[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of Lactobacillus fermentum Lee (LF-Lee) on activated carbon-induced constipation in ICR mice. ICR mice were orally administered lactic acid bacteria for nine days. Body weight, dietary and water intake, defecation status, gastrointestinal (GI) transit and defecation time, as well as levels of motilin (MTL), gastrin (Gas), endothelin (ET), somatostatin (SS), acetylcholinesterase (AChE), substance P (SP) and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) in serum were measured to evaluate the preventive effects of LF-Lee on constipation. Bisacodyl, a laxative drug, was administered as a positive control. The time taken until the first defecation of a black stool for normal, control, bisacodyl- (100 mg/kg, oral administration), Lactobacillus bulgaricus (LB)-, LF-Lee low dose (L)- and LF-Lee high dose (H)-treated mice was 90, 218, 117, 180, 161 and 151 min, respectively. Following the consumption of LB, LF-Lee (L) or LF-Lee (H), or the oral administration of bisacodyl, the GI transit was reduced to 55.2, 65.8, 73.1 and 94.6%, respectively, of the transit in normal mice. The serum levels of MTL, Gas, ET, AChE, SP and VIP were significantly increased and those of SS were reduced in the mice treated with LF-Lee compared with those in the untreated control mice (P<0.05). These results demonstrate that lactic acid bacteria have preventive effects on constipation in mice and that LF-Lee has superior functional activity.
Experimental and therapeutic medicine 01/2015; 9(1):272-278. · 0.94 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and insulin-like growth factor binding protein-1 (IGFBP-1) play a pivotal role in regulating cellular hypoxic response. In this study, we cloned and characterized the genes encoding IGF-1 and IGFBP-1 to improve the current knowledge on their roles in highland Bos grunniens (Yak). We also compared their expression levels in the liver and kidney tissues between yaks and lowland cattle. We obtained full-length 465 bp IGF-1 and 792 bp IGFBP-1, encoding 154 amino acids (AA) IGF-1, and 263 AA IGFBP-1 protein, respectively using reverse transcriptase-polyerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) technology. Analysis of their corresponding amino acid sequences showed a high identity between B. grunniens and lowland mammals. Moreover, the two genes were proved to be widely distributed in the examined tissues through expression pattern analysis. Real-time PCR results revealed that IGF-1 expression was higher in the liver and kidney tissues in B. grunniens than in Bos taurus (p<0.05). The IGFBP-1 gene was expressed at a higher level in the liver (p<0.05) of B. taurus than B. grunniens, but it has a similar expression level in the kidneys of the two species. These results indicated that upregulated IGF-1 and downregulated IGFBP-1 are associated with hypoxia adaptive response in B. grunniens.
Asian Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences 01/2015; 28(1):20-4. · 0.56 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study aimed to establish yak mammary epithelial cells (YMECs) for an in vitro model of yak mammary gland biology. The primary culture of YMECs was obtained from mammary gland tissues of lactating yak and then characterized using immunocytochemistry, RT-PCR, and western blot analysis. Whether foreign genes could be transfected into the YMECs were examined by transfecting the EGFP gene into the cells. Finally, the effect of Staphylococcus aureus infection on YMECs was determined. The established YMECs retained the mammary epithelial cell characteristics. A spontaneously immortalized yak mammary epithelial cell line was established and could be continuously subcultured for more than 60 passages without senescence. The EGFP gene was successfully transferred into the YMECs, and the transfected cells could be maintained for a long duration in the culture by continuous subculturing. The cells expressed more antimicrobial peptides upon S.aureus invasion. Therefore, the established cell line could be considered a model system to understand yak mammary gland biology.
