[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background/aims:
Ambulatory blood pressure (BP) monitoring has been widely recommended for evaluating the status of BP, but is lacking in practicality. Determination of the specific time points for BP measurement that are representative of 24-hour mean BP could be useful and convenient in hypertensive patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD).
A total of 1,317 patients for whom 24-hour ambulatory BP monitoring was performed were enrolled in a multicenter study on hypertensive CKD. We analyzed the time points at which systolic blood pressure (SBP) values exhibited the smallest differences from 24-hour mean SBP (mSBP). We included office mSBP and analyzed the relationships between SBPs at the office and the time points with the smallest differences from 24-hour mSBP using several methods.
The time points with the smallest differences from 24-hour mSBP were 7:00 AM, 2:00 PM, and 9:30 PM. In regression analysis, SBPs at 7:00 AM and 9:30 PM were better correlated with 24-hour mSBP than SBPs at 2:00 PM and the office. The proportions of patients with SBPs within 30% of 24-hour mSBP were higher at 7:00 AM and 9:30 PM. The best consistency between the uncontrolled hypertensive groups, defined as ≥ 135 mmHg of 24-hour mSBP and higher values of SBPs corresponding to 135 mmHg of 24-hour mSBP, were observed at the 7:00 AM and 9:30 PM time points.
The specific time points for SBPs that correlated well with 24-hour mSBP in hypertensive CKD patients were 7:00 AM and 9:30 PM.
The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine 08/2015; 30(5):665-674. DOI:10.3904/kjim.2015.30.5.665 · 1.43 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The combination of Space Syntax and Shape Grammar approaches to design potentially offers a rigorous way of first understanding a characteristic instance of architectural configuration (say, a set of designs by an architect or a particular building type) and then producing variations of that instance. This paper presents a method that commences with a justified plan graph-grammar-based analysis of an architectural design, and then uses a grammatical interpretation of the structure of this syntax. Using this graph as a starting point, it is then possible to develop a 3D shape grammar of the same building. In this way, both syntactical and formal information are captured as part of the sequential analysis. This combined analytical approach can support a better understanding of an architectural style and its design instances as well as the generative capability of these two computational theories - Space Syntax and Shape Grammar. The paper introduces this combined method and then demonstrates it using 10 house designs by Glenn Murcutt.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although nasal polyps (NPs) are thought to be a common otorhinolaryngologic disease, there have been few population-based epidemiologic studies on the prevalence of NPs. The aim of this study is to evaluate the prevalence of NPs and the risk factors in the general Korean population.
The data were obtained from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) (2009-2011), which was a cross-sectional survey of noninstitutionalized populations all around the country (n = 28,009). Among them, 19,152 participants (age more than or equal to 20 years) completed medical interviews, physical examinations and endoscopic examination. Analyses were performed using a complex sample design to identify the prevalence and its risk factors.
The weighted prevalence of NPs was 2.5%. The increased prevalence was associated with increasing age. In the multivariate analyses, male sex [adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 1.68, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.25-2.26], low education level (adjusted OR = 1.57, CI = 1.16-2.13), obesity (adjusted OR = 1.49, CI = 1.19-1.87), asthma (adjusted OR = 1.80, CI = 1.24-2.62), and thyroid cancer (adjusted OR = 2.98, CI = 1.26-7.09) were associated with NPs. Among those with NPs, the proportion of symptomatic NPs was 34.4% and asthma was the only significant associated risk factor.
The prevalence of NPs in the Korean general population was not low despite advances in medical and surgical treatment and two thirds of the subjects with NPs were asymptomatic. Further investigation is needed to exhibit the causal relationship between the associated risk factors identified and NPs.
American journal of rhinology & allergy 02/2015; 29(1):24-8. DOI:10.2500/ajra.2015.29.4131 · 1.81 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective
To investigate the association between age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and 5 heavy metallic elements (lead, mercury, cadmium, manganese, and zinc).
A cross-sectional study using a complex, stratified, multistage, probability cluster survey.
Participants of the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 2008 to 2011.
Using a standardized protocol, AMD was determined by fundus photograph grading. Blood concentrations of lead, mercury, cadmium, manganese, and zinc were measured. Associations between AMD and these 5 elements were estimated using logistic regression analyses (LRAs). The distributions of the 5 metallic elements in blood were analyzed, and the same set of LRAs estimating the association between AMD and logarithmic-transformed blood concentrations of the 5 elements were also conducted.
