K H Lee

Sungkyunkwan University, Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea

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Publications (804)2032.42 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Diesel engines are most frequently used in vehicles because of their high efficiency and durability. However, nitrogen oxide (NOx) and particulate matter (PM) from diesel engines are became problem. Recently, the premixed charged compression ignition (PCCI) technique has been studied specifically to reduce NOx and PM emissions simultaneously. While the PCCI engine has the advantage of reducing NOx and PM emissions, control of the combustion phase is difficult. Therefore, it is very important to understand the flame developing process and heat release pattern in a real PCCI engine. However, most research into the characteristics of PCCI combustion has used an optical access engine. This paper describes the combustion characteristics obtained using a micro-Cassegrain sensor and discusses how the sensor can be used to directly detect the flame characteristics for future control of PCCI combustion. From this research, the differences of flame characteristics between PCCI engine and conventional diesel engine were clarified.
    International Journal of Automotive Technology 12/2014; 15(7). · 0.69 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background and Objectives Collection of sufficient CD34+ cells for autologous peripheral blood stem cell (PBSC) transplantation is frequently failed in patients with lymphoma or multiple myeloma (MM). We investigated the incidence and the predictive factors for poor mobilization.Materials and MethodsA total of 205 adult patients (101 lymphoma and 104 MM) were retrospectively included for identifying the incidence of mobilization failure and the predictive factors for poor mobilization in conventional G-CSF-based mobilization regimen. Another 17 patients who used plerixafor for mobilization were included.ResultsOverall, 14·1% of patients (21·8% of patients with lymphoma, 6·7% of patients with MM) were poor mobilizers. Univariate analysis and multivariate analysis revealed an interval from G-CSF administration to PBSC collection exceeding 10 days and peripheral blood mononuclear cells count on the first day of collection were predictive factors for poor mobilization in lymphoma, but not in MM. Among plerixafor-treated patient group, 9 of 11 poor mobilizers who received second-cycle plerixafor mobilization were able to collect higher number of CD34+ cells than that of CD34+ cells during the G-CSF-based first mobilization. All patients who had received initial plerixafor mobilization reached 2·0 × 106 CD34+ cells/kg during the four leukaphereses.Conclusion In conventional G-CSF-based mobilization, early PBSC collection after G-CSF administration might enhance CD34+ cell yield. A combination of a new mobilizing agent, plerixafor, would be helpful to harvest sufficient number of CD34+ cells for successful transplantation outcome while reducing the effort of collection procedures in poor mobilizers.
    Vox Sanguinis 07/2014; · 2.85 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The fabella, a sesamoid bone sometimes found in the lateral head of the gastrocnemius muscle, often articulates directly with the lateral femoral condyle. This study aimed to determine the incidence of fabellae in an Asian population and to characterise the radiological features of the fabella. Electronic radiographs and magnetic resonance imaging films of 80 consecutive patients who underwent knee arthroscopy between May 2005 and October 2009 were reviewed to determine the presence and characteristics of the fabella. The incidence of fabellae was 31.25% in our study cohort. The median length, thickness, width and distance of the fabella from the lateral femoral condyle were 7.06 mm, 4.89 mm, 6.12 mm and 33.19 mm, respectively. The fabella was consistently bony and located in the lateral head of the gastrocnemius, with 52% of the fabellae having an articulating facet. Fabellae in men were found to be larger than in women, although the difference was not statistically significant. The presence of an articulating groove was associated with increased size of the fabella, but not with the distance between the fabella and its insertion onto the lateral head of the gastrocnemius. The incidence of fabellae in our population was lower than that in regional studies. They were consistently bony and not all had articulating grooves on the lateral femoral condyle. We found that the larger the fabella, the higher the chances of it having an articulating groove. By defining the radiological characteristics of the fabella, we provide objective parameters to help differentiate the fabella from other loose bodies or calcifications in the knee.
