[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To identify possible sources of stigma of epilepsy in key informant groups, "mini-ethnographic" studies were conducted in rural and urban locations in China. Data collected from 45 semistructured interviews and 8 focus group discussions (6 persons each) were analyzed to investigate the world experienced by people with epilepsy. Underpinned by a social constructionist approach to data analysis, emerging themes were identified with the use of computer-assisted data analysis (NVivo 8). A hierarchical model was then constructed, to include practical level issues (attitudes toward risk, attitudes toward costs of epilepsy) and cultural level issues (contrast between rurality and tradition and urbanization and modernity in the Chinese context). The analysis enriches current research on factors and sources of stigma of epilepsy and highlights issues for future practice.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To demonstrate the application of Disability Adjusted Life Year (DALY) as an aid in health outcome measures to evaluate the epilepsy disease burden in rural China and to provide Chinese data to achieve a better understanding of disease burden due to epilepsy.
The DALY is the sum of the number of years of survival with disability (Years Lived with Disability, YLD) and the number of years lost because of premature mortality (Years of Life Lost, YLL). We calculated the YLD based on the prevalence survey of epilepsy among 66,393 people sampled in Heilongjiang, Henan, Jiangsu, Ningxia, Shanghai, and Shanxi provinces in 2000. The epilepsy mortality data from Chinese literature provided the YLL due to epilepsy. We applied sensitivity analysis to evaluate the influence of uncertainty on the epilepsy mortality value and disability weight in the study.
In 2000, epilepsy caused 1.83 and 2.48 DALY lost per 1,000 population in Henan and Ningxia province, which had the lowest and the highest DALY lost among the six study areas. Overall, epilepsy caused 1.41 YLLs and 0.67 YLDs per 1,000 population; thus the DALYs lost because of epilepsy was 2.08 per 1,000 population, representing the epilepsy disease burden in rural China.
The DALY measure, which includes the extent of disability from epilepsy, provides a useful tool for the epilepsy disease burden assessment. The disease burden of epilepsy in China is considered higher than previous estimations.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To investigate the diagnosis,treatment and requirement of epilepsy patients in some urban communities in China, and to provide the evidence of searching for effective treatment and management on epilepsy under the China's context.
A face-to-face survey were conducted in 3 urban communities in Shanghai, Beijing and Changsha, respectively. The questions in the questionniare were general information, hospital visit, treatment, the level and way of getting on the knowledge of epilepsy, as well as the current obstacles and needs.
Most of the patients selected the regular hospitals (90.8%) and the departments (92.3%) for their epielspy diagnosis and treatment. They used AEDs modo dictu (77.4%), and had controlled the seizures quite well (82.6%). A small part of patients still could not deeply understand the basic knowledge on epilepsy (13.5%). They ignored to follow up the drug concentration (45.8%) in blood and the blood biocheminstry indicators (43.9%). Some patients went to private clinics (12.9%) and used lay people remedies (7.7%). Longtime waiting (36.8%), inconvenient traffic (23.2%), and high expenses (22.6%) were the main problems influencing the timely treatment. The main obstacles of the patients were employment (47.2%), marriage (29.9%), psychological conditions (44.4%) and interpersonal relationship (29.9%). The main requirements were the effectiveness (87.0%) and cheap AEDs (40.9%) as well as the convenience of hospital visit (37.0%).
It is very important to emphasize knowledge and publicity/education on epilepsy as well as the psychological treatment according to the requirements of patients.
Zhonghua liu xing bing xue za zhi = Zhonghua liuxingbingxue zazhi 11/2006; 27(11):1000-4.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To evaluate the efficacy of phenobarbital in treatment of patients with convulsive forms of epilepsy in rural areas and to develop a suitable relevant model for rural China.
A demonstration protocol was conducted in the rural areas of 8 counties from 6 provinces and municipality in China, Heilongjiang, Ningxia, Henan, Jiangsu, Shanxi, and Shanghai from December 2001 to June 2004. Epidemiological investigation of the prevalence and treatment gap of epilepsy was carried out. Patients with convulsive forms of epilepsy thus screened underwent treatment of phenobarbital. Physicians of township hospitals received short-term training to be in charge of the treatment and regular follow-up of the patients.
A total of 2455 patients with generalized tonic-clonic seizures in these 6 rural areas were screened and entered the treatment group. 347 patients (26.2%) had been seizure-free during the period of these 2 years, 415 patients (31.3%) had their seizure frequencies decreased by > 75% as compared with those during the period of 6 months before treatment, and the conditions of 26.1% of the patients did not change or even became worse. About 26.1% of the patients had mild side effects, 3.7% had moderate side effects, and only 0.3% had severe side effects when the dosage of phenobarbital in the first 3 months was increased. 597 patients (24.3%) withdrew from the treatment group because of various reasons.
This protocol was suitable to the rural areas of China. The trained physicians are capable of fulfilling the task to treat the patients with epilepsy. Phenobarbital is an effective drug for most patients with convulsive seizures and has no severe side effect.