[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Phosphoinositide 3-kinase gamma (PI3Kγ) has profound roles downstream of G-protein-coupled receptors in inflammation, cardiac function, and tumor progression. To gain insight into how the enzyme's activity is shaped by association with its p101 adaptor subunit, lipid membranes, and Gβγ heterodimers, we mapped these regulatory interactions using hydrogen-deuterium exchange mass spectrometry. We identify residues in both the p110γ and p101 subunits that contribute critical interactions with Gβγ heterodimers, leading to PI3Kγ activation. Mutating Gβγ-interaction sites of either p110γ or p101 ablates G-protein-coupled receptor-mediated signaling to p110γ/p101 in cells and severely affects chemotaxis and cell transformation induced by PI3Kγ overexpression. Hydrogen-deuterium exchange mass spectrometry shows that association with the p101 regulatory subunit causes substantial protection of the RBD-C2 linker as well as the helical domain of p110γ. Lipid interaction massively exposes that same helical site, which is then stabilized by Gβγ. Membrane-elicited conformational change of the helical domain could help prepare the enzyme for Gβγ binding. Our studies and others identify the helical domain of the class I PI3Ks as a hub for diverse regulatory interactions that include the p101, p87 (also known as p84), and p85 adaptor subunits; Rab5 and Gβγ heterodimers; and the β-adrenergic receptor kinase.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 11/2013; · 9.74 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Class I PI 3-kinases signal by producing the signaling lipid phosphatidylinositol(3,4,5) trisphosphate, which in turn acts by recruiting downstream effectors that contain specific lipid-binding domains. The class I PI 3-kinases comprise four distinct catalytic subunits linked to one of seven different regulatory subunits. All the class I PI 3-kinases produce the same signaling lipid, PIP3, and the different isoforms have overlapping expression patterns and are coupled to overlapping sets of upstream activators. Nonetheless, studies in cultured cells and in animals have demonstrated that the different isoforms are coupled to distinct ranges of downstream responses. This review focuses on the mechanisms by which the production of a common product, PIP3, can produce isoform-specific signaling by PI 3-kinases. Editor's suggested further reading in BioEssays: Phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate: Targeted production and signaling Abstract How does SHIP1/2 balance PtdIns(3,4)P2 and does it signal independently of its phosphatase activity? Abstract.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The PI3-kinase pathway is commonly activated in tumors, most often by loss of PTEN lipid phosphatase activity or the amplification or mutation of p110a. Oncogenic mutants have commonly been found in p110a, but rarely in any of the other catalytic subunits of class I PI3-kinases. We here characterize a p110b helical domain mutation, E633K, first identified in a Her2-positive breast cancer. The mutation increases basal p110b activity, but does not affect activation of p85/p110b dimers by phosphopeptides or Gbc. Expression of the mutant causes increases in Akt and S6K1 activation, transformation, chemotaxis, proliferation and survival in low serum. E633 is conserved among class I PI3 Ks, and its mutation in p110b is also activating. Interestingly, the E633K mutant occurs near a region that interacts with membranes in activated PI 3-kinases, and its mutation abrogates the requirement for an intact Ras-binding domain in p110b-mediated transformation. We propose that the E633K mutant activates p110b by enhancing its basal association with membranes. This study presents the first analysis of an activating oncogenic mutation of p110b. Copyright: ß 2013 Dbouk et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. Funding: This work was funded by a grant from the Janey Foundation (HAD) and National Institutes of Health (NIH) grants 5 RO1 GM55692 and PO1 CA 100324 (JMB) and Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (BN). The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript. Competing Interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Autophagy is an evolutionarily conserved membrane trafficking process. Induction of autophagy in response to nutrient limitation or cellular stress occurs by similar mechanisms in organisms from yeast to mammals. Unlike yeast, metazoan cells rely more on growth factor signaling for a wide variety of cellular activities including nutrient uptake. How growth factor availability regulates autophagy is poorly understood. Here we show that, upon growth factor limitation, the p110β catalytic subunit of the class IA phosphoinositide 3-kinases (PI3Ks) dissociates from growth factor receptor complexes and increases its interaction with the small GTPase Rab5. This p110β-Rab5 association maintains Rab5 in its guanosine triphosphate (GTP)-bound state and enhances the Rab5-Vps34 interaction that promotes autophagy. p110β mutants that fail to interact with Rab5 are defective in autophagy promotion. Hence, in mammalian cells, p110β acts as a molecular sensor for growth factor availability and induces autophagy by activating a Rab5-mediated signaling cascade.