K H Lee

Sungkyunkwan University, Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea

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Publications (791)2253.97 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Diesel engines are most frequently used in vehicles because of their high efficiency and durability. However, nitrogen oxide (NOx) and particulate matter (PM) from diesel engines are became problem. Recently, the premixed charged compression ignition (PCCI) technique has been studied specifically to reduce NOx and PM emissions simultaneously. While the PCCI engine has the advantage of reducing NOx and PM emissions, control of the combustion phase is difficult. Therefore, it is very important to understand the flame developing process and heat release pattern in a real PCCI engine. However, most research into the characteristics of PCCI combustion has used an optical access engine. This paper describes the combustion characteristics obtained using a micro-Cassegrain sensor and discusses how the sensor can be used to directly detect the flame characteristics for future control of PCCI combustion. From this research, the differences of flame characteristics between PCCI engine and conventional diesel engine were clarified.
    International Journal of Automotive Technology 12/2014; 15(7). · 0.82 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background and Objectives Collection of sufficient CD34+ cells for autologous peripheral blood stem cell (PBSC) transplantation is frequently failed in patients with lymphoma or multiple myeloma (MM). We investigated the incidence and the predictive factors for poor mobilization.Materials and MethodsA total of 205 adult patients (101 lymphoma and 104 MM) were retrospectively included for identifying the incidence of mobilization failure and the predictive factors for poor mobilization in conventional G-CSF-based mobilization regimen. Another 17 patients who used plerixafor for mobilization were included.ResultsOverall, 14·1% of patients (21·8% of patients with lymphoma, 6·7% of patients with MM) were poor mobilizers. Univariate analysis and multivariate analysis revealed an interval from G-CSF administration to PBSC collection exceeding 10 days and peripheral blood mononuclear cells count on the first day of collection were predictive factors for poor mobilization in lymphoma, but not in MM. Among plerixafor-treated patient group, 9 of 11 poor mobilizers who received second-cycle plerixafor mobilization were able to collect higher number of CD34+ cells than that of CD34+ cells during the G-CSF-based first mobilization. All patients who had received initial plerixafor mobilization reached 2·0 × 106 CD34+ cells/kg during the four leukaphereses.Conclusion In conventional G-CSF-based mobilization, early PBSC collection after G-CSF administration might enhance CD34+ cell yield. A combination of a new mobilizing agent, plerixafor, would be helpful to harvest sufficient number of CD34+ cells for successful transplantation outcome while reducing the effort of collection procedures in poor mobilizers.
    Vox Sanguinis 07/2014; · 3.30 Impact Factor
  • Cancer Research 03/2014; 73(24 Supplement):P4-16-06-P4-16-06. · 9.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The progression pattern of brain structural changes in patients with isolated cerebrovascular disease (CVD) remains unclear. To investigate the role of isolated CVD in cognitive impairment patients, patterns of cortical thinning and hippocampal atrophy in pure subcortical vascular mild cognitive impairment (svMCI) and pure subcortical vascular dementia (SVaD) patients were characterized. Forty-five patients with svMCI and 46 patients with SVaD who were negative on Pittsburgh compound B (PiB) positron emission tomography imaging and 75 individuals with normal cognition (NC) were recruited. Compared with NC, patients with PiB(-) svMCI exhibited frontal, language and retrieval type memory dysfunctions, which in patients with PiB(-) SVaD were further impaired and accompanied by visuospatial and recognition memory dysfunctions. Compared with NC, patients with PiB(-) svMCI exhibited cortical thinning in the frontal, perisylvian, basal temporal and posterior cingulate regions. This atrophy was more prominent and extended further toward the lateral parietal and medial temporal regions in patients with PiB(-) SVaD. Compared with NC subjects, patients with PiB(-) svMCI exhibited hippocampal shape deformities in the lateral body, whilst patients with PiB(-) SVaD exhibited additional deformities within the lateral head and inferior body. Our findings suggest that patients with CVD in the absence of Alzheimer's disease pathology can be demented, showing cognitive impairment in multiple domains, which is consistent with the topography of cortical thinning and hippocampal shape deformity.
