression was upregulated in response to telbivudine treatment, suggesting another cell source of IFN-γ in CHB patients. Statistical analyses indicated that Th17 and Tr1 (a Treg subtype) cells were the most sensitive subpopulations of the peripheral blood CD4⁺ T cells to telbivudine treatment over 52 weeks. Thus, Th17 and Tr1 cells may represent a suitable and effective predictor of responsiveness during telbivudine therapy. These findings not only improve our understanding of hepatitis pathogenesis but also can aid in future development of appropriate therapeutic strategies to control viral hepatitis.
Mediators of Inflammation 01/2012; 2012:789859. · 3.88 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Peptide-based vaccines derived from the E7 protein of human papillomavirus (HPV) type 16 were developed to induce effective T cell responses against established cervical cancer, but have met with limited clinical success. It is necessary to develop novel peptide-based strategies to substantially improve the immune response against HPV16-related cancer. In this study, we aimed to design a novel peptide-based self-assembled nanoparticle HPV16 vaccine by combining the cell-penetrating peptide HIV-1 Tat(49-57) that was fused with the HPV16 E7(49-57) cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) epitope and the granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) gene, and to investigate how it improves the immune response and the therapeutic outcome ex vivo and in vivo. Nanoparticles were prepared and identified by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), gel retardation and DNase I protection assays. This type of vaccine formulation formed the 20-80 nm nanoparticles, and greatly improved epitope-specific immunity both ex vivo and in vivo. Importantly, this vaccine type was associated with decreased tumor growth and enhanced long-term survival in the prophylactic and therapeutic mouse models. The underlying mechanisms were determined to involve priming of enhanced frequency of CD8(+) memory T subtype cells. These results suggest that the nanoparticle Tat-E7/pGM-CSF represents a promising novel approach to enhance the potency of peptide-based cervical cancer vaccines, and this vaccine design strategy may act as a useful reference for research of virus-associated diseases and specific tumor immunotherapies.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: It is generally accepted that spermatozoa capacitation is associated with protein kinase A-mediated tyrosine phosphorylation. In our previous study, we identified the fibrous sheath CABYR binding protein (FSCB), which was phosphorylated by PKA. However, the phosphorylation status of FSCB protein during spermatozoa capacitation should be further investigated. To this aim, in this study, we found that phosphorylation of this 270-kDa protein occurred as early as 1 min after mouse spermatozoa capacitation, which increased over time and remained stable after 60 min. Immunoprecipitation assays demonstrated that the tyrosine and Ser/Thr phosphorylation of FSCB occurred during spermatozoa capacitation. The extent of phosphorylation and was closely associated with the PKA activity and spermatozoa motility characteristics. FSCB phosphorylation could be induced by PKA agonist DB-cAMP, but was blocked by PKA antagonist H-89.Therefore, FSCB contributes to spermatozoa capacitation in a tyrosine-phosphorylated format, which may help in further elucidating the molecular mechanism of spermatozoa capacitation.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In most cases, the molecular mechanism underlying the pathogenesis of sporadic Alzheimer's disease (AD) is unknown. Elevated basal cortisol levels in AD patients suggest that glucocorticoids (GC) may contribute to the development and/or maintenance of AD. Amyloid plaques are the hallmark of AD, and they are considered to play an early role in the AD process. However, little is known about how their formation is regulated by stress and GC. Astrocyte accumulation is one of the earliest neuropathological changes in AD. Here, we report that GC elevated amyloid-β (Aβ) production in primary cultures of astrocytes by increasing amyloid precursor protein (APP) and β-site APP-cleaving enzyme 1 gene