Main Outcome Measures
Association between AMD and 5 heavy metals.
Lead was positively associated with both early AMD and late AMD in all LRAs. Mercury and cadmium also had a positive association with late AMD in all LRAs, but not with early AMD. In contrast, manganese and zinc had an inverse association with late AMD in all LRAs. Manganese and zinc were not associated with early AMD. Using logarithmic-transformed blood concentrations for each metallic element, the LRAs showed similar results compared with those of the LRAs using nontransformed blood concentrations, despite the skewed distribution of these metallic elements in the blood.
This study suggests that the toxic heavy metals (lead, mercury, and cadmium) may negatively influence late AMD, whereas essential heavy metals (manganese and zinc) may favorably influence late AMD. Lead may widely affect the pathogenesis of both early and late AMD.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Since its inception, computational parametric design has been promoted as a means of supporting heightened creativity. In order to test three common claims about parametric design and creativity, this article describes the results of a study that compares the cognitive processes of a small set of designers, with the results of an independent assessment of the levels of creativity visible in their work. Specifically, using a combination of protocol analysis (of the design process) and consensual assessment (of the design outcome), the research explores three suggested indicators of a connection between cognitive activities and creativity. The three indicators are geometry versus algorithm use, problem-driven versus solution-driven processes, and expert versus novice activities. Through this research, the article contributes to a heightened understanding of the actual, rather than theorized, relationship between parametric design and creativity.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective
To investigate the prevalence and risk factors of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) in the Korean population.
A cross-sectional study using a complex, stratified, multistage, probability-cluster survey, which can produce nationally representative estimates.
Using the database of Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 2008 through 2011, 14 352 participants 40 years of age or older with gradable fundus photographs were included.
Age-related macular degeneration was determined by fundus photograph. Prevalences of AMDs were estimated. Risk factor analyses were conducted using logistic regression analyses (LRAs).
Main Outcome Measures
Prevalence and risk factors of AMD.
The prevalence of AMD was 6.62% (95% confidence interval [CI], 6.15%–7.09%) in the Korean population: 6.02% (95% CI, 5.56%–6.48%) were early AMD and 0.60% (95% CI, 0.45%–0.75%) were late AMD. The prevalence of early AMD in women (6.73%; 95% CI, 6.11%–7.35%) was higher than that in men (5.25%; 95% CI, 4.61%–5.89%; P<0.001), and the prevalence of late AMD in women (0.37%; 95% CI, 0.22%–0.52%) was lower than that in men (0.85%; 95% CI, 0.59%–1.12%; P<0.001). However, in multiple LRAs both early and late AMD had no association with gender, house income, residence, sun exposure, or systemic comorbidities, including hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and cardiovascular diseases. Early AMD had positive associations with older age groups (P<0.001), lower education (P = 0.027), occupation (P<0.001), anemia (P = 0.027), hepatitis B surface antigen carrier status (P<0.001), not being overweight (body mass index [BMI], P = 0.032; waist circumference, P = 0.041, in separate analyses), and higher serum high-density lipoprotein (HDL) level (P = 0.046), but not with smoking status. Late AMD had positive associations with age groups (P<0.001), current smokers (P = 0.022), and lower BMI (P = 0.037).
The results suggest that there are 1.21 million individuals with early AMD and 121 000 individuals with late AMD in Korea. Nonoverweight status and higher HDL levels, generally assumed as positive health indicators, as well as anemia and hepatitis B infection had harmful associations with AMD in our study, implying a possible different pathophysiologic process of AMD in Asians compared with that of white persons.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Influenza vaccination is important for cancer survivors, a population with impaired immunity. This study was designed to assess influenza vaccination patterns among Korean cancer survivors. In this cross-sectional analysis, data were obtained from standardized questionnaires from 943 cancer survivors and 41,233 non-cancer survivors who participated in the Fourth and Fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (2007-2011). We identified the adjusted influenza vaccination rates and assessed factors associated with influenza vaccination using multivariate logistic regression. Cancer survivors tended to have a higher adjusted influenza vaccination rate than the general population. The rates for influenza vaccination in specific cancer types such as stomach, hepatic, colon, and lung cancers were significantly higher than non-cancer survivors. Among all cancer survivors, those with chronic diseases, elderly subjects, and rural dwellers were more likely to receive influenza vaccination; those with cervical cancer were less likely to receive influenza vaccination. Cancer survivors were more likely to receive influenza vaccinations than non-cancer survivors, but this was not true for particular groups, especially younger cancer survivors. Cancer survivors represent a sharply growing population; therefore, immunization against influenza among cancer survivors should be concerned as their significant preventative healthcare services.
