Jong Hyun Kim

KEPCO International Nuclear Graduate School, Urusan, Ulsan, South Korea

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Publications (253)562.44 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: With the introduction of automation in various industries including the nuclear field, its side effect, referred to as the Out-of-the-Loop (OOTL) problem, has emerged as a critical issue that needs to be addressed. Many studies have been attempted to analyze and solve the OOTL problem, but this issue still needs a clear solution to provide criteria for introducing automation. Therefore, a quantitative estimation method for identifying negative effects of automation is proposed in this paper. The representative aspect of the OOTL problem in nuclear power plants (NPPs) is that human operators in automated operations are given less information than human operators in manual operations. In other words, human operators have less opportunity to obtain needed information as automation is introduced. From this point of view, the degree of difficulty in obtaining information from automated systems is defined as the Level of Ostracism (LOO). Using the LOO and information theory, we propose the ostracism rate, which is a new estimation method that expresses how much automation interrupts human operators’ situation awareness. We applied production rules to describe the human operators’ thinking processes, Bayesian inference to describe the production rules mathematically, and information theory to calculate the amount of information that human operators receive through observations. The validity of the suggested method was proven by conducting an experiment. The results show that the ostracism rate was significantly related to the accuracy of human operators’ situation awareness, and that the calculation of the amount of information that human operators receive is useful as a measure of the ostracism rate.
    Annals of Nuclear Energy 05/2015; 79. DOI:10.1016/j.anucene.2015.01.021 · 1.02 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Gamma knife radiosurgery (GKS) is efficacious for treating recurrent malignant gliomas as a salvage treatment. However, contrast enhancement alone on MR imaging remains difficult to determine the treatment response following GKS. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the radiosurgical effect for recurrent malignant gliomas and to clarify if relative cerebral blood volume (rCBV) derived from dynamic susceptibility-weighted contrast-enhanced (DSC) perfusion MR imaging could represent the treatment response. Between March 2006 and December 2008, 38 patients underwent GKS for recurrent malignant gliomas. Before and after GKS, DSC perfusion MR imaging datasets were retrospectively reprocessed and regions of interest were drawn around the contrast-enhancing region targeted with GKS. DSC-perfusion MR scans were assessed at a regular interval of two months. Following GKS for the recurrent lesions, MR images showed response (stable disease or partial response) in 26 of 38 patients (68.4 %) at post-GKS 2 months and 18 of 38 patients (47.3 %) at post-GKS 4 months. Initial mean rCBV value was 2.552 (0.586-6.178) at the pre-GKS MRI. In the response group, mean rCBV value was significantly decreased (P < 0.05) at the follow up of 2 and 4 months. However, in the treatment-failure group, mean rCBV value had no significant change. We suggest that GKS is an alternative treatment choice for the recurrent glioma. DSC-perfusion MR images are helpful to predict the treatment response after GKS.
    Journal of Neuro-Oncology 12/2014; 121(2). DOI:10.1007/s11060-014-1634-8 · 2.79 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objective To evaluate the effect of burn rehabilitation massage therapy on hypertrophic scar after burn. Method One hundred and forty-six burn patients with hypertrophic scar(s) were randomly divided into an experimental group and a control group. All patients received standard rehabilitation therapy for hypertrophic scars and 76 patients (massage group) additionally received burn scar rehabilitation massage therapy. Both before and after the treatment, we determined the scores of visual analog scale (VAS) and itching scale and assessed the scar characteristics of thickness, melanin, erythema, transepidermal water loss (TEWL), sebum, and elasticity by using ultrasonography, Mexameter®, Tewameter®, Sebumeter®, and Cutometer®, respectively. Results The scores of both VAS and itching scale decreased significantly in both groups, indicating a significant intragroup difference. With regard to the scar characteristics, the massage group showed a significant decrease after treatment in scar thickness, melanin, erythema, TEWL and a significant intergroup difference. In terms of scar elasticity, a significant intergroup difference was noted in immediate distension and gross skin elasticity, while the massage group significant improvement in skin distensibility, immediate distension, immediate retraction, and delayed distension. Conclusion Our results suggest that burn rehabilitation massage therapy is effective in improving pain, pruritus, and scar characteristics in hypertrophic scars after burn.
