José Vivancos

Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Madrid, Madrid, Spain

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Publications (59)204.56 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Atrial fibrillation is the most frequent arrhythmia seen in clinical practice and is one of the most important risk factors for suffering a stroke. Strokes associated to atrial fibrillation are more severe, present higher mortality and disability rates, and there is a greater risk of recurrence. Consequently, both primary and secondary prevention of stroke associated to atrial fibrillation by means of suitable antithrombotic treatment is clearly essential in order to lower this risk. Chronic oral anticoagulants are the cornerstone of antithrombotic treatment in patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation, especially in those who have already had a stroke. Vitamin K antagonists have traditionally been used for this purpose. Yet, these drugs have several important disadvantages (narrow therapeutic window, unpredictable response, numerous interactions with drugs and foods, as well as starting and finishing their action slowly), which limit their use in clinical practice. The new oral anticoagulants not only overcome these disadvantages but also have proved to be at least as effective as warfarin in the prevention of strokes and systemic embolism in patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation. Additionally, they have been shown to have a better safety profile, especially with an important drop in the risk of intracranial haemorrhage, regardless of the antecedents of stroke or transient ischaemic attack, which makes them first-choice drugs in the treatment of these patients.
    Revista de neurologia. 07/2014; 59(1):25-36.
  • Revista de neurologia 05/2014; 58(10):478-9. · 1.18 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: PPARγ-achieved neuroprotection in experimental stroke has been explained by the inhibition of inflammatory genes, an action in which 5-LO, Alox5, is involved. In addition, PPARγ is known to promote the expression of CD36, a scavenger receptor that binds lipoproteins and mediates bacterial recognition and also phagocytosis. As phagocytic clearance of neutrophils is a requisite for resolution of the inflammatory response, PPARγ-induced CD36 expression might help to limit inflammatory tissue injury in stroke, an effect in which 5-LO might also be involved. Homogenates, sections, and cellular suspensions were prepared from brains of WT and Alox5(-/-) mice exposed to distal pMCAO. BMMs were obtained from Lys-M Cre(+) PPARγ(f/f) and Lys-M Cre(-) PPARγ(f/f) mice. Stereological counting of double-immunofluorescence-labeled brain sections and FACS analysis of cell suspensions was performed. In vivo and in vitro phagocytosis of neutrophils by microglia/macrophages was analyzed. PPARγ activation with RSG induced CD36 expression in resident microglia. This process was mediated by the 5-LO gene, which is induced in neurons by PPARγ activation and at least by one of its products-LXA4-which induced CD36 independently of PPARγ. Moreover, CD36 expression helped resolution of inflammation through phagocytosis, concomitantly to neuroprotection. Based on these findings, in addition to a direct modulation by PPARγ, we propose in brain a paracrine model by which products generated by neuronal 5-LO, such as LXA4, increase the microglial expression of CD36 and promote tissue repair in pathologies with an inflammatory component, such as stroke.
    Journal of leukocyte biology 12/2013; · 4.99 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cerebral vasculopathy have been described in Fabry disease, in which altered cerebral blood flow, vascular remodelling or impairment of endothelial function could be involved. Our study aims to evaluate these three possibilities in a group of Fabry patients, and compare it to healthy controls. Cerebral hemodynamics, vascular remodelling and systemic endothelial function were investigated in 10 Fabry patients and compared to data from 17 healthy controls. Transcranial Doppler was used to study blood flow velocity of intracranial arteries and cerebral vasomotor reactivity. For the study of vascular remodelling and endothelial function, intima-media thickness of common carotid arteries, flow-mediated dilation in brachial artery and serum levels of soluble VCAM-1, TNF-alpha, high-sensitive CRP and IL-6 were measured. Differences between groups were evaluated using appropriate tests. No relevant differences were observed in cerebral hemodynamic parameters, intima-media thickness or flow-mediated dilation. There was a trend for low serum levels of IL-6 and high serum levels of TNF-alpha and high-sensitive CRP in Fabry patients; plasma concentrations of soluble VCAM-1 were significantly higher in Fabry disease patients than in healthy volunteers (p = 0.02). In our sample, we did not find relevant alterations of cerebral hemodynamics in Fabry disease patients. Increased levels of plasmatic endothelial biomarkers seem to be the most important feature indicative of possible vascular dysfunction in Fabry disease patients.