PLoS ONE 12/2014; 9(12):e113669. · 3.53 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Estrogen and its receptors are essential hormones for normal reproductive function in males and females during developmental stage. To better understand the effect of estrogen receptor (ER) gene in yak (Bos grunniens), reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was carried out to clone ERα and ERβ genes. Bioinformatics methods were used to analyze the evolutionary relationship between yaks and other species, and real-time PCR was performed to identify the mRNA expression of ERα and ERβ. Sequence analysis showed that the ER open reading frames (ORFs) encoded 596 and 527 amino acid proteins. The yak ERα and ERβ shared 45.3% to 99.5% and 53.9% to 99.1% protein sequence identities with other species homologs, respectively. Real-time PCR analysis revealed that ERα and ERβ were expressed in a variety of tissues, but the expression level of ERα was higher than that of ERβ in all tissues, except testis. The mRNA expression of ERα was highest in the mammary gland, followed by uterus, oviduct, and ovary, and lowest in the liver, kidney, lung, testis, spleen, and heart. The ERβ mRNA level was highest in the ovary; intermediary in the uterus and oviduct; and lowest in the heart, liver, spleen, lung, kidney, mammary gland, and testis. The identification and tissue distribution of ER genes in yaks provides a foundation for the further study on their biological functions.
Asian Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences 12/2014; 27(12):1684-90. · 0.56 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of Lactobacillus fermentum Suo (LF-Suo) on activated carbon-induced constipation in ICR (Institute of Cancer Research) mice. ICR mice were orally administered with lactic acid bacteria for 9 days. Body weight, diet intake, drinking amount, defecation status, gastrointestinal transit and defecation time, and the serum levels of MTL (motilin), Gas (gastrin), ET (endothelin), SS (somatostatin), AChE (acetylcholinesterase), SP (substance P), VIP (vasoactive intestinal peptide) were used to evaluate the preventive effects of LF-Suo on constipation. Bisacodyl, a laxative drug, was used as a positive control. The normal, control, 100 mg/kg bisacodyl treatment, LB (Lactobacillus bulgaricus)-, LF-Suo (L)- and LF-Suo (H)-treated mice showed the time to the first black stool defecation at 90, 218, 117, 180, 155 and 137 min, respectively. By the oral administration of LB-, LF-Suo (L), LF-Suo (H) or bisacodyl (100 mg/kg), the gastrointestinal transit was reduced to 55.2%, 72.3%, 85.5% and 94.6%, respectively, of the transit in normal mice, respectively. In contrast to the control mice, the serum levels of MTL, Gas, ET, AChE, SP and VIP were significantly increased and the serum levels of SS were reduced in the mice treated with LF-Suo (p < 0.05). By the RT-PCR (reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction) and western blot assays, LF-Suo increased the c-Kit, SCF (stem cell factor), GDNF (glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor) and decreased TRPV1 (transient receptor potential vanilloid 1), NOS (nitric oxide synthase) expressions of small intestine tissue in mice. These results demonstrate that lactic acid bacteria has preventive effects on mouse constipation and LF-Suo demonstrated the best functional activity.
International Journal of Molecular Sciences 12/2014; 15(12):21875-95. · 2.46 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In order to develop organic light-emitting diodes with improved optical properties, a series of phosphorescent complexes exhibiting narrow-band emission spectra are prepared and color tuned to emit efficiently across the whole visible spectrum through a judicious molecular design. Devices employing a green narrow-band phosphorescent emitter are fabricated and demonstrate an internal quantum efficiency of close to unity and impressive device operational lifetimes, estimate at over 70 000 h at a practical luminance of 100 cd m-2. Additionally, a deep blue narrow-band emitter is incorporated into a device setting that demonstrates a peak external quantum efficiency of 17.6% and CIE coordinates of (0.14, 0.09).