    Burns: journal of the International Society for Burn Injuries 12/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.burns.2014.02.005 · 1.84 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In higher eukaryotes, one of the two arginyl-tRNA synthetases (ArgRSs) has evolved to have an extended N-terminal domain that plays a crucial role in protein synthesis and cell growth and in integration into the multisynthetase complex (MSC). Here, we report a crystal structure of the MSC subcomplex comprising ArgRS, glutaminyl-tRNA synthetase (GlnRS), and the auxiliary factor aminoacyl tRNA synthetase complex-interacting multifunctional protein 1 (AIMP1)/p43. In this complex, the N-terminal domain of ArgRS forms a long coiled-coil structure with the N-terminal helix of AIMP1 and anchors the C-terminal core of GlnRS, thereby playing a central role in assembly of the three components. Mutation of AIMP1 destabilized the N-terminal helix of ArgRS and abrogated its catalytic activity. Mutation of the N-terminal helix of ArgRS liberated GlnRS, which is known to control cell death. This ternary complex was further anchored to AIMP2/p38 through interaction with AIMP1. These findings demonstrate the importance of interactions between the N-terminal domains of ArgRS and AIMP1 for the catalytic and noncatalytic activities of ArgRS and for the assembly of the higher-order MSC protein complex.
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 10/2014; 111(42). DOI:10.1073/pnas.1408836111 · 9.81 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Dielectric and piezoelectric properties of CuO-added KNbO3 (KN) ceramics were investigated. The CuO reacted with the Nb2O5, formed a CuO–Nb2O5-related liquid phase during the sintering, and assisted the densification of the KN ceramics at low temperatures. Moreover, some of the Cu2+ ions replaced the Nb5+ ions in the matrix and behaved as a hardener. The dielectric and piezoelectric properties of the KN ceramics were considerably influenced by the relative density. The 1.0 mol% CuO-added KN ceramic sintered at 960°C for 1.0 h, which showed a maximum relative density, exhibited a high phase angle of 86.9°, Pr of 14.8 μC/cm2, and Ec of 1.8 kV/mm. This specimen also exhibited good dielectric and piezoelectric properties: εT33/εo of 364, d33 of 122 pC/N, kp of 0.29, and Qm of 611.
    Journal of the American Ceramic Society 09/2014; 97(12). DOI:10.1111/jace.13225 · 2.43 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Adipogenesis is known to be controlled by the concerted actions of transcription factors and co-regulators. However, little is known about the regulation mechanism of transcription factors that control adipogenesis. In addition, the adipogenic roles of translational factors remain unclear. Here, we show that aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase-interacting multifunctional protein 1 (AIMP1), an auxiliary factor that is associated with a macromolecular tRNA synthetase complex, negatively regulates adipogenesis via a direct interaction with the DNA-binding domain of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ). AIMP1 expression increased during adipocyte differentiation. Adipogenesis was augmented in AIMP1-deficient cells, as compared with control cells. AIMP1 exhibited high affinity for active PPARγ and interacted with the DNA-binding domain of PPARγ, thereby inhibiting its transcriptional activity. Thus, AIMP1 appears to function as a novel inhibitor of PPARγ that regulates adipocyte differentiation by preventing the transcriptional activation of PPARγ.
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    ABSTRACT: Since automation was introduced in various industrial fields, the concept of the automation rate has been used to indicate the inclusion proportion of automation among all work processes or facilities. Expressions of the inclusion proportion of automation are predictable, as is the ability to express the degree of the enhancement of human performance. However, many researchers have found that a high automation rate does not guarantee high performance. Therefore, to reflect the effects of automation on human performance, this paper proposes a new estimation method of the automation rate that considers the effects of automation on human operators in nuclear power plants (NPPs). Automation in NPPs can be divided into two types: system automation and cognitive automation. Some general descriptions and characteristics of each type of automation are provided, and the advantages of automation are investigated. The advantages of each type of automation are used as measures of the estimation method of the automation rate. One advantage was found to be a reduction in the number of tasks, and another was a reduction in human cognitive task loads. The system and the cognitive automation rate were proposed as quantitative measures by taking advantage of the aforementioned benefits. To quantify the required human cognitive task loads and thus suggest the cognitive automation rate, Conant’s information-theory-based model was applied. The validity of the suggested method, especially as regards the cognitive automation rate, was proven by conducting experiments. The result showed that a decreased rate of the operator working time was significantly related to the cognitive automation rate and that the calculation of the cognitive task load was useful as a measure of the cognitive automation rate.