    BMC Neurology 11/2013; 13(1):170. · 2.56 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Rivaroxaban is an oral highly selective direct factor Xa inhibitor. Rivaroxaban is currently approved for the prevention of venous thromboembolism in adult patients undergoing elective hip or knee replacement surgery, for the treatment of deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism and long-term secondary prevention of venous thromboembolism, and for stroke and systemic embolism prevention in patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation. Rivaroxaban has many advantages over vitamin K antagonists and this may facilitate its use in clinical practice. As a result, it is expected that new oral anticoagulants may change patient management strategies. On the other hand, rivaroxaban has some particularities that are necessary to know. The aim of this manuscript was to review the use of rivaroxaban not only in general population, but also in specific patients groups and clinical situations to achieve an optimal management with this drug in daily clinical practice.
    Revista de neurologia 11/2013; 57(9):411-21. · 1.18 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Neutrophils have been traditionally recognized as major mediators of a deleterious inflammatory response in acute ischemic stroke, but their potential as a therapeutic target remains unexplored. Recent evidence indicates that neutrophils may acquire different phenotypes and contribute to resolution of inflammation through the release of anti-inflammatory mediators. Thus, similar to M2 macrophages, neutrophils have been proposed to shift toward an N2 phenotype, a polarization that is peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ dependent in macrophages. We hypothesize that peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ activation with rosiglitazone induces changes in neutrophilic mobilization and phenotype that might influence stroke outcome. Brain sections and cell suspensions were prepared from mice exposed to permanent distal middle cerebral artery occlusion. Double immunostaining with stereological counting of brain sections and flow-cytometry analysis of brain cell suspensions were performed. Rosiglitazone accelerated neutrophil infiltration to the ischemic core, concomitantly to neuroprotection. Some neutrophils (≈31%) expressed M2 markers, namely Ym1 and CD206 (mannose receptor). After treatment with the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ agonist rosiglitazone, most neutrophils (≈77%) acquired an N2 phenotype. Interestingly, rosiglitazone increased neutrophil engulfment by microglia/macrophages, a clearance that preferentially affected the N2 subset. We present the first evidence of neutrophil reprogramming toward an N2 phenotype in brain inflammation, which can be modulated by activation of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ nuclear receptor. We also show that N2 polarization is associated with an increased neutrophil clearance, thus suggesting that this switch is a crucial event for resolution of inflammation that may participate in neuroprotection.
    Stroke 10/2013; · 6.16 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION. CLIPPERS syndrome (chronic lymphocytic inflammation with pontine perivascular enhancement responsive to steroids) is an inflammatory process of the central nervous system whose distinguishing features are the enhancing punctiform lesions in the brainstem that appear in the magnetic resonance images. Clinically, it is accompanied by dysarthria, ataxia and diplopia, and usually responds to treatment with corticoids. Pathologically, T lymphocytes appear infiltrated in the perivascular spaces of the brainstem. CASE REPORT. We report the case of a 40-year-old woman with an initial subacute clinical picture of binocular diplopia, ataxia and dysarthria. The magnetic resonance brain scan revealed T2 hyperintense punctiform lesions in the stem, cerebellum, diencephalons and cortico-subcortical areas of both hemispheres, which were enhanced with contrast. An aetiological study was performed to rule out any underlying infectious, neoplastic or inflammatory origin, the results being negative. The patient was treated on two occasions with methylprednisolone, with a gradual lowering of the dosage, the response being favourable. CONCLUSIONS. Diplopia and ataxia, as in our case, are practically always present. The MR findings consist of punctiform enhancing lesions located in the pons extending towards the cerebellum, basal ganglia and corpus callosum, the enhancement gradient becoming lower as the distance increases rostrally away from the cortex, and caudally towards the spinal cord. In the case of our patient, this gradient is not respected, and the density found was similar to that of lesions at the supratentorial level. The differential diagnosis is wide-ranging and justifies an extensive diagnostic study with, in certain cases, a biopsy study of brain tissue. The disease courses in a relapsing-remitting pattern and the earlier steroid therapy is established and the more prolonged it is, the better the prognosis will be.
    Revista de neurologia 10/2013; 57(8):354-358. · 1.18 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Ischemic stroke is a devastating condition, for which there is still no effective therapy. Acute ischemic stroke is associated with high concentrations of glutamate in the blood and interstitial brain fluid. The inability of the tissue to retain glutamate within the cells of the brain ultimately provokes neuronal death. Increased concentrations of interstitial glutamate exert further excitotoxic effects on healthy tissue surrounding the infarct zone. We developed a strategy based on peritoneal dialysis to reduce blood glutamate levels, thereby accelerating brain-to-blood glutamate clearance. In a rat model of stroke, this simple procedure reduced the transient increase in glutamate, consequently decreasing the size of the infarct area. Functional magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated that the rescued brain tissue remained functional. Moreover, in patients with kidney failure, peritoneal dialysis significantly decreased glutamate concentrations. Our results suggest that peritoneal dialysis may represent a simple and effective intervention for human stroke patients.