expression. Notably, GC administered to normal, middle-aged mice promoted the expression of APP and β-site APP-cleaving enzyme 1 in astrocytes, as determined by double immunofluorescence. Additionally, confocal microscopy and ELISA revealed that GC markedly reduced Aβ degradation and clearance by astrocytes in vitro, indicating a decreased neuroprotective capacity of the astrocytes. This may have been due to the decrease of several Aβ-degrading proteases, such as insulin-degrading enzyme and matrix metalloproteinase-9. These effects occurred through the activation of GC receptors. Taken together, our results demonstrate that GC can enhance the production of Aβ, reduce its degradation in astrocytes, and provide a molecular mechanism linking stress factors to AD. Our study suggests that GC can facilitate AD pathogenesis and that reducing GC in the elderly and early AD patients would be beneficial.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Regulatory T cells (Treg) contribute to the crucial immunological processes of self-tolerance and immune homeostasis. Genomic mechanisms that regulate cell fate decisions leading to Treg or conventional T cells (Tconv) lineages and those underlying Treg function remain to be fully elucidated, especially at the histone modification level. We generated high-resolution genome-wide distribution maps of monomethylated histone H3 lysine 4 (H3K4me1) and trimethylated H3K4 (H3K4me3) in human CD4(+)CD25(+)FOXP3(+) Tregs and CD4(+)CD25(+)FOXP3(-) activated (a)Tconv cells by DNA sequencing-by-synthesis. 2115 H3K4me3 regions corresponded to proximal promoters; in Tregs, the genes associated with these regions included the master regulator FOXP3 and the chemokine (C-C motif) receptor 7 (CCR7). 41024 Treg-specific H3K4me1 regions were identified. The majority of the H3K4me1 regions differing between Treg and aTconv cells were located at promoter-distal sites, and in vitro reporter gene assays were used to evaluate and identify novel enhancer activity. We provide for the first time a comprehensive genome-wide dataset of lineage-specific H3K4me1 and H3K4me3 patterns in Treg and aTconv cells, which may control cell type-specific gene regulation. This basic principle is likely not restricted to the two closely-related T cell populations, but may apply generally to somatic cell lineages in adult organisms.
PLoS ONE 01/2011; 6(11):e27770. · 3.53 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pokemon gene has crucial but versatile functions in cell differentiation, proliferation and tumorigenesis. It is a master regulator of the ARF-HDM2-p53 and Rb-E2F pathways. The facts that the expression of Pokemon is essential for tumor formation and many kinds of tumors over-express the Pokemon gene make it an attractive target for therapeutic intervention for cancer treatment. In this study, we used an RNAi strategy to silence the Pokemon gene in a cervical cancer model. To address the issues involving tumor specific delivery and durable expression of siRNA, we applied the Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) peptide ligand and polylysine (K(18)) fusion peptide to encapsulate a recombinant retrovirus plasmid expressing a siRNA targeting the Pokemon gene and produced the 'mimoretrovirus'. At charge ratio 2.0 of fusion peptide/plasmid, the mimoretrovirus formed stable and homogenous nanoparticles, and provided complete DNase I protection and complete gel retardation. This nanoparticle inhibited SiHa cell proliferation and invasion, while it promoted SiHa cell apoptosis. The binding of the nanoparticle to SiHa cells was mediated via the RGD-integrin α(v)β(3) interaction, as evidenced by the finding that unconjugated RGD peptide inhibited this binding significantly. This tumor-targeting mimoretrovirus exhibited excellent anti-tumor capacity in vivo in a nude mouse model. Moreover, the mimoretrovirus inhibited tumor growth with a much higher efficiency than recombinant retrovirus expressing siRNA or the K(18)/P4 nanoparticle lacking the RGD peptide. Results suggest that the RNAi/RGD-based mimoretrovirus developed in this study represents a novel anti-tumor strategy that may be applicable to most research involving cancer therapy and, thus, has promising potential as a cervical cancer treatment.