    Singapore medical journal 04/2014; 55(4):198-201. · 0.63 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The progression pattern of brain structural changes in patients with isolated cerebrovascular disease (CVD) remains unclear. To investigate the role of isolated CVD in cognitive impairment patients, patterns of cortical thinning and hippocampal atrophy in pure subcortical vascular mild cognitive impairment (svMCI) and pure subcortical vascular dementia (SVaD) patients were characterized. Forty-five patients with svMCI and 46 patients with SVaD who were negative on Pittsburgh compound B (PiB) positron emission tomography imaging and 75 individuals with normal cognition (NC) were recruited. Compared with NC, patients with PiB(-) svMCI exhibited frontal, language and retrieval type memory dysfunctions, which in patients with PiB(-) SVaD were further impaired and accompanied by visuospatial and recognition memory dysfunctions. Compared with NC, patients with PiB(-) svMCI exhibited cortical thinning in the frontal, perisylvian, basal temporal and posterior cingulate regions. This atrophy was more prominent and extended further toward the lateral parietal and medial temporal regions in patients with PiB(-) SVaD. Compared with NC subjects, patients with PiB(-) svMCI exhibited hippocampal shape deformities in the lateral body, whilst patients with PiB(-) SVaD exhibited additional deformities within the lateral head and inferior body. Our findings suggest that patients with CVD in the absence of Alzheimer's disease pathology can be demented, showing cognitive impairment in multiple domains, which is consistent with the topography of cortical thinning and hippocampal shape deformity.
    European Journal of Neurology 02/2014; · 4.16 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Aluminothermic reduction of K2TiF6 in the presence of C, B, or N2 was investigated as a low exothermic combustion process for synthesizing nanoparticles of titanium ceramics such as TiC, TiB2, and TiN. Sample pellets were prepared by mixing powders of K2TiF6, Al, and non-metal (C, B) powders in stoichiometric ratios. Experiments were conducted at room temperature under either an Ar or N2 atmosphere. The combustion parameters were estimated from the temperature-time profiles, measured in the combustion wave using thermocouples. The reaction drastically proceeds within seconds, raising the temperature to 890–1170°C. The size of TiC, TiB2, and TiN nanoparticles prepared by the developed approach were, respectively, 5–30 nm, 10–60 nm, and 70–100 nm.
    Combustion Science and Technology 01/2014; 186(1). · 1.01 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This study aimed to evaluate the two-year clinical outcomes of arthroscopic Bankart repair augmented by plication of the inferior glenohumeral ligament (IGHL) via horizontal mattress suturing. This study was a retrospective analysis of 76 arthroscopic Bankart repairs by a single surgeon from 2004 to 2008. Bioabsorbable suture anchors were used, with anchors placed at the 5:30, 4 and 3 o'clock positions of the right shoulder (correspondingly at the 6:30, 8 and 9 o'clock positions for the left shoulder). The lower most anchor was tied via horizontal mattress suture with plication of the IGHL, while the remaining two anchors were tied using simple sutures. The patients were postoperatively assessed, clinically and using the University of California Los Angeles (UCLA) shoulder rating scale. The mean age of the patients at the time of presentation was 24.09 ± 7.98 years, and the mean duration of follow-up was 28.7 months. The postoperative recurrence rate of dislocation was 7.89% (six shoulders), of which five shoulders required revision surgeries. Excluding the revision cases, clinical assessment of the strength of the supraspinatus and the range of motion of the operated shoulders at two years post operation were either maintained or full in all patients. Analysis of the UCLA results showed pre- and postoperative mean scores of 25.94 ± 3.43 and 33.77 ± 3.07, respectively (p < 0.05). Arthroscopic Bankart repair augmented by plication of the IGHL and anchored via horizontal mattress suturing is a safe and reliable treatment for shoulder instability, with good clinical outcomes and low recurrence rates.
    Singapore medical journal 10/2013; 54(10):555-9. · 0.63 Impact Factor
  • Fertility and Sterility 09/2013; 100(3):S510-S511. · 4.17 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We retrospectively studied the radiological and clinical results of a simple hemiresection arthroplasty, a modification of previous oblique distal ulnar resections, in 62 patients with rheumatoid arthritis (68 wrists) over a mean follow-up of 103 (range 60-173) months. Fourteen wrists (20%) became fused at the radiocarpal joint and 28 wrists fused (41%) at the midcarpal joints during follow-up. Severe ulnar translocation of the carpus was observed in two wrists (3%), radio-ulnar convergence in five wrists (7%), as well as a significant decrease of carpal height ratio, without any radiological findings of stylocarpal impingement. Improvements in forearm pronation and supination, and reduction in pain were maintained at the last follow-up. Grip strength was not significantly improved. The Jebsen-Taylor hand function test showed improvements in writing, card turning, and simulated feeding. Fifty-two patients (58 wrists, 85%) were satisfied with the results at the last follow-up. Simple hemiresection arthroplasty showed good long-term results with few complications.