    European Journal of Neurology 02/2014; · 3.85 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Aluminothermic reduction of K2TiF6 in the presence of C, B, or N2 was investigated as a low exothermic combustion process for synthesizing nanoparticles of titanium ceramics such as TiC, TiB2, and TiN. Sample pellets were prepared by mixing powders of K2TiF6, Al, and non-metal (C, B) powders in stoichiometric ratios. Experiments were conducted at room temperature under either an Ar or N2 atmosphere. The combustion parameters were estimated from the temperature-time profiles, measured in the combustion wave using thermocouples. The reaction drastically proceeds within seconds, raising the temperature to 890–1170°C. The size of TiC, TiB2, and TiN nanoparticles prepared by the developed approach were, respectively, 5–30 nm, 10–60 nm, and 70–100 nm.
    Combustion Science and Technology 01/2014; 186(1). · 0.98 Impact Factor
  • Fertility and Sterility 09/2013; 100(3):S510-S511. · 4.30 Impact Factor
  • Cancer Research 08/2013; 73(8 Supplement):4286-4286. · 9.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This study develops a method to construct a real-world, in-depth database of occupant injury and vehicle damage after a domestic motor vehicle crash accident using examples of real motor vehicle crash accidents. Among the patients who visited the emergency rooms of three domestic hospitals due to motor vehicle crash accidents from January 2011 to June 2011, we collected data from patients whose ISSs (Injury Severity Scores) were over 16. We also surveyed the cause of the accident, information on the vehicle damage and the injury severity of the patient. Damage of the vehicle was presented using the CDC (Collision Deformation Classification) code by evaluating images of the damaged vehicle. In addition, the patient injury severity was evaluated using a trauma score. The number of subjects from 61 cases of motor vehicle crash accidents was 65, with an average age of 44.7±16.8. Of the 65 subjects, 54 (83.1%) were males, 49 (75.4%) were drivers, 29 (44.6%) were patients who did not fasten their seat belts and 20 (30.8%) were cases in which the airbags were deployed during the accident. The average maximum AIS (Abbreviated Injury Scale), ISS and RTS (Revised Trauma Score) were 3.78, 30.5 and 6.1, respectively. In the analysis of the CDC code, the average ISS was the highest (50.4) with rollover cases, and 7 subjects died, 4 involved in rollover accidents, 2 in fontal collisions and 1 in a lateral collision. To analyze occupant injury and vehicle damage after a domestic motor vehicle crash accident, it is necessary to construct a real-world, in-depth database that includes all information about the vehicle and the severity of the patient’s injury.
    International Journal of Automotive Technology 06/2013; 14(3). · 0.82 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We retrospectively studied the radiological and clinical results of a simple hemiresection arthroplasty, a modification of previous oblique distal ulnar resections, in 62 patients with rheumatoid arthritis (68 wrists) over a mean follow-up of 103 (range 60-173) months. Fourteen wrists (20%) became fused at the radiocarpal joint and 28 wrists fused (41%) at the midcarpal joints during follow-up. Severe ulnar translocation of the carpus was observed in two wrists (3%), radio-ulnar convergence in five wrists (7%), as well as a significant decrease of carpal height ratio, without any radiological findings of stylocarpal impingement. Improvements in forearm pronation and supination, and reduction in pain were maintained at the last follow-up. Grip strength was not significantly improved. The Jebsen-Taylor hand function test showed improvements in writing, card turning, and simulated feeding. Fifty-two patients (58 wrists, 85%) were satisfied with the results at the last follow-up. Simple hemiresection arthroplasty showed good long-term results with few complications.
    The Journal of hand surgery, European volume. 01/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: A 1 MV AMS machine installed at Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources (KIGAM) in 2007 has been dedicated to study on paleoclimate change and the environmental issues. Because the possibility of regional age offset has been suggested by several previous studies, the consistency of the data set of IntCal04, which is used to calibrate radiocarbon ages in our laboratory, with data obtained from 14C in tree rings grown in the Korean peninsula has been examined in this study. Tree-ring samples were collected from the building materials of Korean historical wooden buildings. Remaining historical records regarding the construction times of the buildings were consulted. The ages of the tree-ring samples ranged from AD 1250 to AD 1650 and were measured by dendrochronological method. After the samples were cut into single-year rings, alpha cellulose was extracted from each ring. Then, their annual 14C concentrations were measured by AMS. Accurate radiocarbon ages during the 400 year period were evaluated from the concentrations. The ages of the tree rings were compared with the IntCal04 calibration curve. The average deviation of 14C concentration was calculated to be −2.14‰. By the Fourier transform of the single-year variation of the concentration, six major periodic components could be found. One of the components has a period of 10.9 years and it is thought to be related to a sunspot variation known as the Schwabe cycle, which has a period of 11 years.
    Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms 01/2013; 294:435–439. · 1.19 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We collected a batch of ginkgo (Ginkgo biloba Linnaeus) leaf samples at five metropolitan areas of Korea (Seoul, Busan, Daegu, Daejeon, and Gwangju) in 2009 to obtain the regional distribution of fossil fuel originated CO2 (fossil fuel CO2) in the atmosphere. Regions assumed to be free of fossil fuel CO2 were also selected, namely Mt. Chiak, Mt. Kyeryong, Mt. Jiri, Anmyeon Island, and Jeju Island and ginkgo leaf samples were collected in those areas during the same period. The Δ14C values of the samples were measured using Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) and the fossil fuel CO2 ratios in the atmosphere were obtained in the five metropolitan areas. The average ratio of fossil fuel CO2 in Seoul was higher than that in the other four cities. The leaves from the Sajik Tunnel in Seoul recorded the highest FFCTC (fossil fuel CO2 over total CO2 in atmosphere), 13.9 ± 0.5%, as the air flow of the surrounding neighborhood of the Sajik Tunnel was blocked.
    Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms 01/2013; · 1.19 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Recently, the advanced driver assistance system (ADAS), which helps mitigate car accidents, has been developed using environmental detection sensors, such as long and short range radar, lidar, wide dynamic range cameras, ultrasonic sensors and laser scanners. Among these detection sensors, radars can quickly provide drivers with reliable information about the velocity, distance and direction of a target obstacle, as well as information about the vehicle in changing weather conditions. In the adaptive cruise control system (ACCS), three radar sensors are usually needed because two short range radars are used to detect objects in the adjacent lane and one long range radar is used to detect objects in-path. In this paper, low-cost radar based on a single sensor, which can detect objects in both the adjacent lane and in-path, is proposed for use in the ACCS. Before designing the proposed radar, we analyzed the world-wide radar technology and market trends for ACCS. Based on this analysis, we designed a novel radar sensor for the ACCS using radar components, such as an antenna, transceiver module, transceiver control module and signal processing algorithm. Finally, target detection experiments were conducted. In the experimental results, the proposed single radar can successfully complete the detection required for the ACCS. In the conclusion, the perspective and issues in the future development of the ACCS radar are described.
    International Journal of Automotive Technology 12/2012; 13(7). · 0.82 Impact Factor
  • European Neuropsychopharmacology 10/2012; 22:S220. · 5.40 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Spontaneous recanalization and early improvement have been found to be more frequent and complete in embolic stroke compared with other stroke subtypes[1]. The factors determining early recanalization and clinical improvement are very important in embolic stroke because there are significant differences in prognosis depending on improvement in early phase. In many cases of cardioembolic stroke without early clinical improvement develop malignant course due to poor collateral circulation secondary to the suddenness of the event[2]. We investigated clinical and laboratory markers to predict spontaneous early improvement in atrial fibrillation(AF) related cardioembolic strokes. © 2012 International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis.
    Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis 08/2012; · 6.08 Impact Factor
  • Cancer Research 06/2012; 72(8 Supplement):5488-5488. · 9.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis of multiple myeloma (MM) may indiscriminately count signals of nonplasma cells, thus decreasing specificity and sensitivity. We aimed to evaluate the usefulness of an immune-magnetic sorting method for plasma cells in FISH analysis of MM and define optimal sample preparation conditions. Plasma cells were purified using EasySep(®) CD138 Positive Selection Cocktail and Magnetic Nanoparticles (Invitrogen). We compared FISH results with and without plasma cell purification for three sample preparation methods: direct harvest, 24-h culture, and 96-h culture with interleukin-4 in five newly diagnosed MM patients. Archived fixed bone marrow cells of 17 MM patients were also studied. The percentage of abnormal cells identified was significantly higher with plasma cell purification than without purification (median, 88.0%; range, 84.0-100.0%vs. 15.0%, 12.5-29.5%, respectively). The three sample preparation methods showed comparable results. Immune-magnetic sorting also significantly increased the percentage of abnormal cells identified in FISH analysis of archived fixed bone marrow cells (P < 0.001). Conclusions: Immune-magnetic CD138-positive cell sorting significantly increased the percentage of abnormal cells identified in FISH analysis of MM samples for all sample preparation methods. This method could also be applied for retrospective FISH analysis of archived fixed bone marrow cells.