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Halogenated solvents such as dichlorobenzene (DCB) are commonly used in the fabrication of bulk-heterojunction (BHJ) organic solar cells. However, most halogenated solvents are very toxic. This report provides a route to eliminate halogenated solvents based on Hansen Solubility Parameters (HSPs) for manufacturing high efficiency BHJ solar cells. The device performances fabricated from several different binary solvent systems were compared to that from DCB. For the investigation of different gel behavior of solvent mixtures, Hansen solubility parameters and viscosity were mainly considered for the selection of binary solvent mixture candidates. Upon the addition of 20 vol.% benzaldehyde (BA) to p-xylene (p-XL), the device performances were improved in power conversion efficiency (PCE) from 3.1% to 3.8% and external quantum efficiency (EQE) from 63% to 70%. The solar cell devices fabricated using p-XL/BA binary solvent mixtures exhibited PCE comparable to that from DCB.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We propose a novel photonic downconversion method based on optical carrier reusing. In the proposed system, the phase modulator (PM) is placed between two narrowband fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs), which are designed to reflect the optical carrier and transmit the optical sidebands. The optical carrier is modulated in the PM in two directions and is not injected into the photodetector (PD). Thus, the utilization ratio of the optical carrier is enhanced and the power saturation in the PD is avoided. Consequently, the system gain can be improved. In addition, a 2×2 optical coupler is cooperated with a balanced PD behind these two FBGs. Resulting from the subtle design of the phase difference, gain is furthermore doubled and intensity noise can be reduced simultaneously. In the experiments, 29 dB gain improvement is measured compared with the traditional dual-series intensity modulators method. The noise floor is reduced by 12.1 dB.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Efficient deep-blue-emitting tetradentate platinum complexes with a narrow spectral bandwidth are presented, which demonstrate CIEx ≈ 0.15 and CIEy < 0.1. Ultimately, an organic light-emitting diode (OLED) with 24.8% peak external quantum efficiency and CIE coordinates of (0.147, 0.079) is fabricated using PtON7-dtb.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Oligoacene materials were applied as anode interfacial layers for small molecular organic photovoltaics. A sizeable enhancement in the short circuit current was observed which is attributed to an enhancement in the exciton diffusion efficiency. The application of tetracene anode interfacial layers to a synthesized ZnPc material yielded maximum power conversion efficiencies of 4.7%. Rubrene was also applied as an anode interfacial layer for devices of SubPc/C60 which showed a similar photocurrent enhancement.
2014 21st International Workshop on Active-Matrix Flatpanel Displays and Devices (AM-FPD); 07/2014
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A series of tetradentate platinum complexes that exhibit both efficient monomer and excimer emission are synthesized. Via small modifications to the cyclometalating ligands, both the monomer and excimer emission energy can be separately tuned. Devices employing all of the developed emitters demonstrate impressively high external quantum efficiencies (EQEs) within the range of 22% to 27% for concentrations between 2% and 16%. The halogen-free design of the complexes also enables the fabrication of single, doped, white organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) with long operational lifetimes. A balanced white device employing the complex Pt2O2, achieves a device operational lifetime to 80% of the initial luminance estimated at over 200 h at 1000 cd m–2, while also achieving 12.5% peak EQE for a warm white light with a color rendering index of 80. Furthermore, a highly doped device exhibiting nearly exclusive excimer emission showed an impressive operational lifetime, which is estimated at more than 400 h for 1000 cd m-2.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: RNA-Seq, a high-throughput (HT) sequencing technique, has been used effectively in large-scale transcriptomic studies, and is particularly useful for improving gene structure information and mining of new genes. In this study, RNA-Seq HT technology was employed to analyze the transcriptome of yak ovary. After Illumina-Solexa deep sequencing, 26826516 clean reads with a total of 4828772880 bp were obtained from the ovary library. Alignment analysis showed that 16992 yak genes mapped to the yak genome and 3734 of these genes were involved in alternative splicing. Gene structure refinement analysis showed that 7340 genes that were annotated in the yak genome could be extended at the 5' or 3' ends based on the alignments been the transcripts and the genome sequence. Novel transcript prediction analysis identified 6321 new transcripts with lengths ranging from 180 to 14884 bp, and 2267 of them were predicted to code proteins. BLAST analysis of the new transcripts showed that 1200?4933 mapped to the non-redundant (nr), nucleotide (nt) and/or SwissProt sequence databases. Comparative statistical analysis of the new mapped transcripts showed that the majority of them were similar to genes in Bos taurus (41.4%), Bos grunniens mutus (33.0%), Ovis aries (6.3%), Homo sapiens (2.8%), Mus musculus (1.6%) and other species. Functional analysis showed that these expressed genes were involved in various Gene Ontology (GO) categories and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathways. GO analysis of the new transcripts found that the largest proportion of them was associated with reproduction. The results of this study will provide a basis for describing the normal transcriptome map of yak ovary and for future studies on yak breeding performance. Moreover, the results confirmed that RNA-Seq HT technology is highly advantageous in improving gene structure information and mining of new genes, as well as in providing valuable data to expand the yak genome information.