    The Journal of hand surgery, European volume. 01/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: A 1 MV AMS machine installed at Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources (KIGAM) in 2007 has been dedicated to study on paleoclimate change and the environmental issues. Because the possibility of regional age offset has been suggested by several previous studies, the consistency of the data set of IntCal04, which is used to calibrate radiocarbon ages in our laboratory, with data obtained from 14C in tree rings grown in the Korean peninsula has been examined in this study. Tree-ring samples were collected from the building materials of Korean historical wooden buildings. Remaining historical records regarding the construction times of the buildings were consulted. The ages of the tree-ring samples ranged from AD 1250 to AD 1650 and were measured by dendrochronological method. After the samples were cut into single-year rings, alpha cellulose was extracted from each ring. Then, their annual 14C concentrations were measured by AMS. Accurate radiocarbon ages during the 400 year period were evaluated from the concentrations. The ages of the tree rings were compared with the IntCal04 calibration curve. The average deviation of 14C concentration was calculated to be −2.14‰. By the Fourier transform of the single-year variation of the concentration, six major periodic components could be found. One of the components has a period of 10.9 years and it is thought to be related to a sunspot variation known as the Schwabe cycle, which has a period of 11 years.
    Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms 01/2013; 294:435–439. · 1.19 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We collected a batch of ginkgo (Ginkgo biloba Linnaeus) leaf samples at five metropolitan areas of Korea (Seoul, Busan, Daegu, Daejeon, and Gwangju) in 2009 to obtain the regional distribution of fossil fuel originated CO2 (fossil fuel CO2) in the atmosphere. Regions assumed to be free of fossil fuel CO2 were also selected, namely Mt. Chiak, Mt. Kyeryong, Mt. Jiri, Anmyeon Island, and Jeju Island and ginkgo leaf samples were collected in those areas during the same period. The Δ14C values of the samples were measured using Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) and the fossil fuel CO2 ratios in the atmosphere were obtained in the five metropolitan areas. The average ratio of fossil fuel CO2 in Seoul was higher than that in the other four cities. The leaves from the Sajik Tunnel in Seoul recorded the highest FFCTC (fossil fuel CO2 over total CO2 in atmosphere), 13.9 ± 0.5%, as the air flow of the surrounding neighborhood of the Sajik Tunnel was blocked.
    Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms 01/2013; · 1.19 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The ultra-precision polishing method using MR fluid has come into the spotlight for polishing metals and optical materials. The MR fluid jet polishing process can be controlled using a change of viscosity by an imposed magnetic field. The MR fluid used for polishing process is a mixture of CI particles, DI water, and glycerin. The efficiency of polishing depends on parameters such as polishing time, magnetic field, stand-off distance, pressure, etc. In this paper, the MR fluid jet polishing was used to polish nickel and brass mold materials, which is used to fabricate backlight units for 3-D optical devices in mobile display industries. In MR jet polishing, ferromagnetic materials like nickel can decrease the polishing efficiency by interaction with the cohesiveness of the MR fluid more than non-ferromagnetic materials like copper. A series of tests with different polishing times showed that the surface roughness of brass (Ra=1.84 nm) was lower than that of nickel (Ra=2.31 nm) after polishing for 20 minutes.
    Transactions of Materials Processing. 01/2013; 22(2).
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    ABSTRACT: Spontaneous recanalization and early improvement have been found to be more frequent and complete in embolic stroke compared with other stroke subtypes[1]. The factors determining early recanalization and clinical improvement are very important in embolic stroke because there are significant differences in prognosis depending on improvement in early phase. In many cases of cardioembolic stroke without early clinical improvement develop malignant course due to poor collateral circulation secondary to the suddenness of the event[2]. We investigated clinical and laboratory markers to predict spontaneous early improvement in atrial fibrillation(AF) related cardioembolic strokes. © 2012 International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis.
    Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis 08/2012; · 6.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis of multiple myeloma (MM) may indiscriminately count signals of nonplasma cells, thus decreasing specificity and sensitivity. We aimed to evaluate the usefulness of an immune-magnetic sorting method for plasma cells in FISH analysis of MM and define optimal sample preparation conditions. Plasma cells were purified using EasySep(®) CD138 Positive Selection Cocktail and Magnetic Nanoparticles (Invitrogen). We compared FISH results with and without plasma cell purification for three sample preparation methods: direct harvest, 24-h culture, and 96-h culture with interleukin-4 in five newly diagnosed MM patients. Archived fixed bone marrow cells of 17 MM patients were also studied. The percentage of abnormal cells identified was significantly higher with plasma cell purification than without purification (median, 88.0%; range, 84.0-100.0%vs. 15.0%, 12.5-29.5%, respectively). The three sample preparation methods showed comparable results. Immune-magnetic sorting also significantly increased the percentage of abnormal cells identified in FISH analysis of archived fixed bone marrow cells (P < 0.001). Conclusions: Immune-magnetic CD138-positive cell sorting significantly increased the percentage of abnormal cells identified in FISH analysis of MM samples for all sample preparation methods. This method could also be applied for retrospective FISH analysis of archived fixed bone marrow cells.
    International journal of laboratory hematology 06/2012; 34(5):541-6. · 1.30 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A large-scale epidemic of Akabane virus (AKAV) encephalomyelitis in cattle aged 4-72 months occurred in the southern part of Korea from late summer to late autumn in 2010. Affected cattle exhibited neurological signs including locomotor ataxia, astasia, tremor and hypersensitivity. Samples of brain (n = 116), spinal cord (n = 116) and whole blood (n = 205) were submitted to the National Veterinary Research and Quarantine Service for diagnosis. Microscopical analysis of the brains and spinal cords revealed the presence of non-suppurative encephalomyelitis in 99 of 116 brains and/or spinal cords (85%). The brains and spinal cords were evaluated by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction and AKAV antigens were detected by immunohistochemistry using rabbit antiserum against AKAV strain OBE-1. Fifteen AKAVs were isolated from the brain and spinal cord samples. Antibodies against AKAV in a virus neutralization test were detected in 188 of 205 serum samples (91.7%). This is the first report of a large-scale outbreak of bovine epidemic encephalomyelitis caused by AKAV infection in Korea.
    Journal of comparative pathology 04/2012; 147(2-3):101-5. · 1.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In the present study, we examined therapeutic potential of human amnion-derived insulin-secreting cells for type 1 diabetes. Human amniotic mesenchymal stem cells (hAMs) were isolated from amnion, and cultivated to differentiate into insulin-secreting cells in vitro. After culture in vitro, the differentiated cells (hAM-ISCs) were intensively stained with dithizone, and secreted insulin and c-peptide in a high glucose-dependent manner. They expressed mRNAs of pancreatic cell-related genes, including INS, PDX1, Nkx6-1, NEUROG3, ISL1, NEUROD1, GLUT1, GLUT2, PC1/3, PC2, GCK, PPY, SST and GC, and were positive for human insulin and c-peptide. Transplantation of hAM-ISCs into the kidneys of mice with streptozotocin-induced diabetes restored body weight, and normalized the blood glucose levels, which lasted for 210 days. Only human insulin and c-peptide were detected in the blood of normalized mice after 2 months of transplantation, but little mouse insulin and c-peptide. Removal of graft-bearing kidneys from these mice resulted in causing hyperglycemia again. Human cell-specific gene, hAlu, and human pancreatic cell-specific genes of insulin, PDX1, GLUT1, GLP1R, Nkx6-1, NEUROD1, and NEUROG3 were detected in the graft-bearing kidneys. Colocalization of human insulin and human nuclei antigen was also observed. These results demonstrate that hAMs could differentiate into functional insulin-secreting cells in vitro, and human insulin secreted from hAM-ISCs following transplantation into type 1 diabetic mice could normalize hyperglycemia, overcoming immune rejection for a long period.