    International journal of laboratory hematology 06/2012; 34(5):541-6. · 1.30 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A large-scale epidemic of Akabane virus (AKAV) encephalomyelitis in cattle aged 4-72 months occurred in the southern part of Korea from late summer to late autumn in 2010. Affected cattle exhibited neurological signs including locomotor ataxia, astasia, tremor and hypersensitivity. Samples of brain (n = 116), spinal cord (n = 116) and whole blood (n = 205) were submitted to the National Veterinary Research and Quarantine Service for diagnosis. Microscopical analysis of the brains and spinal cords revealed the presence of non-suppurative encephalomyelitis in 99 of 116 brains and/or spinal cords (85%). The brains and spinal cords were evaluated by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction and AKAV antigens were detected by immunohistochemistry using rabbit antiserum against AKAV strain OBE-1. Fifteen AKAVs were isolated from the brain and spinal cord samples. Antibodies against AKAV in a virus neutralization test were detected in 188 of 205 serum samples (91.7%). This is the first report of a large-scale outbreak of bovine epidemic encephalomyelitis caused by AKAV infection in Korea.
    Journal of comparative pathology 04/2012; 147(2-3):101-5. · 1.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In the present study, we examined therapeutic potential of human amnion-derived insulin-secreting cells for type 1 diabetes. Human amniotic mesenchymal stem cells (hAMs) were isolated from amnion, and cultivated to differentiate into insulin-secreting cells in vitro. After culture in vitro, the differentiated cells (hAM-ISCs) were intensively stained with dithizone, and secreted insulin and c-peptide in a high glucose-dependent manner. They expressed mRNAs of pancreatic cell-related genes, including INS, PDX1, Nkx6-1, NEUROG3, ISL1, NEUROD1, GLUT1, GLUT2, PC1/3, PC2, GCK, PPY, SST and GC, and were positive for human insulin and c-peptide. Transplantation of hAM-ISCs into the kidneys of mice with streptozotocin-induced diabetes restored body weight, and normalized the blood glucose levels, which lasted for 210 days. Only human insulin and c-peptide were detected in the blood of normalized mice after 2 months of transplantation, but little mouse insulin and c-peptide. Removal of graft-bearing kidneys from these mice resulted in causing hyperglycemia again. Human cell-specific gene, hAlu, and human pancreatic cell-specific genes of insulin, PDX1, GLUT1, GLP1R, Nkx6-1, NEUROD1, and NEUROG3 were detected in the graft-bearing kidneys. Colocalization of human insulin and human nuclei antigen was also observed. These results demonstrate that hAMs could differentiate into functional insulin-secreting cells in vitro, and human insulin secreted from hAM-ISCs following transplantation into type 1 diabetic mice could normalize hyperglycemia, overcoming immune rejection for a long period.
    Cell Transplantation 04/2012; · 3.57 Impact Factor
  • K. -B. Kim, K. -W. Choi, K. -H. Lee
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    ABSTRACT: A relatively new approach for improving fuel economy and automotive engine performance involves the use of automotive combined cycle generation technologies. The combined cycle generation, a process widely used in existing power plants, has become a viable option for automotive applications due to advances in materials science, nanotechnology, and MEMS (Mico-Electro Mechanical Systems) devices. The waste heat generated from automotive engine exhaust and coolant is a feasible heat source for a combined cycle generation system, which is basically a Rankine cycle in the context of this study. However, there are still numerous technical issues that need to be solved before the technology can be implemented in automobiles. A simulation was performed to examine the amount of waste energy that could be recovered through the use of a combined cycle system. A simulation model of the Rankine cycle was developed using Cycle-Tempo software. The simulation model was ultimately used to evaluate the rate of waste heat recovery and the consequential increase in the overall thermal efficiency of the engine with the combined cycle generation system under typical engine operating conditions. The most effective automotive combined cycle system recovered 68% of the waste heat from the exhaust and coolant, resulting in a 6% improvement in engine efficiency. The results are expected to be beneficial for evaluating the feasibility of combined cycle generation systems in automotive applications.