    The Journal of clinical investigation 09/2013; · 15.39 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction Endovascular therapies (intra-arterial thrombolysis and mechanical thrombectomy) after acute ischaemic stroke are being implemented in the clinical setting even as they are still being researched. Since we lack sufficient data to establish accurate evidence-based recommendations for use of these treatments, we must develop clinical protocols based on current knowledge and carefully monitor all procedures. Development After review of the literature and holding work sessions to reach a consensus among experts, we developed a clinical protocol including indications and contraindications for endovascular therapies use in acute ischaemic stroke. The protocol includes methodology recommendations for diagnosing and selecting patients, performing revascularisation procedures, and for subsequent patient management. Its objective is to increase the likelihood of efficacy and treatment benefit and minimise risk of complications and ineffective recanalisation. Based on an analysis of healthcare needs and available resources, a cooperative inter-hospital care system has been developed. This helps to ensure availability of endovascular therapies to all patients, a fast response time, and a good cost-to-efficacy ratio. It includes also a prospective register which serves to monitor procedures in order to identify any opportunities for improvement. Conclusions Implementation of endovascular techniques for treating acute ischaemic stroke requires the elaboration of evidence-based clinical protocols and the establishment of appropriate cooperative healthcare networks guaranteeing both the availability and the quality of these actions. Such procedures must be monitored in order to improve methodology.
    Neurologia (Barcelona, Spain) 09/2013; 28(7):425–434. · 1.35 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Introducción El tratamiento endovascular (trombólisis farmacológica intraarterial y trombectomía mecánica) en el ictus isquémico agudo se está implantando en la práctica clínica cotidiana, aunque continúa en desarrollo su investigación. En ausencia de datos suficientes que permitan fundamentar sólidamente las recomendaciones para su uso, es necesario elaborar protocolos de actuación basados en el conocimiento acumulado, así como monitorizar las actuaciones. Desarrollo Tras revisión bibliográfica, en reuniones de trabajo de expertos para llegar a un consenso, se ha elaborado un protocolo de actuación que incluye indicaciones y contraindicaciones para la aplicación de tratamiento endovascular y recomendaciones referentes a la metodología de diagnóstico y selección de los pacientes, de los procedimientos de revascularización y manejo posterior, con el objetivo de incrementar las probabilidades de eficacia y beneficio del tratamiento y minimizar los riesgos de complicaciones y de recanalización fútil. En función del análisis de las necesidades asistenciales y los recursos disponibles se ha elaborado un sistema organizativo de colaboración interhospitalaria, para asegurar la accesibilidad al tratamiento garantizando el menor tiempo de respuesta y una relación coste/eficacia favorable. Incluye un registro prospectivo común con fines de monitorización para detectar oportunidades de mejora. Conclusiones Para la implantación de técnicas endovasculares de tratamiento del ictus isquémico agudo es imprescindible la elaboración de protocolos de actuación basados en las evidencias disponibles y el establecimiento de sistemas adecuados de organización asistencial para garantizar el rigor y la eficacia de las actuaciones. Es necesario monitorizar los procedimientos con el fin de optimizar la metodología.
    Neurología (English Edition). 09/2013; 28(7):425–434.
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    ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION. Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) has been approved for the treatment of refractory epilepsy when resective surgery is not possible, and has proved to be highly effective. Series published in the literature suggest a beneficial effect of VNS in the treatment of migraine. AIMS. To determine the degree to which headaches improve in patients with migraine after the placement of VNS to treat refractory epilepsy, and to evaluate what variables are associated with an increased chance of success with this measure. PATIENTS AND METHODS. An observation-based retrospective study was conducted from 1st January 1999 until 31st December 2010. Patients with VNS for refractory epilepsy were contacted by telephone, after selecting those who fulfilled International Headache Society criteria for migraine. Data collected included age, gender, year of placement, age at onset of epilepsy and migraine, improvement of seizures and migraine, presence of migraine with aura and coexistence of anxious-depressive syndrome. Ninety-four patients with VNS were contacted and 13 patients with migraine were selected. RESULTS. Following placement of the VNS, the number of episodes of migraine was seen to decrease by at least 50% in nine patients (69%) (p = 0.004) and there was a drop in the number of episodes of migraine in those patients who had also reduced their epileptic seizures (p = 0.012). No statistically significant associations were observed as regards sex, age, length of disease history, existence of migraine with aura or coexistence of anxious-depressive syndrome. CONCLUSIONS. VNS could have beneficial effects for patients with migraine, especially in cases that are difficult to control. Due to the type of study, these conclusions must be taken with caution. Prospective clinical studies are needed before introducing the technique into daily clinical practice.