Current cancer drug targets 09/2010; 10(8):932-41. · 5.13 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Several strategies have been used to enhance the vaccine-induced immunity of peptide vaccines and effective therapeutic benefits, including the utilization of heat shock proteins (HSP), especially the HSP70 family. HSP110 exhibits a higher binding affinity with protein and is capable of enhancing the immunogenicity of protein antigens; however, whether HSP110 can also increase the efficiency of peptide vaccine remains unclear. Here, we investigated mHSP110 as a chaperone immunoadjuvant to enhance the immune response to HPV16 oncoprotein E7-derived CTL epitope E7(49-57) in a mouse model. We developed the HSP110-E7(49-57) complex and demonstrated that mHSP110 could form complexes with peptide E7(49-57) using FITC-labeled E7(49-57) as the tracer. Inoculation of the mHSP110-E7(49-57) complex was capable of priming strong epitope-specific immune response as determined by its ability to elicit an epitope-specific splenocytes proliferation and a cytotoxic T cell response, and IFNgamma production in splenocytes. Results also showed that immunization with the mHSP110-E7(49-57) complex completely protected mice against subsequent challenge with tumor cells. More importantly, immunization of this complex also significantly inhibited the growth of established tumors and prolonged the survival time of the tumor-bearing animals. Thus, mHSP110-E7(49-57) complex vaccine represents a potentially powerful approach for use in the immunotherapy of cervical cancer associated with HPV16 infection. More importantly, the multi-epitopes derived from E7 and other E proteins can be applied to the strategy described in this study to form a multi-antigenic vaccine to induce an improved antitumor immune response to cervical cancer in the future.
Cancer biology & therapy 01/2010; 9(2):134-41. · 3.29 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: MAGE-A antigens belong to cancer/testis (CT) antigens that are expressed in tumors but not in normal tissues except testis and placenta. MAGE-A antigens and their epitope peptides have been used in tumor immunotherapy trials. MAGE-A4 antigen is extensively expressed in various histological types of tumors, so it represents an attractive target for tumor immunotherapy. In this study, we predicted HLA-A*0201-restricted cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) epitopes of MAGE-A4, followed by peptide/HLA-A*0201 affinity and complex stability assays. Of selected four peptides (designated P1, P2, P3, and P4), P1 (MAGE-A4(286-294), KVLEHVVRV) and P3 (MAGE-A4(272-280), FLWGPRALA) could elicit peptide-specific CTLs both in vitro from HLA-A*0201-positive PBMCs and in HLA-A*0201/K(b) transgenic mice. And the induced CTLs could lyse target cells in an HLA-A*0201-restricted fashion, demonstrating that the two peptides are HLA-A*0201-restricted CTL epitopes and could serve as targets for therapeutic antitumoral vaccination.
Clinical and Developmental Immunology 01/2010; 2010:567594. · 3.06 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In addition to the subventricular zone, the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus is one of the few brain regions in which neurogenesis continues into adulthood. Perturbation of neurogenesis can alter hippocampal function, and previous studies have shown that neurogenesis is dysregulated in Alzheimer disease (AD) brain. Bone morphogenetic protein-4 (BMP4) and its antagonist Noggin have been shown to play important roles both in embryonic development and in the adult nervous system, and may regulate hippocampal neurogenesis. Previous data indicated that increased expression of BMP4 mRNA within the dentate gyrus might contribute to decreased hippocampal cell proliferation in the APP(swe)/PS1(DeltaE9) mouse AD model. However, it is not known whether the BMP antagonist Noggin contributes to the regulation of neurogenesis. We therefore studied the relative expression levels and localization of BMP4 and its antagonist Noggin in the dentate gyrus and whether these correlated with changes in neurogenesis in 6-12 mo old APP(swe)/PS1(DeltaE9) transgenic mice. Bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) was used to label proliferative cells. We report that decreased neurogenesis in the APP/PS1 transgenic mice was accompanied by increased expression of BMP4 and decreased expression of Noggin at both the mRNA and protein levels; statistical analysis showed that the number of proliferative cells at different ages correlated positively with Noggin expression and negatively with BMP4 expression. Intraventricular administration of a chimeric Noggin/Fc protein was used to block the action of endogenous BMP4; this resulted in a significant increase in the number of BrdU-labeled cells in dentate gyrus subgranular zone and hilus in APP/PS1 mice. These results suggest that BMP4 and Noggin co-modulate neurogenesis.