Science China. Life sciences 06/2014; · 1.51 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We cloned and sequenced four pivotal cDNAs involved in DNA structural maintenance (H1F0 and TOP1) and the cell cycle (CLTA and CDK1) from yak oocytes. In addition, we studied the consequences of freezing-thawing (F/T) processes on the expression of their mRNA transcripts in yak immature and in vitro matured (MII) oocytes.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The competence for embryonic development after IVF is low in the yak, therefore, we investigated the effects of supplementation of FSH, LH and the proteasome inhibitor MG132 in IVM media on yak oocyte competence for development after IVF.
In Experiment 1, yak cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) were in vitro matured (IVM) in TCM-199 with 20% fetal calf serum (FCS), 1 microg/mL estradiol-17beta, and different combinations of LH (50 or 100 IU/mL) and FSH (0, 1, 5, 10 microg/mL) at 38.6 degrees C, 5% CO2 in air for 24 h. Matured oocytes were exposed to frozen-thawed, heparin-capacitated yak sperm. Presumptive zygotes were cultured in SOF medium containing 6 mg/ml BSA, 0.5 mg/mL myoinositol, 3% (v/v) essential amino acids, 1% nonessential amino acids and 100 mug/mL L-glutamine (48 h, 38.5 degrees C, 5% CO2, 5% O2, and 90% N2). In Experiment 2, cumulus cells were collected at the end of IVM to determine FSHR and LHR mRNA expression by real-time PCR. In Experiment 3 and 4, COCs were cultured in the presence or absence of the proteasomal inhibitor MG132 from either 0-6 h or 18-24 h after initiation of maturation.
The optimum concentration of FSH and LH in IVM media was 5 microg/mL FSH and 50 IU/mL LH which resulted in the greatest cleavage (79.1%) and blastocyst rates (16.1%). Both FSHR and LHR mRNA were detected in yak cumulus cells after IVM. Treatment with MG132 early in maturation reduced (P < 0.05) cleavage and blastocyst rates. Conversely, treatment with MG132 late in maturation improved (P < 0.05) blastocyst rate. Optimal results with MG132 were achieved at a concentration of 10 microM.
An optimum concentration of FSH and LH in IVM medium, and treatment with MG132 late in maturation can improve yak oocytes competence for development after IVF.
Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology 04/2014; 12(1):30. · 2.41 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Abstract The functional reprogramming of a differentiated cell to a pluripotent state presents potential beneficial applications in disease mechanisms and regenerative medicine. Epigenetic modifications enable differentiated cells to perpetuate molecular memory to retain their identity. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the reprogramming modification of yak fibroblast cells that were permeabilized and incubated in the extracts of mesenchymal stem cells derived from mice adipose tissue [adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs)]. According to the results, the treatment of ADSC extracts promoted colony formation. Moreover, pluripotent gene expression was associated with the loss of repressive histone modifications and increased global demethylation. The genes Col1a1 and Col1a2, which are typically found in differentiated cells only, demonstrated decreased expression and increased methylation in the 5'-flanking regulatory regions. Moreover, yak fibroblast cells that were exposed to ADSC extracts resulted in significantly different eight-cell and blastocyst formation rates of cloned embryos compared with their untreated counterparts. This investigation provides the first evidence that nuclear reprogramming of yak fibroblast cells is modified after the ADSC extract treatment. This research also presents a methodology for studying the dedifferentiation of somatic cells that can potentially lead to an efficient way of reprogramming somatic cells toward a pluripotent state without genetic alteration.