    Annals of Nuclear Energy 08/2014; 70:48–55. DOI:10.1016/j.anucene.2014.03.003 · 1.02 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: At present, gold-standard technique of cervical cord decompression is surgical decompression and fusion. But, many complications related cervical fusion have been reported. We adopted an extended anterior cervical foraminotomy (EACF) technique to decompress the anterolateral portion of cervical cord and report clinical results and effectiveness of this procedure.
    Journal of Korean Neurosurgical Society 08/2014; 56(2):114-20. DOI:10.3340/jkns.2014.56.2.114 · 0.52 Impact Factor
  • Neurosurgery Quarterly 07/2014; · 0.09 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The reported mortality rates range from 28% to 100% in burn patients who develop acute kidney injury (AKI) and from 50% to 100% among such patients treated with renal replacement therapy. Recently, the serum cystatin C and plasma and urine neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) levels have been introduced as early biomarkers for AKI; the levels of these biomarkers are known to increase 24 to 48 hours before the serum creatinine levels increase. In this study, we aimed to estimate the diagnostic utility of the cystatin C and plasma and urine NGAL levels in the early post-burn period as biomarkers for predicting AKI and mortality in patients with major burn injuries.
    Critical care (London, England) 07/2014; 18(4):R151. DOI:10.1186/cc13989
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose: To determine epidemiological trends among burns patients admitted to our burns center during 2003-2012, and the usefulness of the Abbreviated Burns Severity Index (ABSI) for predicting burns-related mortality. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the data of 4481 burns patients. We analyzed the epidemiological trends and ABSI scores using Student t-test and one-way analysis of variance (continuous variables), chi-square test (categorical variables) and stepwise logistic-regression analysis (predictors of mortality). Results: The mean age and male-to-female ratio were 39.9 +/- 19.7 years and 2.88, respectively. ABSI scores decreased from 7.7 +/- 3.0 in 2003 to 6.9 +/- 3.0 in 2012. Mortality rate improved from 24.5% in 2003 to 15.8% in 2012. Burns were caused by flames (67.3%), scalding (22.0%) and electrical (7.5%), chemical (1.6%) and contact (1.5%) injuries. Scalding and flames were the most common causes in patients aged <= 20 years and >= 21 years, respectively. Female sex, inhalation injury, full-thickness burns, large total body surface area (TBSA) burned and old age predicted mortality. ABSI scores <4 and >14 were associated with 0.7% and >90% mortality, respectively. Conclusions: The mortality of major burns has decreased but remains high. ABSI scores predict burns-related mortality.
    Burns: journal of the International Society for Burn Injuries 07/2014; 41(1). DOI:10.1016/j.burns.2014.05.004 · 1.84 Impact Factor
  • Jong Hyun Kim, Suk Sang Chang, Geunbae Lim
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    ABSTRACT: Synchrotron hard X-ray irradiation can be utilized in lithography processes to manufacture precise structures. Due to the difficulty of precise X-ray mask fabrication in hard X-ray lithography, this X-ray process has been used mainly to fabricate precise microstructures. In this study, a technology is proposed for fabricating novel multi-scale patterns that include submicron-scale structures using hard X-rays. The required X-ray masks for submicron-sized patterning are fabricated by a simple UV lithography process and sidewall metal deposition. Above all, thanks to the high penetration capability of hard X-rays with sub-nanometer wavelengths, it is possible to employ multiple masks to fabricate a variety of patterns. By combining each sub-micron X-ray mask with typical micro-sized X-ray masks, a unique X-ray lithography is performed, and various multi-scale structures are fabricated. The usefulness of the proposed technology is demonstrated by the realization of these structures. (C) 2014 Published by Elsevier B.V.