    Cell Transplantation 04/2012; · 4.42 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to determine how many patients with undifferentiated arthritis (UA) are classified as patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) by the 2010 American College of Rheumatology/European League Against Rheumatism (ACR/EULAR) criteria for RA. The 2010 ACR/EULAR criteria for RA were applied to 102 patients with UA. UA is defined as an inflammatory arthritis that does not meet any criteria for a definitive diagnosis. We analysed discrepancy in the classification between previous criteria and the 2010 criteria by identifying patients who were categorized as those with RA. The mean age of the patients was 46.8 ± 14.3 years. Rheumatoid factor (RF) was positive in 36 patients (35.2%), and 30 patients (29.5%) were positive for anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibody (anti-CCP). The 2010 ACR/EULAR criteria classified 33 patients (32.4%) as having RA, and 31 of them (93.9%) had the involvement of 1-3 small joints. All patients were seropositive, and 25 of them (75.8%) had high positive RF or anti-CCP. Seropositivity and small joint involvement was significantly different between patients who were classified with RA and those who were not (p < 0.001). Using the 2010 ACR/EULAR criteria, 32.4% of patients with UA were classified as having RA, and all were seropositive. Most of the UA patients with high positive RF or anti-CCP could be classified as having RA when we applied the 2010 ACR/EULAR criteria.
    Scandinavian journal of rheumatology 03/2012; 41(3):192-5. · 2.51 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We evaluated the clinicoradiologic characteristics of patients with branch occlusive disease (BOD)-type intracranial atherosclerotic stroke (ICAS) compared with those of patients with non-BOD-type ICAS or with small artery disease (SAD). We analyzed 201 consecutive patients with acute infarcts within the middle cerebral artery (MCA) distribution but no demonstrable carotid or cardiac embolism sources. According to the diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) distribution and the presence of ipsilateral MCA stenosis, of any degree, on magnetic resonance angiography (3-T MRI), we divided patients into 3 groups: 1) BOD: subcortical infarcts with MCA stenosis (n = 46); 2) non-BOD: infarcts beyond the subcortical area with MCA stenosis (n = 52); and 3) SAD (n = 103). We compared risk factors, degree of stenoses and distribution, and radiologic features of microangiopathy (leukoaraiosis and cerebral microbleeds) among the groups. Risk factor profiles were similar among the groups, except that hypertension and current smoking were more prevalent in the non-BOD than in the BOD group (p = 0.032 and 0.045). The relevant MCA had more severe and focal stenosis in the non-BOD than in the BOD group (stenosis of ≥70%; 76.9% vs 28.3%; p < 0.001), but the degree of nonrelevant stenosis was similar across the groups. Although clinical features, DWI lesion patterns, and microangiopathy findings were similar between the BOD and SAD groups, nonrelevant stenosis was more prevalent in the BOD than in the SAD group (p < 0.01). BOD is prevalent (47% of ICAS) and shares common characteristics with non-BOD-type ICAS, although its clinicoradiologic features may resemble those of SAD. The morphologic characteristics of stenosis and risk factors may associate with a stroke phenotype in patients with ICAS.
    Neurology 03/2012; 78(12):888-96. · 8.30 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Uric acid (UA), a product of purine metabolism, is known to be reduced in patients with various neurological disorders including multiple sclerosis (MS). However, it has still remained unclear whether there is a close relationship between UA and neuromyelitis optica (NMO). The aim of this study was to investigate the association between serum UA levels and disease activity in NMO. Retrospective analysis was made of blood samples during relapses (n = 48) and during stable disease (n = 49) from 20 patients with NMO. As controls, 59 blood samples during relapses from 39 patients with MS and 90 samples from healthy subjects were obtained. Spine magnetic resonance images (MRIs) performed during relapses (n = 24) in NMO were analysed. The results indicated that UA levels during relapses in NMO were significantly lower compared to healthy subjects (P < 0.01), but not different from those during relapses in MS, and that reduced UA levels during relapses in NMO were normalized during stable disease. However, UA levels during relapses were not correlated with Gd enhancement in spine MRI. UA levels are associated with clinical disease status in patients with NMO. Further investigations are recommended to elucidate the role of UA as a biomarker of disease activity in NMO.