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Phosphoinositide (PI) 3-kinases are essential regulators of cellular proliferation, survival, metabolism, and motility that are frequently dysregulated in human disease. The design of inhibitors to target the PI 3-kinase/mTOR pathway is a major area of investigation by both academic laboratories and the pharmaceutical industry. This review focuses on the Class IA PI 3-kinase p110β, which plays a unique role in thrombogenesis and in the growth of tumors with deletion or loss-of-function mutation of the Phosphatase and Tensin Homolog (PTEN) lipid phosphatase. Several p110β-selective inhibitors that target the ATP-binding site in the kinase domain have been identified. However, recent discoveries regarding the regulatory mechanisms that control p110β activity suggest alternative strategies by which to disrupt signaling by this PI 3-kinase isoform. This review summarizes the current status of p110β-specific inhibitors and discusses how these new insights into p110 regulation might be used to devise novel pharmacological inhibitors.
Trends in Pharmacological Sciences 02/2013; · 9.25 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Synergistic activation by heterotrimeric guanine nucleotide-binding protein (G protein)-coupled receptors (GPCRs) and receptor tyrosine kinases distinguishes p110β from other class IA phosphoinositide 3-kinases (PI3Ks). Activation of p110β is specifically implicated in various physiological and pathophysiological processes, such as the growth of tumors deficient in phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted from chromosome 10 (PTEN). To determine the specific contribution of GPCR signaling to p110β-dependent functions, we identified the site in p110β that binds to the Gβγ subunit of G proteins. Mutation of this site eliminated Gβγ-dependent activation of PI3Kβ (a dimer of p110β and the p85 regulatory subunit) in vitro and in cells, without affecting basal activity or phosphotyrosine peptide-mediated activation. Disrupting the p110β-Gβγ interaction by mutation or with a cell-permeable peptide inhibitor blocked the transforming capacity of PI3Kβ in fibroblasts and reduced the proliferation, chemotaxis, and invasiveness of PTEN-null tumor cells in culture. Our data suggest that specifically targeting GPCR signaling to PI3Kβ could provide a therapeutic approach for tumors that depend on p110β for growth and metastasis.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The K(+) channel KCa3.1 is required for Ca(2+) influx and the subsequent activation of CD4 T cells. The class II phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase C2β (PI3KC2β) is activated by the T-cell receptor (TCR) and is critical for KCa3.1 channel activation. Tripartite motif containing protein 27 (TRIM27) is a member of a large family of proteins that function as Really Interesting New Gene (RING) E3 ubiquitin ligases. We now show that TRIM27 functions as an E3 ligase and mediates lysine 48 polyubiquitination of PI3KC2β, leading to a decrease in PI3K enzyme activity. By inhibiting PI3KC2β, TRIM27 also functions to negatively regulate CD4 T cells by inhibiting KCa3.1 channel activity and TCR-stimulated Ca(2+) influx and cytokine production in Jurkat, primary human CD4 T cells, and Th0, Th1, and Th2 CD4 T cells generated from TRIM27(-/-) mice. These findings provide a unique mechanism for regulating class II PI3Ks, and identify TRIM27 as a previously undescribed negative regulator of CD4 T cells.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 11/2011; 108(50):20072-7. · 9.74 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The rapamycin-sensitive mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) complex, mTORC1, regulates cell growth in response to mitogenic signals and amino acid availability. Phospholipase D (PLD) and its product, phosphatidic acid, have been established as mediators of mitogenic activation of mTORC1. In this study, we identify a novel role for PLD1 in an amino acid-sensing pathway. We find that amino acids activate PLD1 and that PLD1 is indispensable for amino acid activation of mTORC1. Activation of PLD1 by amino acids requires the class III phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase hVps34, which stimulates PLD1 activity through a functional interaction between phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate and the Phox homology (PX) domain of PLD1. Furthermore, amino acids stimulate PLD1 translocation to the lysosomal region where mTORC1 activation occurs in an hVps34-dependent manner, and this translocation is necessary for mTORC1 activation. The PX domain is required for PLD1 translocation, mTORC1 activation, and cell size regulation. Finally, we show that the hVps34-PLD1 pathway acts independently of, and in parallel to, the Rag pathway in regulating amino acid activation of mTORC1.