Journal of Korean Medical Science 08/2014; 29(8):1061-8. DOI:10.3346/jkms.2014.29.8.1061 · 1.27 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: It is known that blood pressure variability (BPV) can independently affect target organ damage (TOD), even with normal blood pressure. There have been few studieson chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients. We evaluated the relationship between BPV and TOD in a cross-sectional, multicenter study on hypertensive CKD patients. We evaluated 1,173 patients using 24-hr ambulatory blood pressure monitoring. BPV was defined as the average real variability, with a mean value of the absolute differences between consecutive readings of systolic blood pressure. TOD was defined as left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) (by the Romhilt-Estes score ≥4 in electrocardiography) and kidney injury (as determined from an estimated glomerular filtration rate [eGFR]<30 mL/min/1.73 m2 and proteinuria).The mean BPV of the subjects was 15.9±4.63 mmHg. BPV displayed a positive relationship with LVH in a univariate analysis and after adjustment for multi-variables (odds ratio per 1 mmHg increase in BPV: 1.053, P=0.006). In contrast, BPV had no relationship with kidney injury. These data suggest that BPV may be positively associated with LVH in hypertensive CKD patients.
Journal of Korean Medical Science 07/2014; 29(7):957-64. DOI:10.3346/jkms.2014.29.7.957 · 1.27 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Xanthigen, a mixture of brown seaweed and pomegranate seed extracts, has weight loss properties and lipid-lowering effects in mice and humans. This study elucidated the Xanthigen mechanism of an anti-obesity activity in high-fat diet (HFD)-fed mice. Xanthigen decreased expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) in the adipose tissue of HFD-fed mice. The serum leptin level and the adipose tissue leptin expression in mice fed HFD plus Xanthigen were significantly decreased, compared to HFD-fed mice. Phosphorylation of AMPactivated protein kinase (AMPK) α and β and acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) in the adipose tissue of HFD plus Xanthigen-fed mice was elevated, and HMG-CoA reductase (HMGCR) expression was decreased. Xanthigen may have an anti-obesity activity by down-regulation of PPARγ and activation of the AMPK pathway.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: There has been no nationwide epidemiological investigation of allergic rhinitis (AR) that was diagnosed by both questionnaires and laboratory tests in Korea. This study investigated the prevalence, risk factors, and comorbidities of AR in South Korea.
The Korean National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey examined a representative sample of the Korean population. A total of 2305 participants underwent immunoradiometric assay for specific IgE antibodies against common indoor allergens. Healthy, atopy only, and AR groups were defined according to the results of allergen test. The weighted prevalence for each group was calculated. Risk factors including food and comorbidities were identified using univariate or multivariate analyses. The patients were also categorized into four subgroups according to the Allergic Rhinitis and Its Impact on Asthma (ARIA) classification and associated comorbidities were analyzed.
The prevalence of atopy only and AR was 30.0 ± 1.2% and 16.2 ± 1.0%, respectively. The multivariate analysis showed that the prevalence was influenced by sex (p < 0.01) for atopy only and sex (p = 0.09), age (p = 0.02), marital status (p = 0.24), and stress level (p = 0.30) for AR. Compared with the healthy group, asthma (odds ratio [OR] = 4.77), nasal polyp (NP; OR = 3.44), chronic rhinosinusitis (OR = 13.93), and olfactory dysfunction (OR = 4.88) were more prevalent in the AR group. Based on the ARIA guideline, intermittent mild rhinitis was most common (58.1%). Asthma was correlated to severity and atopic dermatitis and NPs was associated with persistency. Daily intake of less mackerel and more carrots, bread, and bean curd were associated with the increased risk of AR.