    Revista de neurologia 07/2013; 57(2):57-63. · 1.18 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Intracerebral haemorrhage accounts for 10%-15% of all strokes; however it has a poor prognisis with higher rates of morbidity and mortality. Neurological deterioration is often observed during the first hours after onset and determines poor prognosis. Intracerebral haemorrhage, therefore, is a neurological emergency which must be diagnosed and treated properly as soon as possible. In this guide we review the diagnostic procedures and factors that influence the prognosis of patients with intracerebral haemorrhage and we establish recommendations for the therapeutic strategy, systematic diagnosis, acute treatment and secondary prevention for this condition.
    Neurologia (Barcelona, Spain) 05/2013; 28(4):236–249. · 1.35 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose:To investigate if glutamate levels also increase in carotid angioplasty and stent placement (CAS) procedures, since high plasma glutamate levels are associated with ischemic infarction and transient ischemic attacks, but the length of ischemia needed to elicit such elevation has not been assessed.Materials and Methods:All patients or their relatives signed informed consent. By using high-performance liquid chromatography, plasma glutamate concentrations were determined in 74 patients treated with CAS. Blood samples were obtained with arterial and peripheral venous catheterization before and after the procedure, and venous blood samples were obtained 24, 48, and 72 hours after CAS. Glutamate concentrations were also analyzed in two different control groups: 16 patients without carotid stenosis before and after diagnostic cerebral angiography and 20 patients treated with coronary angioplasty and stent placement. The χ(2) test, t test, and analysis of variance were used to compare glutamate concentrations among the groups.Results:Baseline glutamate concentrations were similar between patients who underwent CAS and both control groups. In CAS patients, glutamate concentrations in venous blood increased immediately after the procedure (354.1 μmol/L ± 132.8) and returned to baseline levels at 24 hours (129.5 μmol/L ± 56.8) (P < .0001). Glutamate concentrations remained unchanged over time in both control groups.Conclusion:A rapid increase in plasma glutamate levels occurs after CAS procedures, unrelated to stroke.© RSNA, 2013.
    Radiology 03/2013; · 6.34 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In Spain, approximately 28% of ischaemic strokes have an atherothrombotic cause, and most are due to carotid stenosis. Ultrasound is the most commonly used technique for diagnosing carotid stenosis. Changes in blood flow velocity at the point of maximum stenosis, together with haemodynamic changes in proximal regions (common carotid artery) and distal regions (poststenotic internal carotid, ophthalmic artery, and the circle of Willis), allow us to measure carotid stenosis precisely. This review explains the methodology to be followed when evaluating carotid stenosis ultrasonographically, according to the recommendations from the Spanish Society of Neurosonology (SONES). We review the findings that permit us to measure the degree of extracranial carotid stenosis using both carotid and transcranial ultrasound, with particular emphasis on the importance of assessing indirect signs.
    Neurología. 01/2013; 28(7):435–442.
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: To update the Spanish Society of Neurology's guidelines for subarachnoid haemorrhage diagnosis and treatment. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A review and analysis of the existing literature. Recommendations are given based on the level of evidence for each study reviewed. RESULTS: The most common cause of spontaneous subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) is cerebral aneurysm rupture. Its estimated incidence in Spain is 9/100 000 inhabitants/year with a relative frequency of approximately 5% of all strokes. Hypertension and smoking are the main risk factors. Stroke patients require treatment in a specialised centre. Admission to a stroke unit should be considered for SAH patients whose initial clinical condition is good (Grades I or II on the Hunt and Hess scale). We recommend early exclusion of aneurysms from the circulation. The diagnostic study of choice for SAH is brain CT (computed tomography) without contrast. If the test is negative and SAH is still suspected, a lumbar puncture should then be performed. The diagnostic tests recommended in order to determine the source of the haemorrhage are MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) and angiography. Doppler ultrasonography studies are very useful for diagnosing and monitoring vasospasm. Nimodipine is recommended for preventing delayed cerebral ischaemia. Blood pressure treatment and neurovascular intervention may be considered in treating refractory vasospasm. CONCLUSIONS: SAH is a severe and complex disease which must be managed in specialised centres by professionals with ample experience in relevant diagnostic and therapeutic processes.