    Current Applied Physics 05/2014; 14(5). DOI:10.1016/j.cap.2014.03.013 · 2.03 Impact Factor
  • International journal of cardiology 04/2014; 174(3). DOI:10.1016/j.ijcard.2014.04.055 · 6.18 Impact Factor
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    Jong Hyun Kim, Suk Sang Chang, Geunbae Lim
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    ABSTRACT: Conventional machining technologies such as a milling process have limitations in accuracy to fabricate microstructures. Deep X-ray lithography using the synchrotron radiation is a promising micromachining process with an excellent accuracy, whereas there are difficulties in the fabrication of multi-layered structures. Therefore, it is mainly used for fabricating simple mono-layered microstructures with a high aspect ratio. In this study, a novel technology for fabricating multi-layered microstructures is proposed by combining two processes. In advance, an X-ray resist material is cut and machined into various shapes and heights by the micro milling process. Subsequent X-ray irradiation process facilitates the fabrication of multi-layered microstructures. The proposed technology can overcome the limitation of the pattern accuracy in conventional milling process and the difficulty of the multi-layered machining in x-ray process. The usefulness of the proposed technology is demonstrated in this study by applying the technique in the realization of various multi-layered microstructures.
    03/2014; 31(3). DOI:10.7736/KSPE.2014.31.3.269
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    ABSTRACT: Ganglioglioma is an infrequent tumor of the central nervous system (CNS); mostly supratentorial region. But, they can occur anywhere in the central nervous system such as brainstem, cerebellopontine angle (CPA), thalamus, optic nerve and spinal cord. Although it occurs rarely, ganglioglioma should be included in the differential diagnosis of a posterior fossa mass because early recognition is important for treatment and patient counseling.
    Journal of Korean Neurosurgical Society 03/2014; 55(3):164-6. DOI:10.3340/jkns.2014.55.3.164 · 0.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Pituitary metastasis (PM) secondary to systemic malignancies has been reported in the literature. Variety of clinical and neuroimaging presentation has been reported; however the diagnosis of PM is challenging. We report a case of a 44-year-old male with PM from non-small cell lung cancer (stage IV). He presented with sudden onset polyuria, polydypsia, and visual disturbance. Laboratory evaluation revealed pan-hypopituitarism and visual field test showed bitemporal lower quadrantanopsia. Brain magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated a suprasellar mass with focal hemorrhage and thickening of infundibular stalk. Surgical resection of the tumor followed by chemoradiotherapy was employed. Histopathologic examination of the tumor specimen revealed metastatic adenocarcinoma and immunostaning demonstrated findings consistent with lung carcinoma. Visual disturbances improved postoperatively and the patient is tumor free with no clinical or radiologic evidence of recurrence at 19 months of follow-up. The review of literature is included with the goal of elucidating the clinical presentation, imaging diagnosis, histogenesis, and the treatment strategies associated with the PM.
    Neurosurgery Quarterly 01/2014; DOI:10.1097/WNQ.0000000000000050 · 0.09 Impact Factor
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    Jong Hyun Kim, Dong Sik Jin, Soon Heung Chang
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    ABSTRACT: The new safety analysis methodology for the CANDU-6 nuclear power plant (NPP) moderator system failure has been developed by using the coupling technology with the thermalhydraulic code, CATHENA and reactor core physics code, RFSP-IST. This sophisticated methodology can replace the legacy methodology using the MODSTBOIL and SMOKIN-G2 in the field of the thermalhydraulics and reactor physics, respectively. The CATHENA thermalhydraulic model of the moderator system can simulate the thermalhydraulic behaviors of all the moderator systems such as the calandria tank, head tank, moderator circulating circuit and cover gas circulating circuit and can also predict the thermalhydraulic property of the moderator such as moderator density, temperature and water level in the calandria tank as the moderator system failures go on. And these calculated moderator thermalhydraulic properties are provided to the 3-dimensional neutron kinetics solution module – CERBRRS of RFSP-IST as inputs, which can predict the change of the reactor power and provide the calculated reactor power to the CATHENA. These coupling calculations are performed at every 2 s time steps, which are equivalent to the slow control of CANDU-6 reactor regulating systems (RRS).The safety analysis results using this coupling methodology reveal that the reactor operation enters into the self-shutdown mode without any engineering safety system and/or human interventions for the postulated moderator system failures of the loss of heat sink and moderator inventory, respectively.