    International Journal of Automotive Technology 04/2012; 13(3). · 0.82 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to determine how many patients with undifferentiated arthritis (UA) are classified as patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) by the 2010 American College of Rheumatology/European League Against Rheumatism (ACR/EULAR) criteria for RA. The 2010 ACR/EULAR criteria for RA were applied to 102 patients with UA. UA is defined as an inflammatory arthritis that does not meet any criteria for a definitive diagnosis. We analysed discrepancy in the classification between previous criteria and the 2010 criteria by identifying patients who were categorized as those with RA. The mean age of the patients was 46.8 ± 14.3 years. Rheumatoid factor (RF) was positive in 36 patients (35.2%), and 30 patients (29.5%) were positive for anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibody (anti-CCP). The 2010 ACR/EULAR criteria classified 33 patients (32.4%) as having RA, and 31 of them (93.9%) had the involvement of 1-3 small joints. All patients were seropositive, and 25 of them (75.8%) had high positive RF or anti-CCP. Seropositivity and small joint involvement was significantly different between patients who were classified with RA and those who were not (p < 0.001). Using the 2010 ACR/EULAR criteria, 32.4% of patients with UA were classified as having RA, and all were seropositive. Most of the UA patients with high positive RF or anti-CCP could be classified as having RA when we applied the 2010 ACR/EULAR criteria.
    Scandinavian journal of rheumatology 03/2012; 41(3):192-5. · 2.51 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

11k Citations
2,253.97 Total Impact Points


  • 2000–2014
    • Sungkyunkwan University
      • • Department of Nuclear Medicine
      • • Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitaion
      • • Department of Neurology
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
    • National Institute of Environmental Research
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
    • Inha University Hospital
      Sinhyeon, South Gyeongsang, South Korea
    • Yale-New Haven Hospital
      New Haven, Connecticut, United States
  • 1994–2014
    • Chungnam National University
      • Graduate School of Green Energy Technology
      Daiden, Daejeon, South Korea
    • National Institutes of Health
      • Chemical Biology Laboratory
      Bethesda, MD, United States
  • 2013
    • Korean Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources
      • Geologic Environment Division
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
    • Hanil General Hospital
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 2000–2013
    • Yonsei University
      • • Department of Emergency Medicine
      • • Department of Physics
      • • Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering
      • • Department of Biochemistry
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 2012
    • Korea Institute of Science and Technology
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
    • Jeju National University
      Tse-tsiu, Jeju, South Korea
    • Sogang University
      • Department of Electronic Engineering
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 2009–2012
    • Hanyang University
      • • Division of Mechanical Engineering
      • • Department of Electronics and Computer Engineering
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
    • Hanyang University Medical Center
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
    • Myongji Hospital
      Kōyō, Gyeonggi Province, South Korea
  • 2011
    • Korea Institute of Materials Science
      • Division of Materials Processing
      Sŏngnam, Gyeonggi Province, South Korea
  • 2000–2011
    • Pohang University of Science and Technology
      • • Department of Chemical Engineering
      • • Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering
      • • Department of Chemistry
      Geijitsu, North Gyeongsang, South Korea
  • 1996–2011
    • Yonsei University Hospital
      • • Department of Internal Medicine
      • • Surgery
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 2010
    • Kyungpook National University
      • Department of Pharmacology
      Daikyū, Daegu, South Korea
    • Naruto University of Education
      Muya, Tokushima, Japan
  • 2003–2010
    • Samsung Advanced Institute of Technology
      Usan-ri, Gyeonggi Province, South Korea
    • Kwangwoon University
      • Department of Electronic Material Engineering
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
    • Chonbuk National University
      • Department of Organic Materials and Fiber Engineering
      Seoul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 1988–2010
    • Academia Sinica
      • Institute of Physics
      Taipei, Taipei, Taiwan
  • 1987–2010
    • Hiroshima University
      • Faculty of Integrated Arts and Sciences
      Hirosima, Hiroshima, Japan
  • 1971–2010
    • University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
      • • Division of Chemical Biology and Medicinal Chemistry
      • • Department of Medicine
      • • Department of Chemistry
      North Carolina, United States
  • 1999–2009
    • Inha University
      • College of Medicine
      Chemulpo, Incheon, South Korea