    Neurologia (Barcelona, Spain) 10/2012; · 1.35 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In Spain, approximately 28% of ischaemic strokes have an atherothrombotic cause, and most are due to carotid stenosis. Ultrasound is the most commonly used technique for diagnosing carotid stenosis. Changes in blood flow velocity at the point of maximum stenosis, together with haemodynamic changes in proximal regions (common carotid artery) and distal regions (poststenotic internal carotid, ophthalmic artery, and the circle of Willis), allow us to measure carotid stenosis precisely. This review explains the methodology to be followed when evaluating carotid stenosis ultrasonographically, according to the recommendations from the Spanish Society of Neurosonology (SONES). We review the findings that permit us to measure the degree of extracranial carotid stenosis using both carotid and transcranial ultrasound, with particular emphasis on the importance of assessing indirect signs.
    Neurologia 10/2012;
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    ABSTRACT: To demonstrate the usefulness of biologic material obtained from distal embolic protection devices (DEPDs) used in carotid angioplasty for the study of atherosclerosis protein markers and to establish the effect of systemic inflammation on the protein expression of carotid atheromatous plaques. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry were used to study proteins obtained from debris captured in DEPDs from patients who underwent carotid angioplasty. In addition, protein expression obtained from angioplasty samples in patients with different types of systemic inflammation (measured by serum levels of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein [CRP] with a cutoff value of 3 mg/L) was compared. Finally, immunohistochemistry of atherosclerotic plaques obtained by endarterectomy was used to validate the results obtained using DEPDs. Proteomic studies were successfully performed using debris from DEPDs. Protein expression differences were found in debris from patients with high systemic inflammation compared with debris from patients with low systemic inflammation. Annexin A5 (ANXA5), haptoglobin precursor, purine nucleoside phosphorylase, transgelin-2 (TAGLN2), and bisphosphoglycerate mutase were upregulated in debris from patients with high systemic inflammation, and proteasome subunit 8 beta type and glutathione-S-transferase kappa 1 (GSTK1) levels were higher in debris from patients with low levels of systemic inflammation. Atherosclerotic plaque debris captured in DEPDs is a suitable and valid source of material for proteomic studies of atherosclerosis. Protein expression in DEPD debris is affected by systemic inflammation.
    Journal of vascular and interventional radiology: JVIR 06/2012; 23(6):818-24. · 1.81 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Information is scare regarding the safety of intravenous thrombolysis in patients under anticoagulant treatment, given that this is an exclusion criterion in clinical trials. We analyzed the risk of hemorrhagic complications following thrombolysis in patients under treatment with low-molecular-weight heparins (LMWH) and oral anticoagulants (OA). In a multicentered prospective study of consecutive acute stroke patients treated with intravenous alteplase we recorded age, gender, baseline NIHSS score, treatment delay, risk factors, etiology and previous therapy. The neurological progress (National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale at 7 days) and functional evolution at 3 months (modified Rankin Scale score), mortality and symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage (SICH) were compared between patients with LMWH or OA and those without prior anticoagulant therapy. Of the 1,482 patients, 21 (1.4%) had received LMWH and 70 (4.7%) OA (international normalized ratio, INR, 0.9-2.0). Patients on OA were older, presented higher basal glucose levels, had been treated later and had a higher prevalence of hypertension, dyslipidemia, prior stroke, atrial fibrillation and cardioembolic pathologies. The severity of stroke on admission was similar in the different groups. The percentages of patients achieving independence (mRS 0-2) at 3 months were 33, 44 and 58 (LMWH, OA and no prior anticoagulant treatment, respectively; p = 0.02 for both comparisons of LMWH vs. no treatment and OA vs. no treatment); the mortality rates were 30, 25 and 12% (p = 0.010, p = 0.001, respectively) and the SICH were 14, 3 and 2% (p < 0.0001 for comparison of LMWH vs. no treatment). In the case of treatment with OA, the outcomes were independent of the INR value. Following adjustment for confounding variables, the prior use of OA was associated with higher mortality (OR: 2.15, 95% CI: 1.1-4.2; p = 0.026) but not with SICH transformation or lower probability of independence. The use of LMWH was associated with higher mortality (OR: 5.3, 95% CI: 1.8-15.5; p = 0.002), risk of SICH (OR: 8.4, 95% CI: 2.2-32.2; p = 0.002) and lower probability of achieving independence (OR: 0.3, 95% CI: 0.1-0.97; p = 0.043). The use of intravenous thrombolysis appears to be safe in patients previously treated with OA with INR levels <2 since there is no increase in SICH. The prior use of LMWH appears to increase the risk of SICH, death and dependence and, as such, the decision for systemic treatment with thrombolytic agents needs to be taken with caution in these cases. Larger case series are necessary to confirm these findings.