    Nuclear Engineering and Design 10/2013; 263:241–254. DOI:10.1016/j.nucengdes.2013.04.012 · 0.97 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases recognize cognate amino acids and tRNAs from their noncognate counterparts and catalyze the formation of aminoacyl-tRNAs. Halofuginone (HF), a coccidiostat used in veterinary medicine, exerts its effects by acting as a high-affinity inhibitor of the enzyme glutamyl-prolyl-tRNA synthetase (EPRS). In order to elucidate the precise molecular basis of this inhibition mechanism of human EPRS, the crystal structures of the prolyl-tRNA synthetase domain of human EPRS (hPRS) at 2.4 Å resolution (hPRS-apo), of hPRS complexed with ATP and the substrate proline at 2.3 Å resolution (hPRS-sub) and of hPRS complexed with HF at 2.62 Å resolution (hPRS-HF) are presented. These structures show plainly that motif 1 functions as a cap in hPRS, which is loosely opened in hPRS-apo, tightly closed in hPRS-sub and incorrectly closed in hPRS-HF. In addition, the structural analyses are consistent with more effective binding of hPRS to HF with ATP. Mutagenesis and biochemical analysis confirmed the key roles of two residues, Phe1097 and Arg1152, in the HF inhibition mechanism. These structures will lead to the development of more potent and selective hPRS inhibitors for promoting inflammatory resolution.
    Acta Crystallographica Section D Biological Crystallography 10/2013; 69(Pt 10):2136-2145. DOI:10.1107/S0907444913020556 · 7.23 Impact Factor
  • Jong Hyun Kim, Jung Min Han, Sunghoon Kim
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    ABSTRACT: Protein-protein interaction occurs transiently or stably when two or more proteins bind together to mediate a wide range of cellular processes such as protein modification, signal transduction, protein trafficking, and structural folding. The macromolecules involved in protein biosynthesis such as aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase (ARS) have a number of protein-protein interactions. The mammalian multi-tRNA synthetase complex (MSC) consists of eight different enzymes: EPRS, IRS, LRS, QRS, MRS, KRS, RRS, and DRS, and three auxiliary proteins: AIMP1/p43, AIMP2/p38, and AIMP/p18. The distinct ARS proteins are also connected to diverse protein networks to carry out biological functions. In this chapter we first show the protein networks of the entire MSC and explain how MSC components interact with or can regulate other proteins. Finally, it is pointed out that the understanding of protein-protein interaction mechanism will provide insight to potential therapeutic application for diseases related to the MSC network.
    Topics in current chemistry 09/2013; DOI:10.1007/128_2013_479 · 4.61 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The thermal decompositions of furfural and benzaldehyde have been studied in a heated microtubular flow reactor. The pyrolysis experiments were carried out by passing a dilute mixture of the aromatic aldehydes (roughly 0.1%-1%) entrained in a stream of buffer gas (either He or Ar) through a pulsed, heated SiC reactor that is 2-3 cm long and 1 mm in diameter. Typical pressures in the reactor are 75-150 Torr with the SiC tube wall temperature in the range of 1200-1800 K. Characteristic residence times in the reactor are 100-200 μsec after which the gas mixture emerges as a skimmed molecular beam at a pressure of approximately 10 μTorr. Products were detected using matrix infrared absorption spectroscopy, 118.2 nm (10.487 eV) photoionization mass spectroscopy and resonance enhanced multiphoton ionization. The initial steps in the thermal decomposition of furfural and benzaldehyde have been identified. Furfural undergoes unimolecular decomposition to furan + CO: C4H3O-CHO (+ M) → CO + C4H4O. Sequential decomposition of furan leads to the production of HC≡CH, CH2CO, CH3C≡CH, CO, HCCCH2, and H atoms. In contrast, benzaldehyde resists decomposition until higher temperatures when it fragments to phenyl radical plus H atoms and CO: C6H5CHO (+ M) → C6H5CO + H → C6H5 + CO + H. The H atoms trigger a chain reaction by attacking C6H5CHO: H + C6H5CHO → [C6H6CHO]∗ → C6H6 + CO + H. The net result is the decomposition of benzaldehyde to produce benzene and CO.