The Journal of Cell Biology 10/2011; 195(3):435-47. · 10.82 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Many malignancies show increased expression of the epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor family member ErbB3 (HER3). ErbB3 binds heregulin β-1 (HRGβ1) and forms a heterodimer with other ErbB family members, such as ErbB2 (HER2) or EGF receptor (EGFR; HER1), enhancing phosphorylation of specific C-terminal tyrosine residues and activation of downstream signaling pathways. ErbB3 contains six YXXM motifs that bind the p85 subunit of phosphoinositide 3 (PI3)-kinase. Previous studies demonstrated that overexpression of ErbB3 in mammary tumor cells can significantly enhance chemotaxis to HRGβ1 and overall metastatic potential. We tested the hypothesis that ErbB3-mediated PI3-kinase signaling is critical for heregulin-induced motility, and therefore crucial for ErbB3-mediated invasion, intravasation and metastasis. The tyrosines in the six YXXM motifs on the ErbB3 C-terminus were replaced with phenylalanine. In contrast to overexpression of the wild-type ErbB3, overexpression of the mutant ErbB3 did not enhance chemotaxis towards HRGβ1 in vitro or in vivo. We also observed reduced tumor cell motility in the primary tumor by multiphoton microscopy, as well as a dramatically reduced ability of these cells to cross the endothelium and intravasate into the circulation. Moreover, whereas mutation of the ErbB3 C-terminus had no effect on tumor growth, it had a dramatic effect on spontaneous metastatic potential. Treatment with the PI3-kinase inhibitor PIK-75 similarly inhibited motility and invasion in vitro and in vivo. Our results indicate that stimulation of the early metastatic steps of motility and invasion by ErbB3 requires activation of the PI3-kinase pathway by the ErbB3 receptor.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The PI3K pathway is frequently activated in tumors, most commonly through p110α mutation or PTEN deletion. In contrast to p110α, p110β is oncogenic when over-expressed in the wild-type state, suggesting that its regulation by p85 is different than that of p110α. In this perspective, we summarize recent data concerning the regulation of p110β, which shows that wild-type p110β acts like an oncogenic mutant of p110α. We also discuss the significance of this altered regulation in tumor models of PTEN deletion, as well as the potential implications of the unique p110β regulation on GPCR-driven tumorigenesis.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Actin polymerization drives the extension of pseudopods that trap and engulf phagocytic targets. The polymerized actin subsequently dissociates as the phagocytic vacuole seals and detaches from the plasma membrane. We found that phagosomes formed by engagement of integrins that serve as complement receptors (CR3) undergo secondary waves of actin polymerization, leading to the formation of "comet tails" that propel the vacuoles inside the cells. Actin tail formation was accompanied by and required de novo formation of PI(3,4)P(2) and PI(3,4,5)P(3) on the phagosomal membrane by class I phosphoinositide 3-kinases (PI3Ks). Although the phosphatidylinositide phosphatase Inpp5B was recruited to nascent phagosomes, it rapidly detached from the membrane after phagosomes sealed. Detachment of Inpp5B required the formation of PI(3)P. Thus, class III PI3K activity was also required for the accumulation of PI(4,5)P(2) and PI(3,4,5)P(3) and for actin tail formation. These experiments reveal a new PI(3)P-sensitive pathway leading to PI(3,4)P(2) and PI(3,4,5)P(3) formation and signaling in endomembranes.