    Acta Neurologica Scandinavica 02/2012; 126(4):287-91. · 2.47 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: CdTe thin films were grown on GaAs(100) substrates by using molecular beam epitaxy at various temperatures. The results of the X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns showed that the orientation of the grown CdTe thin films was the (100) orientation. XRD patterns, atomic force microscopy images, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) images, and photoluminescence spectra showed that the crystallinity of CdTe(100) epilayers grown on GaAs(100) substrates was improved by increasing the substrate temperature. HRTEM images showed that misfit dislocations existed at the CdTe/GaAs heterointerface. These results can help improve understanding of the substrate temperature effect on the structural and the optical properties of CdTe(100)/GaAs(100) heterostructures.
    Surface Review and Letters 01/2012; 14(04). · 0.28 Impact Factor
  • Korean Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine. 01/2012; 24(1):72-85.

Publication Stats

8k Citations
2,032.42 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2000–2014
    • Sungkyunkwan University
      • • Department of Nuclear Medicine
      • • Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitaion
      • • Department of Neurology
      • • Samsung Medical Center
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
    • Kyorin University
      Edo, Tōkyō, Japan
    • National Institute of Environmental Research
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 1994–2014
    • Chungnam National University
      • Graduate School of Green Energy Technology
      Daiden, Daejeon, South Korea
    • National Institutes of Health
      • Chemical Biology Laboratory
      Bethesda, MD, United States
  • 2013
    • Korean Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources
      • Geologic Environment Division
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
    • Singapore General Hospital
      • Department of Orthopaedic Surgery
      Tumasik, Singapore
    • Hanil General Hospital
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 2012
    • Jeju National University
      Tse-tsiu, Jeju, South Korea
  • 2011
    • Korea Institute of Materials Science
      • Division of Materials Processing
      Sŏngnam, Gyeonggi Province, South Korea
  • 2000–2011
    • Hanyang University
      • • Division of Mechanical Engineering
      • • Department of Electronics and Computer Engineering
      • • College of Medicine
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
    • Pohang University of Science and Technology
      • • Department of Chemical Engineering
      • • Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering
      • • Department of Chemistry
      Geijitsu, North Gyeongsang, South Korea
  • 1997–2011
    • Yonsei University Hospital
      • Department of Internal Medicine
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
    • Northeast Institute of Geography and Agroecology
      • State Key Laboratory of Drug Research
      Beijing, Beijing Shi, China
    • Kumamoto University
      • Department of Clinical Pharmaceutical Sciences
      Kumamoto, Kumamoto Prefecture, Japan
    • University of Seoul
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
    • International St. Mary's Hospitals
      Chemulpo, Incheon, South Korea
  • 2010
    • Naruto University of Education
      Muya, Tokushima, Japan
  • 2003–2010
    • Samsung Advanced Institute of Technology
      Usan-ri, Gyeonggi Province, South Korea
    • Kwangwoon University
      • Department of Electronic Material Engineering
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
    • Chonbuk National University
      • Department of Organic Materials and Fiber Engineering
      Seoul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 1997–2010
    • Kyungpook National University
      • Department of Pharmacology
      Daikyū, Daegu, South Korea
  • 1988–2010
    • Academia Sinica
      • Institute of Physics
      Taipei, Taipei, Taiwan
  • 1987–2010
    • Hiroshima University
      • Faculty of Integrated Arts and Sciences
      Hirosima, Hiroshima, Japan
  • 1971–2010
    • University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
      • • Division of Chemical Biology and Medicinal Chemistry
      • • Department of Medicine
      • • Department of Chemistry
      North Carolina, United States
  • 2009
    • Hanyang University Medical Center
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
    • Seoul National University of Science and Technology
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
    • Myongji Hospital
      Kōyō, Gyeonggi Province, South Korea
  • 2001–2009
    • Inha University
      • • College of Medicine
      • • Department of Chemistry
      Chemulpo, Incheon, South Korea
    • Cheju Halla University
      Tse-tsiu, Jeju, South Korea
    • Korea Research Institute of Chemical Technology
      Daiden, Daejeon, South Korea
    • University of North Carolina at Pembroke
      North Carolina, United States
    • Chongju National College of Science and Technology