Prevalence, risk factors, and comorbidities of AR were evaluated in the general Korean population, which will contribute to prevention and treatment of AR and its comorbidities in Koreans.
American Journal of Rhinology and Allergy 03/2014; 28(2):107-14. DOI:10.2500/ajra.2014.28.4040 · 1.81 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study assessed the prevalence of, and risk factors for, iron deficiency (ID) and iron deficiency anemia (IDA) among participants of the fifth Korean Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2010. Of 8,958 participants, 6,758 individuals ≥10 yr had sufficient data for the analysis of anemia and iron status. ID was defined as a transferrin saturation <10% or serum ferritin <15 µg/L. The prevalence of ID and IDA was 2.0% (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.3%-2.6%) and 0.7% (95% CI, 0.3%-1.0%), respectively, in males, and 22.4% (95% CI, 20.7%-24.2%) and 8.0% (95% CI, 6.8%-9.2%), respectively, in females. In reproductive age females, the prevalence of ID and IDA was 31.4% (95% CI, 28.9%-33.8%) and 11.5% (95% CI, 9.6%-13.4%), respectively. Compared to the prevalence of IDA in adult males 18-49 yr, the relative risks of IDA in adults ≥65 yr, lactating females, premenopausal females, and pregnant females were 8.1, 35.7, 42.8, and 95.5, respectively. Low income, underweight, iron- or vitamin C-poor diets were also associated with IDA. For populations with defined risk factors in terms of age, gender, physiological state and socioeconomic and nutritional status, national health policy to reduce IDA is needed.
Journal of Korean medical science 02/2014; 29(2):224-9. DOI:10.3346/jkms.2014.29.2.224 · 1.27 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Residential ubiquitous computing environments have focused on interconnecting environmental controls using a home network and the management of sensor data rather than a context-aware inference. Building upon previous research, this paper proposes a novel sensor-based context-aware system with a focus on three inference processes: rule, inference and pattern driven. Using pattern data derived from five families for a working week and establishing rules and inferences, the proposed context-aware system is demonstrated using electrical lighting as an example. The processes to develop an intelligent house are described so as to ameliorate personalized services in response to inhabitants’ needs.
Computers in Industry 01/2014; 65(1):148–157. DOI:10.1016/j.compind.2013.08.005 · 1.29 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This paper presents a protocol study which compares designers' behaviors when unexpected discoveries appear in a parametric design environment (PDE) and a traditional geometry modeling environment (GME). From the view of design situatedness, designers tend to adapt and respond to the design situation as it continuously changes during the design process. The hypothesis is that when unexpected discoveries appear, these changing design situations can significantly affect designers' cognitive activities. In this study, we are interested in exploring designers' behaviors in responding to these unexpected discoveries in PDEs, and further, to compare those behaviors in GMEs. An experiment was conducted in which five designers completed two similar design tasks respectively in a PDE and a GME. Applying the research method of protocol analysis, designers' behaviors in response to unexpected discoveries in these two design environments are compared and discussed.
International Journal of Architectural Computing 12/2013; 11(4):393-414. DOI:10.1260/1478-07188.8.131.523
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Nephrotic syndrome associated with Tsutsugamushi disease has not been previously reported. We are describing a case of Tsutsugamuchi disease presenting with nephrotic syndrome. A 72-year-old woman presented with fever and generalized edema. Laboratory studies revealed a leukocytosis, hypoalbuminemia, and hypercholesterolemia. Her urine protein excretion was 5.4 g/day. The anti-Tsutsugamushi antibody test was strongly positive (1:2,560). A renal biopsy was performed, and pathologic findings revealed membranous glomerulonephritis. The patient's clinical symptoms improved markedly after treatment with doxycycline.