The Journal of Cell Biology 11/2010; 191(5):999-1012. · 10.82 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Class I PI3-kinases signal downstream of receptor tyrosine kinases and G protein-coupled receptors and have been implicated in tumorigenesis. Although the oncogenic potential of the PI3-kinase subunit p110α requires its mutational activation, other p110 isoforms can induce transformation when overexpressed in the wild-type state. In wild-type p110α, N345 in the C2 domain forms hydrogen bonds with D560 and N564 in the inter-SH2 (iSH2) domain of p85, and mutations of p110α or p85 that disrupt this interface lead to increased basal activity and transformation. Sequence analysis reveals that N345 in p110α aligns with K342 in p110β. This difference makes wild-type p110β analogous to a previously described oncogenic mutant, p110α-N345K. We now show that p110β is inhibited by p85 to a lesser extent than p110α and is not differentially inhibited by wild-type p85 versus p85 mutants that disrupt the C2-iSH2 domain interface. Similar results were seen in soft agar and focus-formation assays, where p110β was similar to p110α-N345K in transforming potential. Inhibition of p110β by p85 was enhanced by a K342N mutation in p110β, which led to decreased activity in vitro, decreased basal Akt and ribosomal protein S6 kinase (S6K1) activation, and decreased transformation in NIH 3T3 cells. Moreover, unlike wild-type p110β, p110β-K342N was differentially regulated by wild-type and mutant p85, suggesting that the inhibitory C2-iSH2 interface is functional in this mutant. This study shows that the enhanced transforming potential of p110β is the result of its decreased inhibition by p85, due to the disruption of an inhibitory C2-iSH2 domain interface.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 10/2010; 107(46):19897-902. · 9.74 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The enormous versatility of phosphatidylinositol as a mediator of intracellular signalling is due to its variable phosphorylation on every combination of the 3', 4' and 5' positions, as well as an even more complex range of phosphorylated products when inositol phosphate is released by phospholipase C activity. The phosphoinositides are produced by distinct enzymes in distinct intracellular membranes, and recruit and regulate downstream signalling proteins containing binding domains [PH (pleckstrin homology), PX (Phox homology), FYVE etc.] that are relatively specific for these lipids. Specific recruitment of downstream proteins presumably involves a coincidence detection mechanism, in which a combination of lipid-protein and protein-protein interactions define specificity. Of the seven intracellular phosphoinositide, quantification of PtdIns5P levels in intact cells has remained difficult. In this issue of the Biochemical Journal, Sarkes and Rameh describe a novel HPLC-based approach which makes possible an analysis of the subcellular distribution of PtdIns5P and other phosphoinositides.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Regulation of the class IA PI 3-kinase involves inhibition and stabilization of the catalytic subunit (p110) by the regulatory subunit (p85). Regulation is achieved by two major contacts: a stable interface involving the adapter-binding domain (ABD) of p110 and the inter-SH2 (iSH2) domain of p85 and a regulatory interaction between the N-terminal SH2 (nSH2) domain of p85 and the helical domain of p110. In the present study, we have examined the relative orientation of the nSH2 and iSH2 of p85alpha using site-directed spin labeling and pulsed EPR. Surprisingly, both distance measurements and distance distributions suggest that the nSH2 domain is highly disordered relative to the iSH2 domain. Molecular modeling based on EPR distance restraints suggests that the nSH2 domain moves in a hinge-like manner, sampling a torus space around the proximal end of the iSH2 domain. These data have important implications for the mechanism by which p85/p110 dimers are regulated by phosphopeptides.