      Goesan, North Chungcheong, South Korea
    • Kobe Pharmaceutical University
      Kōbe, Hyōgo, Japan
    • Banaras Hindu University
      • Department of Chemistry
      Benares, Uttar Pradesh, India
  • 1999–2009
    • Yeungnam University
      • • College of Medicine
      • • Division of Internal Medicine
      Daikyū, Daegu, South Korea
    • University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio
      • Department of Biochemistry
      San Antonio, TX, United States
    • Meijo University
      • Faculty of Pharmacy
      Nagoya-shi, Aichi-ken, Japan
    • Hallym University
      • College of Medicine
      Seoul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 2005–2008
    • University of Oxford
      • Department of Physics
      Oxford, ENG, United Kingdom
  • 1996–2008
    • Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology
      • • Department of Materials Science and Engineering
      • • Department of Physics
      • • Department of Biological Sciences
      • • Department of Chemistry
      Seoul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 2004–2007
    • Korea Institute of Machinery and Materials
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
    • Korea Institute of Radiological & Medical Sciences
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 2000–2007
    • Yonsei University
      • • Department of Physics
      • • Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering
      • • Department of Biochemistry
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 2006
    • Korea University of Technology and Education
      • School of Liberal Arts
      Changnyeong, South Gyeongsang, South Korea
    • Seoul National University Bundang Hospital
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
    • Korea Food and Drug Administration
      Seishō-gun, North Gyeongsang, South Korea
    • Pusan National University
      Tsau-liang-hai, Busan, South Korea
    • Kyung Hee University
      • Department of Medicine
      Seoul, Seoul, South Korea
    • Sookmyung Women's University
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 1994–2006
    • Seoul National University
      • • Department of Biological Sciences
      • • Department of Materials Science and Engineering
      • • College of Natural Sciences
      • • Department of Ophthalmology
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 1998–2005
    • Ulsan University Hospital
      Urusan, Ulsan, South Korea
    • Tokyo Institute of Technology
      • Department of Environmental Chemistry and Engineering
      Edo, Tōkyō, Japan
    • University of Suwon
      Suigen, Gyeonggi Province, South Korea
  • 1995–2005
    • Seoul National University Hospital
      • • Department of Radiology
      • • Department of Ophthalmology
      • • Department of Internal Medicine
      Seoul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 1999–2004
    • Konkuk University
      • School of Physics
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
    • Asan Medical Center
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 1991–2003
    • Catholic University of Korea
      • • College of Medicine
      • • Department of Internal Medicine
      • • Department of Physiology
      • • Department of Pharmacology
      Seoul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 2002
    • Dongguk University
      • Quantum-functional Semiconductor Research Center
      Seoul, Seoul, South Korea
    • Soonchunhyang University
      • Department of Physics
      Onyang, South Chungcheong, South Korea
  • 2000–2001
    • The University of Tokushima
      • Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences
      Tokusima, Tokushima, Japan
    • Niigata College of Pharmacy
      Niahi-niigata, Niigata, Japan
  • 1998–2001
    • MEDIPOST Biomedical Research Institute
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 1995–2001
    • National Cheng Kung University
      • • Department of Chemistry
      • • Department of Electrical Engineering
      Tainan, Taiwan, Taiwan
    • National Cancer Center Korea
      Kōyō, Gyeonggi Province, South Korea
  • 1994–2001
    • National Research Institute of Chinese Medicine
      T’ai-pei, Taipei, Taiwan
  • 1990–2001
    • University of Ulsan
      • • College of Medicine
      • • Department of Medicine
      Urusan, Ulsan, South Korea
  • 1997–1999
    • Fukuoka University
      • Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences
      Fukuoka-shi, Fukuoka-ken, Japan
  • 1996–1999
    • Shanghai Medical University
      • School of Pharmacy
      Shanghai, Shanghai Shi, China
  • 1993–1996
    • National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute
      Maryland, United States
    • Kyushu University
      • Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences
      Hukuoka, Fukuoka, Japan
  • 1991–1996
    • Yale University
      • Department of Pharmacology
      New Haven, CT, United States
  • 1992–1995
    • Kyoto Pharmaceutical University
      Kioto, Kyōto, Japan
  • 1969–1971
    • University of California, Los Angeles
      • Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry
      Los Angeles, CA, United States