[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Early discharge for patients with acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD) has been shown to be effective by clinical trials. To evaluate its implementation and efficacy in clinical practice, data concerning early discharge schemes (EDS) from the 2003 National COPD Audit were collected and analysed.
All acute Trusts in the UK were surveyed in Autumn 2003 by two means: one a questionnaire relating to organisation of care and second an audit of 40 clinical cases admitted with AECOPD.
Data were available for both organisation of care and clinical activity for 233 units, of which 103 (44%) had EDS. Models of care included admission prevention in the accident and emergency department (5%), rapid discharge in <48h (27%), assisted discharge occurring 2 days or more after admission (24%) and combinations of these (12%). There was wide variation in organisation of care overall. 30% of patients in units with EDS were discharged early from hospital. Units with EDS had an average LOS 1-day shorter with no increase in readmission rate (32% vs. 32%) as for those without an EDS and no increase in mortality.
There is wide variation in the availability of EDS for AECOPD in the UK, with increasing implementation of schemes. Thirty percent of patients can effectively be put into EDS which is higher than the figure of 25% from randomised controlled trials (RCTs). Mortality and readmission rates are the same as for units where no EDS is available and similar to results reported in RCTs. EDS therefore appears to be effective in routine clinical practice.
Respiratory Medicine 06/2007; 101(5):1026-31. · 2.59 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Acute chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) exacerbations use many hospital bed days and have a high rate of mortality. Previous audits have shown wide variability in the length of stay and mortality between units not explained by patient factors. This study aimed to explore associations between resources and organisation of care and patient outcomes.
234 UK acute hospitals each prospectively identified 40 consecutive acute COPD admissions, documenting process of care and outcomes from a retrospective case note audit. Units also completed a resources and organisation of care proforma.
Data for 7529 patients were received. Inpatient mortality was 7.4% and mortality at 90 days was 15.3%; the readmission rate was 31.4%. Mean length of stay for discharged patients was 8.7 days (median 6 days). Wide variation was observed in all outcomes between hospitals. Both inpatient mortality (odds ratio (OR) 0.67, CI 0.50 to 0.90) and 90 day mortality (OR 0.75, CI 0.60 to 0.94) were associated with a staff ratio of four or more respiratory consultants per 1000 hospital beds. The length of stay was reduced in units with more respiratory consultants, better organisation of care scores, an early discharge scheme, and local COPD management guidelines.
Units with more respiratory consultants and better quality organised care have lower mortality and reduced length of hospital stay. This may reflect unit resource richness. Dissemination of good organisational practice and recruitment of more respiratory specialists offers the potential for improved outcomes for hospitalised COPD patients.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) have a high rate of mortality which gets worse with advancing age. It is unknown whether this is due to age related deficiencies in process of care. A study was undertaken in patients with COPD exacerbations admitted to UK hospitals to assess whether there were age related differences in the process of care that might affect outcome, and whether different models of care affected process and outcome.
247 hospital units audited activity and outcomes (inpatient death, death within 90 days, length of stay (LOS), readmission within 90 days) for 40 consecutive COPD exacerbation admissions in autumn 2003. Logistic regression methods were used to assess relationships between process and outcome at p < 0.001.
7514 patients (36% aged > or = 75 years) were included. Patients aged > or = 75 years were less likely to have blood gases documented, to have FEV1 recorded, or to be given systemic corticosteroids. Those admitted under care of the elderly (CoE) physicians were less likely to enter early discharge schemes or to receive non-invasive ventilation when acidotic. Overall inpatient and 90 day mortality was 7.4% and 15.3%, respectively. Inpatient and 90 day adjusted odds mortality rates for those aged > or = 85 years (versus < or = 65 years) were 3.25 and 2.54, respectively. Mortality was unaffected by admitting physician (CoE v general v respiratory). Age predicted LOS but not readmission. Age related deficiencies in process of care did not predict inpatient or 90 day mortality, readmission, or LOS.
Management of COPD exacerbations varies with age in UK hospitals. Inpatient and 90 day mortality is approximately three times higher in very elderly patients with a COPD exacerbation than in younger patients. Age related deficiencies in the process of care were not associated with mortality, but it is likely that they represent poorer quality of care and patient experience. Recommended standards of care should be applied equally to elderly patients with an exacerbation of COPD.