    Cerebrovascular Diseases 01/2012; 33(3):231-9. · 2.81 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Ischemic stroke continues to be one of the main causes of death worldwide. Inflammation accounts for a large part of damage in this pathology. The cannabinoid type 2 receptor (CB2R) has been proposed to have neuroprotective properties in neurological diseases. Therefore, our aim was to determine the effects of the activation of CB2R on infarct outcome and on ischemia-induced brain expression of classic and alternative markers of macrophage/microglial activation. Swiss wild-type and CB2R knockout male mice were subjected to a permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion. Mice were treated with either a CB2R agonist (JWH-133), with or without a CB2R antagonist (SR144528) or vehicle. Infarct outcome was determined by measuring infarct volume and neurological outcome. An additional group of animals was used to assess mRNA and protein expression of CB2R, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), macrophage inflammatory peptide (MIP) -1α, RANTES, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2, IL-4, IL-10, transforming growth factor β (TGF-β), arginase I, and Ym1. Administration of JWH-133 significantly improved infarct outcome, as shown by a reduction in brain infarction and neurological impairment. This effect was reversed by the CB2R antagonist and was absent in CB2R knockout mice. Concomitantly, administration of JWH-133 led to a lower intensity of Iba1+ microglia/macrophages and a decrease in middle cerebral artery occlusion-induced gene expression of both classic (IL-6, TNF-α, MCP-1, MIP-1α, RANTES, and iNOS) and alternative mediators/markers (IL-10, TGF-β, and Ym1) of microglial/macrophage activation after permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion. The inhibitory effect of CB2R on the activation of different subpopulations of microglia/macrophages may account for the protective effect of the selective CB2R agonist JWH-133 after stroke.
    Stroke 01/2012; 43(1):211-9. · 6.16 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background and Purpose. Intravenous thrombolysis using tissue plasminogen activator is safe and probably effective in patients >80 years old. Nevertheless, its safety has not been specifically addressed for the oldest old patients (≥85 years old, OO). We assessed the safety and effectiveness of thrombolysis in this group of age. Methods. A prospective registry of patients treated with intravenous thrombolysis. Patients were divided in two groups (<85 years and the OO). Demographic data, stroke aetiology and baseline National Institute Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score were recorded. The primary outcome measures were the percentage of symptomatic intracranial haemorrhage (SICH) and functional outcome at 3 months (modified Rankin Scale, mRS). Results. A total of 1,505 patients were registered. 106 patients were OO [median 88, range 85-101]. Female sex, hypertension, elevated blood pressure at admission, cardioembolic strokes and higher basal NIHSS score were more frequent in the OO. SICH transformation rates were similar (3.1% versus 3.7%, P = 1.00). The probability of independence at 3 months (mRS 0-2) was lower in the OO (40.2% versus 58.7%, P = 0.001) but not after adjustment for confounding factors (adjusted OR, 0.82; 95% CI, 0.50 to 1.37; P = 0.455). Three-month mortality was higher in the OO (28.0% versus 11.5%, P < 0.001). Conclusion. Intravenous thrombolysis for stroke in OO patients did not increase the risk of SICH although mortality was higher in this group.
    Stroke research and treatment. 01/2012; 2012:923676.

Publication Stats

780 Citations
204.56 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2009–2013
    • Universidad Autónoma de Madrid
      Madrid, Madrid, Spain
  • 2006–2013
    • Hospital Universitario de La Princesa
      Madrid, Madrid, Spain
  • 2005–2012
    • Complutense University of Madrid
      • • Facultad de Medicina
      • • Departamento de Farmacología
      • • Departamento de Medicina
      Madrid, Madrid, Spain
    • University of Santiago de Compostela
      • Servicio de Neurología
      Santiago de Compostela, Galicia, Spain
  • 2011
    • Hospital Clínico Universitario de Valencia
      Valenza, Valencia, Spain
    • Hospital Universitario La Paz
      • Servicio de Neurología
      Madrid, Madrid, Spain