[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although significantly develops in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), features of HCC remain an aggressive cancer with a dismal outcome. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), specifically Chinese herbal medicine (CHM), is one of the most popular complementary and alternative medicine modalities worldwide. The use of heat-clearing and detoxicating (Chinese named qingre jiedu) CHM has attracted great attention as an alternative antitumor including HCC considering its low toxicity and high activity. Together these reports indicate that CHM is a promising anti-HCC herbal remedy in basic research. For patients with advanced HCC, CHM including formula and single combined with transcatheter arterial chemoembolization or chemotherapy is able to decrease tumor growth and the side effect of toxicity and improve overall survival, quality of life, and immune function. Due to its abundance, low cost, and safety in consumption, CHM remains a species with tremendous potential for further investigation in HCC.
Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine 01/2013; 2013:268963. · 1.72 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recurrence of bladder cancer following transurethral resection of bladder tumor (TURBt) is an obstacle in clinical management. In the current study, we investigated the antitumor activity of baicalein, a Chinese herbal medicine, against T24 bladder cancer cells in vitro. Baicalein inhibited growth and caused G1/S arrest of the cell cycle in the T24 cells. Moreover, baicalein induced apoptosis via loss of mitochondrial transmembrane potential (ΔΨm), release of cytochrome c and activation of caspase-9 and caspase-3. Baicalein inhibited Akt phosphorylation, downregulated Bcl-2 expression and upregulated Bax expression, which in turn increased the ratio of Bax/Bcl-2. Our results demonstrate that baicalein repressed growth inhibition and induced apoptosis via loss of ΔΨm and activation of caspase-9 and caspase-3 in T24 bladder cancer cells, which indicates that baicalein may be an effective agent in the clinical management of bladder cancer.
Molecular Medicine Reports 10/2012; · 1.17 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Baicalein is a purified flavonoid extracted from the roots of Scutellaria baicalensis or Scutellaria radix. Although previous studies have suggested that Baicalein possesses an in vitro anti-hepatocellular carcinoma activity, its in vivo effects and mechanisms of action are still not completely understood. In this study, Baicalein at concentrations of 40-120 µM exhibited significant cytotoxicity to three hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cell lines but marginal cytotoxicity to a normal liver cell line in vitro. Compared to a standard chemotherapy drug, 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), Baicalein had greater effect on HCC cells but less toxicity on normal liver cells. Treatment with Baicalein dramatically reduced mitochondrial transmembrane potential, and activated caspase-9 and caspase-3. Blockade of Baicalein-induced apoptosis with a pan-caspase inhibitor partially attenuated Baicalein-induced growth inhibition in HCC. Baicalein treatment significantly inhibited tumor growth of HCC xenografts in mice. Induction of apoptosis was demonstrated in Baicalein-treated xenograft tumors by the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay. Furthermore, Baicalein treatment dramatically decreased the levels of phosphorylation of MEK1, ERK1/2 and Bad in vitro and in vivo. Overexpression of human MEK1 partially blocked Baicalein-induced growth inhibition. Consequently, these findings suggest that Baicalein preferentially inhibits HCC tumor growth through inhibition of MEK-ERK signaling and by inducing intrinsic apoptosis.
International Journal of Oncology 06/2012; 41(3):969-78. · 2.66 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hypersplenism is a condition in which the spleen is overactive. It is common in patients with cirrhosis-related portal hypertension. The over-activated hemophagocytic splenic macrophages are an important cause of hypersplenism. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are 21-22 nt single-stranded RNAs expressed endogenously, which play important roles in many diseases. We have found by microarray, previously, that miR-615-3p is highly expressed in splenic macrophages of hypersplenism. In this study, we found that miR-615-3p enhanced the phagocytic capacity of splenic macrophages. Bioinformatics analysis indicated that ligand-dependent nuclear receptor corepressor (LCoR) was a potential phagocytosis-related target of miR-615-3p. This was proved by dual luciferase assay and Western blot in THP-1 cells and normal/hypersplenisum splenic macrophages. Our results showed that the presence of miR-615-3p repressed the expression of LCoR, a derepressor of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ), which has been confirmed to be able to promote the phagocytic capacity of macrophages. In conclusion, high expression of miR-615-3p in over-activated splenic macrophages depresses LCoR expression, low level of LCoR derepresses the expression of PPARγ and finally upregulated PPARγ enhances the phagocytic capacity of splenic macrophages. This finding might be useful in the study of hypersplenism and other macrophage-associated diseases.
Experimental Biology and Medicine 06/2011; 236(6):672-80. · 2.80 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To investigate the effects of Chrysanthemum indicum extract (CIE) on inhibition of proliferation and on apoptosis, and the underlying mechanisms, in a human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) MHCC97H cell line.
Viable rat hepatocytes and human endothelial ECV304 cells were examined by trypan blue exclusion and MTT assay, respectively, as normal controls. The proliferation of MHCC97H cells was determined by MTT assay. The cellular morphology of MHCC97H cells was observed by phase contrast microscopy. Flow cytometry was performed to analyze cell apoptosis with annexin V/propidium iodide (PI), mitochondrial membrane potential with rhodamine 123 and cell cycle with PI in MHCC97H cells. Apoptotic proteins such as cytochrome C, caspase-9, caspase-3 and cell cycle proteins, including P21 and CDK4, were measured by Western blotting.
CIE inhibited proliferation of MHCC97H cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner without cytotoxicity in rat hepatocytes and human endothelial cells. CIE induced apoptosis of MHCC97H cells in a concentration-dependent manner, as determined by flow cytometry. The apoptosis was accompanied by a decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential, release of cytochrome C and activation of caspase-9 and caspase-3. CIE arrested the cell cycle in the S phase by increasing P21 and decreasing CDK4 protein expression.
CIE exerted a significant apoptotic effect through a mitochondrial pathway and arrested the cell cycle by regulation of cell cycle-related proteins in MHCC97H cells without an effect on normal cells. The cancer-specific selectivity shown in this study suggests that the plant extract could be a promising novel treatment for human cancer.
World Journal of Gastroenterology 09/2009; 15(36):4538-46. · 2.55 Impact Factor