The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine 11/2013; 28(6):728-31. DOI:10.3904/kjim.2013.28.6.728 · 1.43 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Canine adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ASCs) are promising as donor cells for somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT). It has been suggested that different cell cultures possess different capacities to support pre-implantation development of SCNT embryos. The aim of this study is to investigate whether two culture medium (RCMEP, Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium [DMEM]) affect gene expression of ASCs, subsequent development of interspecies SCNT (iSCNT) and gene expression of cloned embryos. The RCMEP-cultured cells contained significantly greater amounts of SOX2, NANOG, OCT4, DNMT1, and MeCP2 than DMEM-cultured cells (P < 0.05). In iSCNT, the use of DMEM medium for culturing cells resulted in similar development to the blastocyst stage than those derived from RCMEP cultured cells (4.5% and 3.2%, respectively; P > 0.05). The expression of all transcripts except for DNMT1 in cloned blastocysts from RCMEP cultured cells followed those of cloned blastocysts derived from DMEM cultured cells. The alteration of gene expression in ASCs by culture medium was not manifested in the iSCNT embryos derived from these cells. Although the culture medium can induce changes of gene expression by ASCs, such alterations in donor cells did not affect the developmental competence or gene expression patterns of iSCNT embryos.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Aspergillus species have angioinvasive properties and can involve extrapulmonary organs by hematogenous spread from the lungs. However, renal involvement by Aspergillus is uncommon and is usually associated with the formation of abscesses. We report an unusual case of invasive renal aspergillosis presenting with extensive renal infarction in a 5-year-old girl with acute lymphoblastic leukemia. This case emphasizes the fact that renal aspergillosis initially presents with only renal infarction, and metastatic-embolism by invasive aspergillosis should be considered in differential diagnosis for any focal lesion of kidney in a patient with leukemia.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background / Purpose:
Which stage of colour perception on grapheme-colour synesthesia is influenced by letter processing? We compared ideograms' phonologic and semantic information.
Similar synesthetic colours are elicited by morphological forms, phonological information, and semantic information and/or emotional connotation.
European Conference of Visual Perception 2013; 10/2013
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To compare the physical and mental health status of the general population with that of cancer survivors in South Korea.
We analyzed 19,035 subjects (age ≥40 years), who participated in the 2001-2009 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey II-IV. We compared metabolic syndrome components, health behaviors, and mental health outcomes between cancer survivors and non-cancer controls.
Cancer survivors accounted for 1.68 % (n = 316) of total population. Cancer survivors did not show low occurrence of hypertension and diabetes compared to the control group. Both cancer survivors and the general population had high risks of physical inactivity (75.4 % and 75.5 %, respectively) and inadequate sleep (52.5 % and 60.7 %, respectively). In the unadjusted model, depression was more common in cancer survivors (odds ratio [OR], 1.61; 95 % CI, 1.22-2.74), so was suicidal ideation (OR, 1.51; 95 % CI, 0.16-1.96) than non-cancer controls. After adjustment for attributable socioeconomic factors, the elevated adjusted odds ratios (aORs) among cancer survivors were reduced by 23 % in depression and 45 % in suicidal thought. Cancer survivors at <5 years from diagnosis showed a high occurrence of depression (aOR, 1.77; 95 % CI, 1.09-2.85) while the magnitude of aOR decreases after ≥5 years from cancer diagnosis (aOR, 1.38; 95 % confidence interval, 0.97-1.98, respectively).
The physical and mental health of South Korean cancer survivors was not optimal. Their control rates of modifiable risk factors were similar or even lower than those for the non-cancer groups. Depression was highly prevalent in cancer survivors which can be ascribed, at least in part, to socioeconomic environment. A better-targeted intervention to improve the health of this population may be needed.
Supportive Care in Cancer 08/2013; 21(12). DOI:10.1007/s00520-013-1939-8 · 2.36 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Composite materials of mesoporous carbon and carbon nanotubes were synthesized using Ni, Co and Pd-loaded CMK3 via a catalytic reaction of methane and CO2. The CNTs grew from the pores of the mesoporous carbon supports, and they were attached tightly to the CMK3 surface in a densely tangled shape. The CNT/CMK3 composite showed both non-graphitic mesoporous structures, and graphitic characteristics originating from the MWCNTS grown in the pores of CMK3. The electrochemical properties of the materials were characterized by their electrorheological effects and cyclic voltammetry. The CNTs/CMK3 composites showed high electrical conductivity and current density. The CNT/CMK3 or KOH-modified CNT/CMK3 particles were incorporated in a PMMA matrix to improve the thermal and electrical conductivity. Even higher thermal conductivity was achieved by the addition of KOH-modified CNT/CMK3 particles.
Bulletin- Korean Chemical Society 07/2013; 34(7):2155-2161. DOI:10.5012/bkcs.2013.34.7.2155 · 0.80 Impact Factor