    The Journal of Chemical Physics 09/2013; 139(10):104310. DOI:10.1063/1.4819788 · 3.12 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

2k Citations
562.44 Total Impact Points


  • 2013–2015
    • KEPCO International Nuclear Graduate School
      Urusan, Ulsan, South Korea
    • Gyeongnam National University of Science and Technology
      • Department of Animal Resources Technology (Graduate School)
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 2013–2014
    • Seoul National University
      • • Department of Molecular Medicine and Biopharmaceutical Sciences (WCU)
      • • Medicinal Bioconvergence Research Center
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 2012–2014
    • Konyang University Hospital
      Gaigeturi, Jeju, South Korea
    • Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology
      • School of Mechatronics
      Gwangju, Gwangju, South Korea
    • Hannam University
      Daiden, Daejeon, South Korea
    • National Fisheries Research and Development Institution
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 2008–2014
    • Pohang Accelerator Laboratory
      Urusan, Ulsan, South Korea
    • Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power - Central Research Institute
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 2003–2014
    • Hallym University
      • College of Medicine
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
    • Korea University
      • • Department of Materials Science and Engineering
      • • Department of Neurosurgery
      • • Department of Chemistry
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 2002–2014
    • Pohang University of Science and Technology
      • • Department of Mechanical Engineering
      • • Division of Molecular and Life Sciences
      • • Department of Life Sciences
      Geijitsu, North Gyeongsang, South Korea
    • Kumoh National Institute of Technology
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
    • Seoul National University Hospital
      • Department of Ophthalmology
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 2007–2013
    • Catholic University of Korea
      • Department of Pediatrics
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
    • Hanyang University
      • Division of Materials Science and Engineering (MSE)
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
    • Yonsei University
      • Department of Computer Science
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 2000–2013
    • Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology
      • • Department of Nuclear and Quantum Engineering
      • • Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
    • Pusan National University
      • • Department of Nanomechatronics Engineering
      • • Department of Internal Medicine
      • • Division of Computer Science and Engineering
      Tsau-liang-hai, Busan, South Korea
  • 2011–2012
    • Hallym University Medical Center
      • • Burn Center
      • • Department of Burn Surgery
      Seoul, Seoul, South Korea
    • Gyeongsang National University
      • Department of Neurosurgery
      Chinju, South Gyeongsang, South Korea
    • Kyungpook National University Hospital
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
    • Sogang University
      • Department of Mechanical Engineering
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 2001–2012
    • Sungkyunkwan University
      • Department of Neurosurgery
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 2010–2011
    • National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute
      Maryland, United States
    • Changwon Polytechnic College
      Shōgen, Gyeongsangnam-do, South Korea
    • National Institute of Health, Korea
      Seishō-gun, Gyeongsangbuk-do, South Korea
    • Busan Veterans Hospital
      Tsau-liang-hai, Busan, South Korea
    • Electronics and Telecommunications Research Institute
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 2008–2011
    • Chonnam National University
      • Department of Internal Medicine
      Gwangju, Gwangju, South Korea
  • 1993–2011
    • National Cancer Center Korea
      Kōyō, Gyeonggi Province, South Korea
  • 2008–2010
    • Chonnam National University Hospital
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 2002–2010
    • Samsung Medical Center
      • Department of Neurosurgery
      Seoul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 2009
    • Chungnam National University
      • Department of Physics
      Seongnam, Gyeonggi, South Korea
  • 2005–2009
    • Harvard University
      Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States
    • Showa University
      • Institute of Molecular Oncology
      Shinagawa, Tōkyō, Japan
  • 2005–2006
    • Korea Electrotechnology Research Institute-KERI
      Tsau-liang-hai, Busan, South Korea
  • 2004
    • University of Southern California
      Los Angeles, California, United States