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We report the development of efficient small molecular organic photovoltaic devices incorporating tetracene anode interfacial layers. Planar heterojunction devices employing the tetracene anode interfacial layer achieved an EQE enhancement of 150% in the spectral region corresponding to ZnPc absorption. We demonstrate that this enhancement is due to the combined effect of the tetracene layer providing exciton-blocking at the anode/donor interface and potentially an increase in the exciton diffusion length in the ZnPc layer due to increased crystallinity and more preferred molecular stacking orientation. A power conversion efficiency of 4.7% was achieved for a planar heterojunction of a modified zinc phthalocyanine based material and C60 when employing the tetracene anode interfacial layer. By utilizing a planar-mixed heterojunction structure a peak EQE of nearly 70% and a power conversion efficiency of 5.8% was achieved.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Using a single tetradentate platinum emitter dubbed Pt7O7, efficient and stable white organic light-emitting diodes are developed. The excimer-based white devices achieve an external quantum efficiency (EQE) of 24.5%, coordinates of (0.37, 0.42) based on the Commission internationale de l'éclairage (CIE) system, and a color rendering index (CRI) of 70. Moreover, devices of Pt7O7 in a stable structure demonstrate operational lifetimes (50% initial luminance) of 36 h at an elevated driving current of 20 mA/cm(2) , which corresponds to over 10 000 h at 100 cd/m(2) .
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In the present study, we examined the ability of immature germinal vesicle (GV) and subjected to in vitro matured (MII) yak oocytes to survive after cryopreservation as well as their subsequent development following in vitro maturation and fertilization. Both GV and MII oocytes were cryopreserved by using two different vitrification solutions (VS); VS-I contained 10% ethylene glycol (EG) and 10% dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) in TCM-199 + 20% (v/v) fetal calf serum (FCS) whereas VS-II contained 40% EG + 18% Ficoll + 0.5 M sucrose in TCM-199 + 20% FCS. The percentage of oocytes found to be morphologically normal was greater (P<0.01) in VS-I group than in VS-II group. Rates of cleavage (30.6-42.2%) and blastocyst formation (2.9-8.9%) did not differ among groups, but were lower than in unfrozen control (55.7 and 25.4%, P<0.01). These results show that a combination of EG and DMSO or EG, Ficoll and sucrose can be used to cryopreserve yak oocytes in French straws.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Capripox viruses are economically important pathogens in goat and sheep producing areas of the world, with specific focus on goat pox virus (GTPV), sheep pox virus (SPPV) and the Lumpy Skin Disease virus (LSDV). Clinically, sheep pox and goat pox have the same symptoms and cannot be distinguished serologically. This presents a real need for a rapid, inexpensive, and easy to operate and maintain genotyping tool to facilitate accurate disease diagnosis and surveillance for better management of Capripox outbreaks.
A LAMP method was developed for the specific differential detection of GTPV and SPPV using three sets of LAMP primers designed on the basis of ITR sequences. Reactions were performed at 62[degree sign]C for either 45 or 60 min, and specificity confirmed by successful differential detection of several GTPV and SPPV isolates. No cross reactivity with Orf virus, foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV), A. marginale Lushi isolate, Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. capri, Chlamydophila psittaci, Theileria ovis, T. luwenshuni, T. uilenbergi or Babesia sp was noted. RFLP-PCR analysis of 135 preserved epidemic materials revealed 48 samples infected with goat pox and 87 infected with sheep pox, with LAMP test results showing a positive detection for all samples. When utilizing GTPV and SPPV genomic DNA, the universal LAMP primers (GSPV) and GTPV LAMP primers displayed a 100% detection rate; while the SPPV LAMP detection rate was 98.8%, consistent with the laboratory tested results.
In summary, the three sets of LAMP primers when combined provide an analytically robust method able to fully distinguish between GTPV and SPPV. The presented LAMP method provides a specific, sensitive and rapid diagnostic tool for the distinction of GTPV and SPPV infections, with the potential to be standardized as a detection method for Capripox viruses in endemic areas.