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 08/2009; 385(3):341-5. · 2.28 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In addition to the subventricular zone, the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus is one of the few brain regions in which neurogenesis continues into adulthood. Perturbation of neurogenesis can alter hippocampal function, and previous studies have shown that neurogenesis is dysregulated in Alzheimer disease (AD) brain. Bone morphogenetic protein-4 (BMP4) and its antagonist Noggin have been shown to play important roles both in embryonic development and in the adult nervous system, and may regulate hippocampal neurogenesis. Previous data indicated that increased expression of BMP4 mRNA within the dentate gyrus might contribute to decreased hippocampal cell proliferation in the APPswe/PS1ΔE9 mouse AD model. However, it is not known whether the BMP antagonist Noggin contributes to the regulation of neurogenesis. We therefore studied the relative expression levels and localization of BMP4 and its antagonist Noggin in the dentate gyrus and whether these correlated with changes in neurogenesis in 6–12 mo old APPswe/PS1ΔE9 transgenic mice. Bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) was used to label proliferative cells. We report that decreased neurogenesis in the APP/PS1 transgenic mice was accompanied by increased expression of BMP4 and decreased expression of Noggin at both the mRNA and protein levels; statistical analysis showed that the number of proliferative cells at different ages correlated positively with Noggin expression and negatively with BMP4 expression. Intraventricular administration of a chimeric Noggin/Fc protein was used to block the action of endogenous BMP4; this resulted in a significant increase in the number of BrdU-labeled cells in dentate gyrus subgranular zone and hilus in APP/PS1 mice. These results suggest that BMP4 and Noggin co-modulate neurogenesis.
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 07/2009; · 2.28 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The versatility of neural precursor cells (NPCs) derived from mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs) has recently rekindled interests in cell replacement strategies aimed at neurodegenerative diseases. We observed the survival, migration, differentiation and functional recovery of NPCs transplanted into the hippocampus of aggregated beta-amyloid (Abeta) peptide injured rats. Congo Red plaques, Fluro-jade B positive degenerating neurons and neuronal loss were observed in the Abeta-injured hippocampus of rats, accompanied with significant increases in escape latency and decrease in the ratio of exploratory time in a Morris water maze test. EGFP-expressing mouse ES cells were induced into Nestin-positive NPCs before transplantation into the Abeta-injured hippocampus. A marked decrease in escape latency and exploratory time were observed at least 16 weeks after transplantation compared to Abeta-injured animals without grafts. Grafted EGFP-expressing NPCs spread away from the injection tract and about 12.01+/-0.67% and 9.41+/-0.78% of NPCs differentiated into, respectively, GFAP- and NF200-positive cells 4 W after transplantation. These ratios gradually increased to 40.25+/-0.57% and 19.35+/-0.84% by 16 W. The restoration of hippocampal function by ESCs suggests that cell transplantation may be the effective choice to improve the cognitive function caused by Abeta injured.
Neuroscience Research 10/2008; 62(2):86-96. · 2.20 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Alterations in hippocampal cell proliferation have been identified in transgenic (tg) mouse models of Alzheimer's disease (AD); however, relatively little is known about the underlying mechanisms. Previously, we have demonstrated that endogenous level of BMP4 in the dentate gyrus (DG) affects hippocampal cell proliferation in a pentylentetrazol kindling-induced epilepsy model. In the present study, we evaluated hippocampal cell proliferation and BMP4 mRNA level in the APPswe/PS1DeltaE9 tg mouse, a well-established mouse model in which coexpression of familial AD-linked APP "Swedish" (APPswe) and PS1DeltaE9 polypeptide variants leads to Abeta deposition throughout the hippocampus and cortex. The number of bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU)-labeled cells in the DG subgranular zone (DG-SGZ) of 9- and 12-month-old APPswe/PS1DeltaE9 tg mice was markedly reduced compared with age-matched nontransgenic littermates, whereas, the BMP4 mRNA level was significantly increased in the tg mice. There was a significant correlation between the increased BMP4 mRNA expression and the decreased number of BrdU labeled cells. After effectively blocking the expression of endogenous BMP4 with antisense oligodeoxynucleotides (ASODN), the decrease in hippocampal cell proliferation in the DG-SGZ and hilus of 9- and 12-month-old tg mice was reversed. These findings suggest that the increased expression of BMP4 mRNA within the DG of the hippocampus may contribute to the decrease in cell proliferation in APPswe/PS1DeltaE9 tg mice.