    • Yeungnam University
      • • College of Medicine
      • • Division of Internal Medicine
      Daikyū, Daegu, South Korea
    • University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio
      • Department of Biochemistry
      San Antonio, TX, United States
  • 2005–2008
    • University of Oxford
      • Department of Physics
      Oxford, ENG, United Kingdom
  • 1996–2008
    • Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology
      • • Department of Materials Science and Engineering
      • • Department of Physics
      • • Department of Chemistry
      Seoul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 2004–2007
    • Korea Institute of Machinery and Materials
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
    • Korea Institute of Radiological & Medical Sciences
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 2006
    • Korea University of Technology and Education
      • School of Liberal Arts
      Changnyeong, South Gyeongsang, South Korea
    • Seoul National University Bundang Hospital
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
    • Korea Food and Drug Administration
      Seishō-gun, North Gyeongsang, South Korea
    • Sookmyung Women's University
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
    • Pusan National University
      Tsau-liang-hai, Busan, South Korea
  • 1994–2006
    • Seoul National University
      • • Department of Biological Sciences
      • • College of Natural Sciences
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 1998–2005
    • Ulsan University Hospital
      Urusan, Ulsan, South Korea
    • Harvard Medical School
      • Department of Medicine
      Boston, MA, United States
    • University of Suwon
      Suigen, Gyeonggi Province, South Korea
  • 1993–2005
    • Seoul National University Hospital
      • • Department of Radiology
      • • Department of Ophthalmology
      • • Department of Internal Medicine
      Seoul, Seoul, South Korea
    • Kyushu University
      • Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences
      Hukuoka, Fukuoka, Japan
  • 1999–2004
    • Asan Medical Center
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
    • Konkuk University
      • School of Physics
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 1991–2003
    • Catholic University of Korea
      • • College of Medicine
      • • Department of Internal Medicine
      • • Department of Physiology
      • • Department of Pharmacology
      Seoul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 2002
    • Dongguk University
      • Quantum-functional Semiconductor Research Center
      Seoul, Seoul, South Korea
    • Chinese Academy of Sciences
      Peping, Beijing, China
    • Soonchunhyang University
      • Department of Physics
      Onyang, South Chungcheong, South Korea
  • 2001
    • Kobe Pharmaceutical University
      Kōbe, Hyōgo, Japan
    • Korea Research Institute of Chemical Technology
      Daiden, Daejeon, South Korea
    • University of North Carolina at Pembroke
      North Carolina, United States
    • Cheju Halla University
      Tse-tsiu, Jeju, South Korea
    • Massachusetts General Hospital
      • Division of Cardiology
      Boston, MA, United States
    • Chongju National College of Science and Technology
      Goesan, North Chungcheong, South Korea
    • Banaras Hindu University
      • Department of Chemistry
      Benares, Uttar Pradesh, India
  • 2000–2001
    • Niigata College of Pharmacy
      Niahi-niigata, Niigata, Japan
    • The University of Tokushima
      • Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences
      Tokusima, Tokushima, Japan
  • 1998–2001
    • MEDIPOST Biomedical Research Institute
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 1995–2001
    • National Cancer Center Korea
      Kōyō, Gyeonggi Province, South Korea
    • National Cheng Kung University
      • • Department of Chemistry
      • • Department of Electrical Engineering
      Tainan, Taiwan, Taiwan
  • 1994–2001
    • National Research Institute of Chinese Medicine
      T’ai-pei, Taipei, Taiwan
  • 1990–2001
    • University of Ulsan
      • • College of Medicine
      • • Department of Medicine
      Urusan, Ulsan, South Korea
  • 1997–1999
    • Fukuoka University
      • Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences
      Fukuoka-shi, Fukuoka-ken, Japan
    • Kumamoto University
      • Department of Clinical Pharmaceutical Sciences
      Kumamoto, Kumamoto Prefecture, Japan
    • Northeast Institute of Geography and Agroecology
      • State Key Laboratory of Drug Research
      Beijing, Beijing Shi, China
    • University of Seoul
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
    • International St. Mary's Hospitals
      Chemulpo, Incheon, South Korea
  • 1996–1999
    • Shanghai Medical University
      • School of Pharmacy
      Shanghai, Shanghai Shi, China
  • 1993–1996
    • National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute
      Maryland, United States
  • 1991–1996
    • Yale University
      • Department of Pharmacology
      New Haven, CT, United States
  • 1992–1995
    • Kyoto Pharmaceutical University
      Kioto, Kyōto, Japan
  • 1969–1971
    • University of California, Los Angeles
      • Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry
      Los Angeles, CA, United States